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Results 601 - 650 of 1692
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Buehlmann, P.
We show that SiO-based intermediate reflectors (SOIRs) can be fabricated in the same reactor and with the same process gases as used for thin-film silicon solar cells. By varying input gas ratios, SOIR layers with a wide range of optical and electrical properties are obtained. The influence of the SOIR ...
Evan Franklin
Sliver cells are thin, single-crystal silicon solar cells fabricated using standard fabrication technology. Sliver modules, composed of several thousand individual Sliver cells, can be efficient, low-cost, bifacial, transparent, flexible, shadow tolerant, and lightweight. Compared with current PV technology, mature Sliver technology will need 10% of the pure silicon and fewer ...
Maps of the horizontal divergence of the near-surface velocity field have been calculated using local helioseismology and SOHO/MDI full-disk Dopplergrams. These maps provide a continuous coverage for two to three months each year with a cadence of 12 hours. Geometrical and evolutional properties of individual supergranular cells have been studied. ...
Anton, I.
This paper describes the overall design and experimental results obtained with the PV-FIBRE concentrator system (CPV). This system uses a parabolic dish to collect and concentrate the sunlight which is then further guided by a transparent rod and finally by individual short fibres. Eventually, the individual fibres are connected to ...
Nilsson, Johan
Long term evaluation of an asymmetric CPC PV-thermal hybrid built for high latitudes, MaRcCo (MaximumReflectorCollector), is performed in Lund, lat 55.7 degrees, and this paper discusses output estimates and characteristics of the system. The output estimates are calculated using the MINSUN simulation program. To get the input for MINSUN, measurements ...
Wang Hsiang-Yu - - 2006
Electroporation has been widely accepted as an important tool for the delivery of exogenous molecules into cells. Previous mechanistic studies have been carried out by observing either the average behavior from a large population of cells or the response from a small number of single cells. In this study, we ...
Richardson-Burns Sarah M - - 2007
In this paper, we describe interactions between neural cells and the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) toward development of electrically conductive biomaterials intended for direct, functional contact with electrically active tissues such as the nervous system, heart, and skeletal muscle. We introduce a process for polymerizing PEDOT around living cells and ...
Forrester John V - - 2007
Endogenous electric fields (EF) have long been known to influence cell behaviour during development, neural cell tropism, wound healing and cell behaviour generally. The effect is based on short circuiting of electrical potential differences across cell and tissue boundaries generated by ionic segregation. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies ...
Slimani Hocine - - 2006
In this paper, liposomes containing a lipopeptide bearing a ligand specifically recognized by neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) have been used to target a human breast cancer cell line overexpressing this receptor. The synthesis of this lipopeptide, C16-A7R, formed by the sequence of 7 amino acids ATWLPPR, linked to a palmitoyl fatty chain ...
Kim Jun-Sung - - 2006
Biocompatible silica-overcoated magnetic nanoparticles containing an organic fluorescence dye, rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RITC), within a silica shell [50 nm size, MNP@SiO2(RITC)s] were synthesized. For future application of the MNP@SiO2(RITC)s into diverse areas of research such as drug or gene delivery, bioimaging, and biosensors, detailed information of the cellular uptake process ...
Al-Qodah Z - - 2006
AIMS: To separate Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells from aqueous solutions using magnetically stabilized fluidized beds (MSFB) that utilize a horizontal magnetic field, and to study the effect of some parameters, such as bed porosity and height, liquid flow rate and inlet concentration on cell removal efficiency and breakthrough curves. METHODS AND ...
Li Youlan - - 2007
We present a prototype microfluidic device developed for the continuous dielectrophoretic (DEP) fractionation and purification of sample suspensions of biological cells. The device integrates three fully functional and distinct units consisting of an injector, a fractionation region, and two outlets. In the sheath and sample injection ports, the cell sample ...
Lisi Antonella - - 2006
The pituitary corticotrope-derived AtT20 D16V cell line responds to nerve growth factor (NGF) by extending neurite-like processes and differentiating into neurosecretory-like cells. The aim of this work is the study of the effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) at a frequency of 50 Hz on these differentiation activities. ...
McGrath Molly J - - 2007
The role of microbial immigration in the veinal colonization pattern of Aureobasidium pullulans on the adaxial surface of apple leaves was investigated in two experiments at two periods (early and late seasons) in 2004 by applying green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged blastospores to the foliage of orchard trees. Individual leaves were ...
Heer F - - 2007
A high degree of connectivity and the coordinated electrical activity of neural cells or networks are believed to be the reason that the brain is capable of highly sophisticated information processing. Likewise, the effectiveness of an animal heart largely depends on such coordinated cell activity. To advance our understanding of ...
Sato Masayuki J - - 2007
Under a direct current electric field, Dictyostelium cells exhibit migration towards the cathode. To determine the input-output relationship of the cell's galvanotactic response, we developed an experimental instrument in which electric signals applied to the cells are highly reproducible and the motile response are analyzed quantitatively. With no electric field, ...
Saulis Gintautas - - 2007
When cells are exposed to a strong enough external electric field, transient aqueous pores are formed in the membrane. The fraction of electroporated cells can be determined by measuring the release of intracellular potassium ions. The current work is the first study where such a method was employed successfully not ...
Blackwell, N. E.
Collaborative U. S - Army and U. S. Department of Energy efforts have developed advanced methanol reforming capabilities to enhance production of hydrogen for soldier portable fuel cell systems. Application of advanced numerical techniques combined with empirical data from iterative breadboard measurements has provided the US Army with an 8.5x2xO.8 ...
Krassowska Wanda - - 2007
Electroporation uses electric pulses to promote delivery of DNA and drugs into cells. This study presents a model of electroporation in a spherical cell exposed to an electric field. The model determines transmembrane potential, number of pores, and distribution of pore radii as functions of time and position on the ...
Mottram N J - - 2006
We use a relatively simple continuum model to investigate the effects of dielectric inhomogeneity within confined liquid-crystal cells. Specifically, we consider, in planar, cylindrical, and spherical geometries, the stability of a nematic-isotropic interface subject to an applied voltage when the nematic liquid crystal has a positive dielectric anisotropy. Depending on ...
Glamann Joakim - - 2006
Measurement of electrical impedance is a relatively new real-time and label-free method for monitoring cell adhesive properties. Impedance measurements are performed in tissue culture wells in which the bottom is equipped with gold electrodes. The extent of electrode coverage by living cells as well as the strength of the bond ...
Zhang Feng - - 2006
Electrically excitable cells are important in the normal functioning and in the pathophysiology of many biological processes. These cells are typically embedded in dense, heterogeneous tissues, rendering them difficult to target selectively with conventional electrical stimulation methods. The algal protein Channelrhodopsin-2 offers a new and promising solution by permitting minimally ...
Cho Sungbo - - 2007
Electric fields can be used for the characterisation and manipulation of single biological cells. One approach to avoid the effect of electrode polarisation is to position cells on micro holes and to apply the electrical fields via the micro holes. For a correct characterisation and optimal manipulation, the electrical properties ...
Sun Yue - - 2006
An intracellular derivatization method mediated by liposome was developed for single cell analysis with chip-based capillary electrophoresis (CE) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection. Liposomes with an average diameter of 100 nm were produced from phosphatidylcholine to encapsulate fluorescent dyes by an ultrasonic method. The encapsulation yield and the vesicle density ...
Lu Kuan-Ying - - 2006
Microfabricated devices for cell lysis have demonstrated many advantages over conventional approaches. Among various design of microdevices that employ electroporation for cytolysis, most utilize Ag/AgCl wires or 2D planar electrodes. Although, simple in fabrication the electric field generated by 2D electrodes decays exponentially, resulting in rather non-uniform forcing on the ...
Cheng Wei - - 2006
A device based on five individually addressable microelectrodes, fully integrated within a microfluidic system, has been fabricated to enable the real-time measurement of ionic and metabolic fluxes from electrically active, beating single heart cells. The electrode array comprised one pair of pacing microelectrodes, used for field-stimulation of the cell, and ...
Yang Mo - - 2007
Cardiac hypertrophy is an established and independent risk factor for the development of heart failure and sudden cardiac death. At the level of individual cardiac myocytes (heart muscle cells), the cell morphology alters (increase in cell size and myofibrillar re-organization) and protein synthesis is activated. In this paper, a novel ...
Bashyam Rajesh - - 2006
Fuel cells, as devices for direct conversion of the chemical energy of a fuel into electricity by electrochemical reactions, are among the key enabling technologies for the transition to a hydrogen-based economy. Of several different types of fuel cells under development today, polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) have been recognized ...
Di Carlo Dino - - 2006
It is important to quantify the distribution of behavior amongst a population of individual cells to reach a more complete quantitative understanding of cellular processes. Improved high-throughput analysis of single cell behavior requires uniform conditions for individual cells with controllable cell-cell interactions, including diffusible and contact elements. Uniform cell arrays ...
Lin Francis F Laboratory of Immunology and Vascular Biology, Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, - - 2006
This paper describes the use of a simple microfluidic device for studying T cell chemotaxis. The microfluidic device is fabricated in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) using soft-lithography and consists of a "Y" type fluidic channel. Solutions are infused into the device by syringe pumps and generate a concentration gradient in the channel ...
Joyner Ronald W - - 2007
Spontaneous activity of specific regions (e.g., the Sinoatrial node, SAN) is essential for the normal activation sequence of the heart and also serve as a primary means of modulating cardiac rate by sympathetic tone and circulating catecholamines. The mechanisms of how a small SAN region can electrically drive a much ...
Hunt T P - - 2006
Positioning single cells is of utmost importance in areas of biomedical research as diverse as in vitro fertilization, cell-cell interaction, cell adhesion, embryology, microbiology, stem cell research, and single cell transfection. Here we describe dielectrophoretic tweezers, a sharp glass tip with electrodes on either side, capable of trapping single cells ...
Zehbe R - - 2007
The transformation of fibrinogen into fibrin is biologically activated in a complex multi-step process known as the coagulation cascade. This transformation can also be triggered by anodic surfaces. It has been suggested that this mechanism is a result of an electron transfer from the anode to the fibrinogen molecule resulting ...
Voldman Joel - - 2006
Manipulating the physical location of cells is useful both to organize cells in vitro and to separate cells during screening. The quest to manipulate cells on length scales commensurate with their size has led to a host of technologies exploiting optical, chemical, mechanical, electrical, and other phenomena. Researchers interested in ...
Simioni A R - - 2006
The aim of this study was to prepare bovine serum albumin-based beads containing maghemite nanoparticles incorporated via ionic magnetic fluid and to evaluate the cell toxicity of this biocompatible system using the J774-A1 cell line. Transmission electron micrographs obtained from the magnetic fluid sample were used to estimate the average ...
Lutz Barry R - - 2006
A key need for dynamic single-cell measurements is the ability to gently position cells for repeated measurements without perturbing their behavior. We describe a new method that uses a gentle secondary flow to trap and suspend single cells, including motile cells, at predictable locations in 3-D. Trapped cells can be ...
Atkinson Donald L - - 2006
Newts have the remarkable ability to regenerate lost appendages including their forelimbs, hindlimbs, and tails. Following amputation of an appendage, the wound is rapidly closed by the migration of epithelial cells from the proximal epidermis. Internal cells just proximal to the amputation plane begin to dedifferentiate to form a pool ...
Sapper Angelika - - 2006
The quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technique is an emerging bioanalytical tool to study the behavior of animal cells in vitro. Due to the high interfacial sensitivity of thickness shear mode (TSM) resonators it is possible to monitor the formation and breakage of cell-matrix interactions and changes in viscoelasticity of the ...
Wang Hsiang-Yu - - 2006
Electroporation has been widely used to load impermeant exogenous molecules into cells. Rapid electrical lysis based on electroporation has also been applied to analyze intracellular materials at single-cell level. There has been increasing demand to implement electroporation in a microfluidic format as a basic tool for applications ranging from screening ...
Pamme Nicole - - 2006
The ability to separate living cells is an essential aspect of cell research. Magnetic cell separation methods are among some of the most efficient methods for bulk cell separation. With the development of microfluidic platforms within the biotechnology sector, the design of miniaturised magnetic cell sorters is desirable. Here, we ...
Delgado-Cañedo Andrés - - 2006
The improvement of gene therapy protocols is intimately related to the establishment of efficient gene transfer methods. Electroporation has been increasingly employed in in vitro and in vivo protocols, and much attention has been given to increasing its transfection potential. The method is based on the application of an electric ...
McCreary Cheryl R - - 2006
Extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF MF) have been reported to alter a number of cell signaling pathways, including those involved in proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis where cytosolic free calcium ([Ca(2+)](c)) plays an important role. To better understand the biological conditions under which ELF MF exposure might alter [Ca(2+)](c), we ...
Tárnok Attila - - 2006
In the postgenomic era, to gain the most detailed quantitative data from biological specimens has become increasingly important in the emerging new fields of high-content and high-throughput single-cell analysis for systems biology and cytomics. Areas of research and diagnosis with the demand to virtually measure "anything" in the cell include ...
Takashima Yoshio - - 2006
To examine the biological effects of radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields in vitro, we have examined the fundamental cellular responses, such as cell growth, survival, and cell cycle distribution, following exposure to a wide range of specific absorption rates (SAR). Furthermore, we compared the effects of continuous and intermittent exposure ...
Díaz Cecilia - - 2006
Two retinoids, ATRA and 13cisRA, were incorporated into liposomes of different composition and charge and added to two hepatoma cell lines with different degree of transformation to measure cytotoxicity by MTT assay. Retinoid-free cationic liposomes were more toxic than the other kinds (anionic and made only of PC) but were ...
Davis Frank - - 2007
In 2006, the journal Biosensors and Bioelectronics published a special issue devoted exclusively to biofuel cells, including several research papers and an extensive review of the field [Bullen, R.A., Arnot, T.C., Lakeman, J.B., Walsh, F.C., 2006. Biosens. Bioelectron.]. Within this review a brief description will firstly be given of the ...
Zola R S - - 2006
A nematic liquid crystal cell in the shape of a slab of thickness d and containing ionic impurities is considered in the presence of a dc voltage. A complete theoretical model to determine the electric field distribution across the sample is used to explain the experimental dependence of the effective ...
Nobili Francesco - - 2006
In-situ X-ray and AC-impedance spectra have been obtained simultaneously during the deintercalation of lithium from LiCoO2 using a specially designed electrochemical cell. The AC-dispersions have been correlated with the cell parameters obtained from the X-ray spectra. The correlation confirms previous hypothesis on the interpretation of the AC-dispersions in terms of ...
Yang Liju - - 2006
In this study, we demonstrated a micro-fluidic system with multiple functions, including concentration of bacteria using dielectrophoresis (DEP) and selective capture using antibody recognition, resulting in a high capture efficiency of bacterial cells. The device consisted of an array of oxide covered interdigitated electrodes on a flat silicon substrate and ...
Gaynor P T - - 2006
Many applications of electroporation, especially those utilizing electrofusion and in-vivo electroporation, involve cell environments that include close cell-to-cell proximity and a wide range of target cell size. It is important to understand how this kind of environment may alter optimum electroporation electrical parameters for any given application. A physical, electrically ...
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