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Cao Xiaohong - - 2011
A D: -galactose-specific lectin, MW = 40 kDa, had been purified from pupae of Musca domestica (MPL). MPL significantly promoted the proliferation of B cells and enhanced the production of IL-12 in a dose-dependent manner. MPL stimulated IκB-α degradation, NF-κB translocation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation which played an upstream role for NF-кB in MPL-induced ...
Costello Leslie C LC Department of Oncology and Diagnostic Sciences, Dental School, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA. - - 2011
In addition to its critical role in normal cell function, growth, and metabolism, zinc is implicated as a major factor in the development and progression of many pathological conditions and diseases. Despite this importance of zinc, many important factors, processes, and mechanisms of the physiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology of ...
Salek-Ardakani Samira - - 2011
Follicular Th (T(FH)) cells are specialized in provision of help to B cells that is essential for promoting protective Ab responses. CD28/B7 (B7-1 and B7-2) interactions are required for germinal center (GC) formation, but it is not clear if they simply support activation of naive CD4 T cells during initiation ...
Becchetti Andrea - - 2011
Progress through the cell mitotic cycle requires precise timing of the intrinsic molecular steps and tight coordination with the environmental signals that maintain a cell into the proper physiological context. Because of their great functional flexibility, ion channels coordinate the upstream and downstream signals that converge on the cell cycle ...
Terada Lance S - - 2011
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate various cell fate decisions in normal and transformed cells. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Zhu et al. demonstrate the ability of ANGPTL4 to engage integrin-dependent survival signals by activation of the NADPH oxidase Nox1, thus mimicking anchorage conditions and bypassing anoikis by controlling ROS.
Escoté Xavier - - 2011
Quiescence is an essential process in eukaryotes. Control of cell cycle progression by stress-activated protein kinases (SAPK) is critical for cell adaptation to extracellular stimuli. In yeast, activation of the HOG MAPK signalling pathway results in the control of cell cycle at several phases. In this manuscript, we describe the ...
Dudak Amanda - - 2011
Nectins are cell-cell adhesion molecules involved in the formation of various intercellular junctions and the establishment of apical-basal polarity at cell-cell adhesion sites. To have a better understanding of the roles of nectins in the formation of cell-cell junctions, we searched for new cytoplasmic binding partners for nectin. We report ...
Mattison Christopher P - - 2011
The Mps1 family of protein kinases contributes to cell cycle control by regulating multiple microtubule cytoskeleton activities. We have uncovered a new Mps1 substrate that provides a novel link between Mps1 and the actin cytoskeleton. We have identified a conserved human Mps1 (hMps1) interacting protein we have termed Mps1 interacting ...
Zhang Jian - - 2011
Metal nanoparticle probes were used as molecular imaging agents to detect the expression levels and spatial distributions of the CCR5 receptors on the cell surfaces. Alexa Fluor 647-labeled anti-CCR5 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were covalently bound to 20 nm silver nanoparticles to synthesize the mAb-metal complexes. We measured the single nanoparticle ...
Parameswaran Neetha - - 2011
B cell chemotaxis occurs in response to specific chemokine gradients and is critical for homeostasis and immune response. The molecular regulation of B cell membrane-actin interactions during migration is poorly understood. In this study, we report a role for ezrin, a member of the membrane-cytoskeleton cross-linking ezrin-radixin-moesin proteins, in the ...
Young Yoon Hey - - 2011
Leucine aminopeptidases (LAPs) are widely distributed in organisms from bacteria to humans, and play crucial roles in cell maintenance and cell growth. Thus, assays for LAP are necessary for measuring its activity and inhibitor potency. In this Letter, we report a small-molecule probe which exhibits colorimetric and fluorogenic changes according ...
Kuschei Werner M - - 2011
The therapeutic CD11a antibody Efalizumab interferes with psoriasis pathogenesis by blocking T cell activation and migration. We have performed a detailed analysis on its effects during the activation of human T cells and found that the capability of Efalizumab to inhibit proliferation and cytokine production of T cells critically depends ...
von Holleben Max - - 2011
Appropriate B cell activation is essential for adaptive immunity. In contrast to the molecular mechanisms that regulate positive signaling in immune responses, the counterbalancing negative regulatory pathways remain insufficiently understood. The Src homology domain 3 (SH3)-containing adapter protein SH3 lymphocyte protein 2 (SLy2, also known as hematopoietic adapter-containing SH3 and ...
Diez Gerold - - 2011
This study evaluates the influence of vinculin in closed conformation on the mechanical properties of cells. We demonstrate that MEFvin(-/-) cells transfected with the eGFP-vinculin mutant A50I (talin-binding-deficient-vinculin in a constitutively closed conformation) show twofold lower stiffness and focal adhesion density compared to MEFvin(+/+) and MEF(Rescue) cells. MEF(A50I) cells are ...
Basu Sunanda - - 2011
Cell motility is a very critical phenomenon that plays an important role in the development of eukaryotic organisms. One of the well studied cell motility phenomena is chemotaxis, which is described as a directional movement of cell in response to changes in external chemotactic gradient. Numerous studies conducted both in ...
Zhang Lijun - - 2011
During Drosophila oogenesis, two actin dynamics regulators, cofilin and Rac, are required for the collective migration of a coherent cluster of cells called border cells. Cell culture data have shown that Rac and cofilin are both essential for lamellipodium formation, but Rac signaling results in phosphorylation and hence inactivation of ...
Schuldt Alison - - 2011
The Hippo pathway couples cell polarity complexes to extrinsic signalling pathways.
Morrison Cori - - 2011
T-cell neoplasms have poor prognosis and few effective therapeutic options. Therefore, identification of factors in T-cell leukemia/lymphoma that are associated with cancer progression may represent novel therapeutic targets. Recent studies have highlighted a previously unappreciated role for the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on T cells and their effects on ...
Balagopalan Lakshmi - - 2011
Linker for activation of T cells (LAT) plays a central role in T-cell activation by nucleating signaling complexes that are critical for the propagation of T-cell signals from the plasma membrane to the cellular interior. The role of phosphorylation and palmitoylation in LAT function has been well studied, but not ...
Li Jun - - 2011
The signaling pathway of transforming growth factor β2 (TGF-β2)/Smad plays an important role in the pathological process in posterior capsule opacification (PCO) after cataract surgery. Smad2 and Smad3 are both receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads) of the TGF-β2 signaling pathway. We aim to find which among Smad2, Smad3, and Smad2&3 plays a ...
Arcipowski Kelly M - - 2011
Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), encoded by Epstein-Barr virus, is required for EBV-mediated B cell transformation and plays a significant role in the development of posttransplant B cell lymphomas. LMP1 has also been implicated in exacerbation of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus. LMP1 is a constitutively active functional ...
Alby Kevin - - 2011
The opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans undergoes a parasexual mating cycle in which cells must switch from the conventional "white" form to the alternative "opaque" form to become mating competent. Pheromones secreted by opaque cells induce the formation of polarized mating projections and result in cell-cell conjugation. In contrast, white cells ...
Gallet Armel - - 2011
A major challenge of developmental biology is to understand how cells coordinate developmental behaviors with their neighbors. To achieve this, cells often employ signaling molecules that emanate from a local source and act at a distance on target cells. The Hedgehog morphogen is an essential signaling molecule required for numerous ...
Huang Zhongwei - - 2011
Scientists are able to advance the frontiers of human reproduction by employing a variety of molecular biological techniques to understand the biological processes intricately linked to oocyte and ovarian follicle development. Despite an abundance of knowledge concerning essential pathways which may have critical roles in oogenesis and folliculogenesis, the repertoire ...
Canipari R - - 2011
The production of a mature oocyte is the major function of the female gonad. This process depends on highly coordinated interplay between all the components of the ovarian follicle, i.e. the oocyte surrounded by epithelial-derived granulosa cells and mesenchymal-derived theca cells. Follicular growth and oocyte maturation are dependent primarily on ...
Wong Wei - - 2011
Cells interpret environmental cues to extend processes in the appropriate direction, descend upon sources of inflammation or necrosis, or determine the best path to the correct position in a developing organism. This Focus Issue of Science Signaling highlights the signaling pathways and mechanisms that enable cells to sense external signals ...
Berry Richard - - 2011
T cells use a highly complex signaling apparatus to discriminate between a diverse array of foreign antigens and a myriad of self molecules. The precise mechanism whereby signals are communicated from the antigen-binding T cell receptor to the intracellular signal transduction machinery remains a source of intense debate. This Journal ...
Yamaguchi Noriko - - 2011
Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play crucial roles in liver fibrosis. In the course of liver injury, HSCs, which reside in perisinusoidal spaces and lose lipid droplets, morphologically change into a myofibroblastic phenotype and acquire an increased proliferation activity in what is known as the activated state. We have investigated ...
Witherden Deborah A - - 2011
Comment on: Witherden DA, et al. Science 2010; 329:1205-10.
Yuan Fang-Jun - - 2011
Background and aims: IL-6 has been implicated in both virus-associated and diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Generally it is produced by immune cells such as Kupffer cells inthe liver. To understand mechanisms by which IL-6 might participate in the genesis of HCCs, the production of IL-6 by cell lines under different ...
da Silva Costa Luís Flávio - - 2011
Considering the fact that the dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has a great potential to become the vector of Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF) for humans, the present study aimed to describe the distribution of the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiological agent of BSF, in different regions of the ovaries of R. ...
Siu Ka Yu - - 2011
The regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and membrane trafficking is coordinated in mammalian cells. One of the regulators of membrane traffic, the small GTP-binding protein ARF1, also activates phosphatidylinositol kinases that in turn affect actin polymerization. ARFGAP1 is a GTPase activating protein (GAP) for ARF1 that is found on Golgi ...
Liu Y - - 2011
20S-protopanaxadiol (aPPD) is a metabolite of ginseng saponins, which is reported to be pro-apoptotic in some cells but anti-apoptotic in neuronal cells by regulating Akt signaling. Owing to its cholesterol-like structure, we hypothesized that aPPD may regulate Akt signaling by interacting with lipid rafts. Here, we compared Akt signaling in ...
Bast Antje - - 2011
The Gram-negative facultative intracellular rod Burkholderia pseudomallei causes melioidosis, an infectious disease with a wide range of clinical presentations. Among the observed visceral abscesses, the liver is commonly affected. However, neither this organotropism of B. pseudomallei nor local hepatic defense mechanisms have been thoroughly investigated so far. Own previous studies ...
Yu James - - 2011
We have shown that inhibition of mTOR in granulosa cells and ovarian follicles results in compromised granulosa proliferation and reduced follicle growth. Further analysis here using spontaneously immortalized rat granulosa cells has revealed that mTOR pathway activity is enhanced during M-phase of the cell cycle. mTOR specific phosphorylation of p70S6 ...
Dickinson Rachel E RE Medical Research Council Centre for Reproductive Health, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United - - 2011
The three SLIT ligands and their four ROBO receptors have fundamental roles in mammalian development by promoting apoptosis and repulsing aberrant cell migration. SLITs and ROBOs have emerged as candidate tumour suppressor genes whose expression is inhibited in a variety of epithelial tumours. We demonstrated that their expression could be ...
Baker David A DA Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK. - - 2011
Cyclic nucleotides are so-called intracellular second messenger molecules used by all cells to transform environmental signals into an appropriate response. Interest in the cyclic nucleotides cAMP and cGMP in malaria parasites followed early observations that both molecules might be involved in distinct differentiation events within the sexual phase of the ...
Moorhead S M - - 2010
Aims:  This study investigated the production and effects of cell-signalling compounds on selected survival and virulence mechanisms of Campylobacter jejuni. Methods and Results:  The production of Autoinducer 1 (AI-1) compounds by Camp. jejuni was investigated in-vitro using a variety of available AI-1 bioassays. We further examined the role of a range ...
Call Greg S - - 2011
Zyxin is an actin regulatory protein that is concentrated at sites of actin-membrane association, particularly cell junctions. Zyxin participates in actin dynamics by binding VASP, an interaction that occurs via proline-rich N-terminal ActA repeats. An intramolecular association of the N-terminal LIM domains at or near the ActA repeats can prevent ...
Zhu Haiyan - - 2011
Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are signals released from dying cells evoking the immune system response in several inflammatory disorders. In normal situations, many of DAMPs are nuclear or cytosolic proteins with defined intracellular function, but they could be found on the cell surface following tissue injury. The biological function of ...
Metallo Christian M - - 2010
Mammalian cells depend on growth factor signaling to take up nutrients; however, coordination of glucose and glutamine uptake has been a mystery. In this issue of Genes & Development, Wellen and colleagues (pp. 2784-2799) show that glucose flux through the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway regulates growth factor receptor glycosylation and enables ...
Aznar Nicolas - - 2010
Primary cilia are cell surface organelles that act as sensory antennae for various input signals. In a recent issue of Nature Cell Biology, Boehlke et al. (2010) demonstrate that bending of cilia regulates cell size through a signaling pathway involving the LKB1 and mTOR kinases.
Sharma Ram I - - 2011
Traditional tissue regeneration approaches to activate cell behaviors on biomaterials rely on the use of extracellular-matrix-based or soluble growth-factor cues. In this article, a novel approach is highlighted to dynamically steer cellular phenomena such as cell motility based on nanoscale substratum features of biological ligands. Albumin-derived nanocarriers (ANCs) with variable ...
Melendez Jaime - - 2011
Cdc42 is a member of the Rho GTPase family of intracellular molecular switches regulating multiple signaling pathways involved in actomyosin organization and cell proliferation. Knowledge of its signaling function in mammalian cells came mostly from studies using the dominant-negative or constitutively active mutant overexpression approach in the past 2 decades. ...
Edwards Amanda Nicole - - 2011
To compete in complex microbial communities, bacteria must sense environmental changes and adjust cellular functions for optimal growth. Chemotaxis-like signal transduction pathways are implicated in the regulation of multiple behaviors in response to changes in the environment, including motility patterns, exopolysaccharide production, and cell-to-cell interactions. In Azospirillum brasilense, cell surface ...
Alge-Priglinger Claudia S - - 2011
Adhesion and spreading of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells on fibronectin-rich extracellular matrices is a crucial event in the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). In the present study we explored the capacity of galectin-3, a β-galactoside-binding endogenous lectin, to inhibit early PVR-associated cellular events from a therapeutic perspective. We assessed ...
Craig Sonya E L - - 2011
The term contact inhibition (CI) encompasses the cellular changes that result in cessation of cell migration and of proliferation due to signals transduced when one cell comes into physical contact with another cell. Cancer cells, however, do not contact inhibit. A molecular understanding of the loss of CI in cancer ...
Zhang Leilei - - 2010
Nox4, a member of Nox family of NADPH oxidase expressed in nonphagocytic cells, is a major source of reactive oxygen species in many cell types. But understanding of the role of Nox4 in the production of ROS and of regulation mechanism of oxidase activity is largely unknown. This study reports ...
Chrcanovic Bruno Ramos - - 2011
Neurofibromatosis type 1, or von Recklinghausen disease, is one of the most common hereditary neurocutaneous disorders in humans. Clinically, Neurofibromatosis type 1 is characterized by café-au-lait spots, freckling, skin neurofibroma, plexiform neurofibroma, bony defects, Lisch nodules and tumors of the central nervous system. Central giant cell granuloma is a benign ...
Torabinia N - - 2011
J Oral Pathol Med (2011) 40: 334-337 Background:  Giant cell granulomas of the jaws are lesions that arise either peripherally in periodontal ligament and mucoperiosteum or centrally in the bone. The aim of this study was to evaluate expression of CD68 and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) proteins in multinucleated giant ...
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