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Mogilner Alex - - 2012
A combination of biophysical perturbations and computer simulations shows that leading edge protrusion in crawling cells increases membrane tension, which constrains the protruding front to one side of the cell, thereby maintaining its polarity.
Wang Mi - - 2012
BACKGROUND: The Ca(2+)-activated chloride channel (CaCC) plays an important role in a variety of physiological functions. In vascular smooth muscle cells, CaCC is involved in the regulation of agonist-stimulated contraction and myogenic tone. The physiological functions of CaCC in blood vessels are not fully revealed due to the lack of ...
Kobayashi Nahoko - - 2010
LIM Kinase 2 (LIMK2) is a LIM domain-containing protein kinase which regulates actin polymerization thorough phosphorylation of the actin depolymerizing factor cofilin. It is also known to function as a shuttle between the cytoplasm and nucleus in endothelial cells. A basic amino acid-rich motif in LIMK2 was previously identified to ...
Khattar Patricia - - 2011
Islet-1 expression identifies populations of progenitor cells in embryonic, fetal, and newborn murine hearts that are able to give rise to all cardiac cell lineages ex vivo and in vivo. Using systematic immunohistochemistry, we investigated whether islet-1-positive cells are present in adult mouse heart from the perspective of their potential ...
Plank Jennifer L - - 2011
Interactions between cells from the ectoderm and mesoderm influence development of the endodermally-derived pancreas. While much is known about how mesoderm regulates pancreatic development, relatively little is understood about how and when the ectodermally-derived neural crest regulates pancreatic development and specifically, beta cell maturation. A previous study demonstrated that signals ...
Ali Saghiri Mohammad - - 2010
Some techniques and instruments like stereomicroscopy and confocal microscopy used for observing neural cells are too complicated and dependent on preparation and cell fixation methods. This may question the results of these methods. Though, we have used scanning electron microscopy on replicated specimens to observe p19 neural cells and their ...
Buzsáki György - - 2010
A widely discussed hypothesis in neuroscience is that transiently active ensembles of neurons, known as "cell assemblies," underlie numerous operations of the brain, from encoding memories to reasoning. However, the mechanisms responsible for the formation and disbanding of cell assemblies and temporal evolution of cell assembly sequences are not well ...
Ma Dengke K - - 2010
Epigenetic mechanisms regulate cell differentiation during embryonic development and also serve as important interfaces between genes and the environment in adulthood. Neurogenesis in adults, which generates functional neural cell types from adult neural stem cells, is dynamically regulated by both intrinsic state-specific cell differentiation cues and extrinsic neural niche signals. ...
Wang Menghang - - 2011
Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) into the cochlea to replace irreversibly damaged sensory epithelia is a potentially valuable remedy for hearing loss. Several mammalian stem cell lines are being successfully transplanted into, or migrated to, the endolymph (EL) fluids environment of the cochlea. However, the survival rate of transplanted ...
Elkouris Maximilianos - - 2010
Neural stem/progenitor cells maintain their identity via continuous self-renewal and suppression of differentiation. Gain-of-function experiments in the chick revealed an involvement for Sox1-3 transcription factors in the maintenance of the undifferentiated neural progenitor identity. However, the mechanism(s) employed by each factor has not been resolved. Here, we derived cortical neural/stem ...
Bharti Kapil - - 2011
Compared with neural crest-derived melanocytes, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells in the back of the eye are pigment cells of a different kind. They are a part of the brain, form an epithelial monolayer, respond to distinct extracellular signals, and provide functions that far exceed those of a light-absorbing screen. ...
Yu Tao - - 2010
During cerebellar development, the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1 alpha) has been shown to play an important role in recruiting cells from the upper rhombic lip (URL) and external granule cell layer (EGL). However, its function in cerebellar development is still poorly understood. Our results have demonstrated that SDF-1 ...
Krispin Shlomo - - 2010
The dorsal neural tube first generates neural crest cells that exit the neural primordium following an epithelial-to-mesenchymal conversion to become sympathetic ganglia, Schwann cells, dorsal root sensory ganglia, and melanocytes of the skin. Following the end of crest emigration, the dorsal midline of the neural tube becomes the roof plate, ...
Sterneckert Jared - - 2010
Formation of the neural plate is an intricate process in early mammalian embryonic development mediated by cells of the inner cell mass and involving a series of steps, including development of the epiblast. Here, we report on the creation of an embryonic stem (ES) cell-based system to isolate and identify ...
Zargham Ramin - - 2010
α8β1 integrin is highly expressed in cells with contractile function, such as mesangial cells of the kidneys and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Although it promotes migration of neural crest cells and breast cancer cells, recent studies suggest that α8 integrin has a negative regulatory role in VSMC migration. In ...
Krull Catherine E - - 2010
It has long been thought that the same molecules guide both trunk neural crest cells and motor axons as these cell types grow and extend to their target regions in developing embryos. There are common territories that are navigated by these cell types: both cells grow through the rostral portion ...
Ruhrberg Christiana - - 2010
Neural crest cells (NCCs) are migratory cells that delaminate from the neural tube early in development and then disseminate throughout the embryo to give rise to a wide variety of cell types that are key to the vertebrate body plan. During their journey from the neural tube to their peripheral ...
Kuo Bryan R - - 2010
Neural crest cells are pluripotent cells that emerge from the neural epithelium, migrate extensively, and differentiate into numerous derivatives, including neurons, glial cells, pigment cells and connective tissue. Major questions concerning their morphogenesis include: 1) what establishes the pathways of migration and 2) what controls the final destination and differentiation ...
Kirby Margaret L - - 2010
Cardiac neural crest cells originate as part of the postotic caudal rhombencephalic neural crest stream. Ectomesenchymal cells in this stream migrate to the circumpharyngeal ridge and then into the caudal pharyngeal arches where they condense to form first a sheath and then the smooth muscle tunics of the persisting pharyngeal ...
Taverna Elena - - 2010
Interkinetic nuclear migration (INM), the movement of neuroepithelial and radial glial cell nuclei along the apical-basal axis in concert with the cell cycle, underlies the pseudostratification of the ventricular zone (VZ). Recent studies provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of INM and its effects on neural progenitor cell fate determination. ...
Collazos-Castro Jorge E - - 2010
Electrically conducting polymers hold promise for developing advanced neuroprostheses, bionic systems and neural repair devices. Among them, poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) exhibits superior physicochemical properties but biocompatibility issues have limited its use. We describe combinations of electrochemical and molecule self-assembling methods to consistently control neural cell development ...
Fukuzawa Toshihiko - - 2010
Unusual light-reflecting pigment cells, "white pigment cells", specifically appear in the periodic albino mutant (a(p) /a(p)) of Xenopus laevis and localize in the same place where melanophores normally differentiate in the wild-type. The mechanism responsible for the development of unusual pigment cells is unclear. In this study, white pigment cells ...
Kusakawa Shinji - - 2010
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are commonly prescribed for treatment of mood disorders and depression, even during pregnancy and lactation. SSRIs are thought to be much safer than tricyclic antidepressants, with a low risk of embryonic toxicity. Several recent studies, however, have reported that fetal exposure to SSRIs increases the ...
Shoae-Hassani Alireza - - 2011
Recent advances in stem cell biology have resulted in identifying new agents to differentiate stem cell-derived-neural cells. Different stem cell types have been shown to differentiate into neural cells. It has been shown that P19 line of embryonal carcinoma cells develops into neurons and astroglia after exposure to some hormones ...
Brougham D F - - 2011
We report the successful classification, by artificial neural networks (ANNs), of (1)H NMR spectroscopic data recorded on whole-cell culture samples of four different lung carcinoma cell lines, which display different drug resistance patterns. The robustness of the approach was demonstrated by its ability to classify the cell line correctly in ...
Cainarca Silvia - - 2010
The use of engineered mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells in high-throughput screening (HTS) can offer new opportunities for studying complex targets in their native environment, increasing the probability of discovering more meaningful hits. The authors have generated and developed a mouse embryonic stem cell line called c-Photina mES stably expressing ...
Macmillan Hugh R - - 2011
We develop a family of branching process models to study cerebral cortical development at the level of individual neural stem and progenitor cells (NS/PCs) and the neurons they produce. Population-level data about "the average NS/PC" is incorporated as constraints for exploring (i) heterogeneity in the proliferative neural cell types and ...
Zhao Xiao-yang - - 2010
Previous studies demonstrated that induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells could produce viable mice through tetraploid complementation, which was thought to be the most stringent test for pluripotency. However, these highly pluripotent iPS cells were previously reported to be generated from fibroblasts of embryonic origin. Achieving fully pluripotent iPS cells from ...
Wahl Joachim - - 2010
The Ewing family of tumors (EFT) is an important group of pediatric malignancies with a guarded prognosis. Little is known about the heterogeneity of EFT cells, and the cellular origin of EFT is disputed. We now add evidence that EFT are heterogeneous by showing that EFT cells from spheres growing ...
Akimoto Minekatsu - - 2010
The cranial neural crest cells contribute extensively to the formation of skeletogenic mesenchyme in the head and neck. Hes1 functions as a repressor of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors and is implicated in controlling the maintenance of undifferentiated cells and the timing of cell differentiation. We show here that Hes1 homozygous ...
Manohar Murli - - 2010
CAtion/H(+) eXchangers (CAXs) are integral membrane proteins that transport Ca(2+) or other cations by exchange with protons. While several yeast and plant CAX proteins have been characterized, no functional analysis of a vertebrate CAX homologue has yet been reported. In this study, we further characterize a CAX from yeast, VNX1, ...
Minoux Maryline - - 2010
During vertebrate craniofacial development, neural crest cells (NCCs) contribute much of the cartilage, bone and connective tissue that make up the developing head. Although the initial patterns of NCC segmentation and migration are conserved between species, the variety of vertebrate facial morphologies that exist indicates that a complex interplay occurs ...
Lam Hayley J - - 2010
Human embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived neural cells are a potential cell source for neural tissue regeneration. Understanding the biochemical and biophysical regulation of neural differentiation and axon growth will help us develop cell therapies and bioactive scaffolds. We demonstrated that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) ...
Schmöle Anne-Caroline - - 2010
The Wnt pathway is involved in cellular processes linked to either proliferation or differentiation. Therefore small molecules offer an attractive opportunity to modulate this pathway, whereas the key enzyme GSK-3beta is of special interest. In this study, non-symmetrically substituted indolylmaleimides have been synthesized and their ability to function as GSK-3beta ...
Kafi Md Abdul - - 2010
The cell-based chip is becoming a popular tool for monitoring living cell viability under various conditions. In this study, several biomaterials, such as synthetic Cys-(Arg-Gly-Asp)(4) (C(RGD)(4)), Arg-Gly-Asp-Multi Armed-Cys (RGD-MAP-C) peptide, and poly-L-lysine (PLL) nano-dots were fabricated on the gold surface of a neural cell chip. The material-dependent effects both on ...
Theveneau Eric E Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, - - 2010
Directional collective migration is now a widely recognized mode of migration during embryogenesis and cancer. However, how a cluster of cells responds to chemoattractants is not fully understood. Neural crest cells are among the most motile cells in the embryo, and their behavior has been likened to malignant invasion. Here, ...
Kalluri Haviryaji S G - - 2010
We examined the effect of tricyclodecan-9-yl-xanthogenate (D609), a phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C inhibitor, on the proliferation of adult neural progenitor cells in vitro. D609 (100 microM) decreased the proliferation of neural progenitor cells as measured by the proliferation assay, bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, and cell counting without causing cell death. Immunoblot analysis showed ...
Lee Do-Hun - - 2010
To evaluate the reclosure-promoting capacity of a neural stem cell line (F3) and a human bone marrow stem cell line (B10) injected into the amniotic cavity of spinal open neural tube defects (ONTDs) of chick embryos of Hamburger and Hamilton stage 18 or 19. Fifteen chick embryos that survived the ...
Bragina Olga - - 2010
Sonic hedgehog signaling pathway is important in developmental processes like dorsoventral neural tube patterning, neural stem cell proliferation and neuronal and glial cell survival. Shh is also implicated in the regulation of the adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Recently, nonpeptidyl Smoothened activators of the Shh pathway have been identified. The aim of ...
Wu Ze-Zhi - - 2010
We have fabricated a topographical substrate with a packed polystyrene bead array for the development of cell-based assay systems targeting voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs). Human neural progenitor cells (H945RB.3) cultured on both flat and topographical substrates were analyzed in terms of morphological spreading, neuronal commitment, resting membrane potential (V(m)) establishment ...
Duband Jean-Loup - - 2010
Although epithelial to mesenchymal transitions (EMT) are often viewed as a unique event, they are characterized by a great diversity of cellular processes resulting in strikingly different outcomes. They may be complete or partial, massive or progressive, and lead to the complete disruption of the epithelium or leave it intact. ...
Yoshinaga Yutaka - - 2010
The effects of Wnt signaling on neural progenitor cells have been controversial. Activation of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway either promotes neural progenitor cell proliferation or accelerates their differentiation into postmitotic neurons. This study demonstrates that activation of the Wnt signaling pathway by itself induces neural progenitor cell proliferation but ...
Brown Travis E TE Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Physiology and Biotechnology, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA. - - 2010
Neurogenesis is important for developing certain forms of memory. Recently, hippocampal cell proliferation has been implicated in the development of drug addiction, an extreme form of emotional/motivational pathological memory. Aiming to explore the role of hippocampal neural cell proliferation in cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), we treated rats with whole ...
Van Dycke Annelies - - 2010
Intracerebral delivery of anti-epileptic compounds represents a novel strategy for the treatment of refractory epilepsy. Adenosine is a possible candidate for local delivery based on its proven anti-epileptic effects. Neural stem cells constitute an ideal cell source for intracerebral transplantation and long-term drug delivery. In order to develop a cell-based ...
Jhingory S - - 2010
The neural crest is a transient population of migratory cells that differentiates to form a variety of cell types in the vertebrate embryo, including melanocytes, the craniofacial skeleton, and portions of the peripheral nervous system. These cells initially exist as adherent epithelial cells in the dorsal aspect of the neural ...
Ono Yuichi - - 2010
Floor plate (FP) cells, the ventral midline cells of the developing neural tube, have long been thought to be non-neurogenic organizer cells that control neuronal patterning and axonal guidance. Recent studies have revealed that mesencephalic FP (mesFP) cells have neurogenic activity and generate dopaminergic neurons. However, the mechanisms underlying the ...
Komada Munekazu - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to methylnitrosourea (MNU), an alkylating agent, induces microcephaly in mice. However, its pathogenetic mechanism has not been clarified, especially that in the development of the cerebral cortex. METHODS: ICR mice were treated with MNU at 10 mg/kg intraperitoneally on day 13.5 or 15.5 of gestation, and the ...
Shankar Ganesh M - - 2010
Extraadrenal paragangliomas are most commonly found in the carotid body and are also found with lower frequency in the CNS. These lesions are derived from the sympathoadrenal lineage of neural crest cells. Here, the authors report a rare case of a composite paraganglioma with ganglioneuromatous components found at the filum ...
Zhao Ying - - 2010
Neural stem cells used as a cellular vehicle have been proven effective in targeting glioblastomas in animal models. In an attempt to identify human sources of such cellular vehicles other than human brain tissue, we tested whether the well-established human NT2 cell line, which shares many characteristics of neural precursor ...
McLennan Rebecca - - 2010
Cranial neural crest cells (NCCs) require neuropilin signaling to reach and invade the branchial arches. Here, we use an in vivo chick model to investigate whether the neuropilin-1 knockdown phenotype is specific to the second branchial arch (ba2), changes in NCC behaviors and phenotypic consequences, and whether neuropilins work together ...
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