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Results 401 - 450 of 1774
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Ryu Soojin - - 2005
In multicellular organisms, the control of genome duplication and cell division must be tightly coordinated. Essential roles of the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins for genome duplication have been well established. However, no genetic model has been available to address the function of MCM proteins in the context of vertebrate organogenesis. ...
Ohyama Kyoji K Department of Biomedical Science, University of Sheffield, Firth Court, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK. - - 2005
Hypothalamic neurons play a key role in homeostasis, yet little is known about their differentiation. Here, we demonstrate that Shh and Bmp7 from the adjacent prechordal mesoderm govern hypothalamic neural fate, their sequential action controlling hypothalamic dopaminergic neuron generation in a Six3-dependent manner. Our data suggest a temporal distinction in ...
Mahoney Melissa J - - 2006
Graft survival and integration are major factors that limit the efficacy of cell therapies for the treatment of disease and injury in the central nervous system. Efforts to improve cell survival and integration have focused in part on the development of biocompatible scaffolds that support neural cell growth and function. ...
Rendic Dubravko - - 2006
Neural pathways in invertebrates are often tracked using anti-horseradish peroxidase, a cross-reaction due to the presence of core alpha1,3-fucosylated N-glycans. In order to investigate the molecular basis of this epitope in a cellular context, we compared two Drosophila melanogaster cell lines: the S2 and the neuronal-like BG2-c6 cell lines. As ...
Hou S - - 2006
Hyaluronic acid hydrogels modified with polyclonal anti-Nogo-66 receptor antibody were developed in order to promote regeneration in the injured CNS. These modified hydrogels were intended not only to deliver antibodies, but also to serve as a scaffold for neural regeneration following their implantation into injured tissue. Since unmodified hyaluronic acid-hydrogels ...
Whitlock Kathleen E - - 2005
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is found in a wide range of vertebrate tissues, including the nervous system. In general, GnRH has two functions: endocrine, acting as a releasing hormone; and neuromodulatory, affecting neural activity in the peripheral and central nervous system. The best understood population of GnRH cells is that of ...
Rak Daniel J - - 2006
Cultured retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are commonly used as a model of the tissue to study their involvement in visual diseases. Unfortunately, cultured RPE often lose their differentiated phenotype reducing their usefulness as a model of the RPE in vivo. In this study, we used a Ca++-switch protocol to ...
Choi Yoojin - - 2005
During development, neural precursors proliferate in one location and migrate to the residence of their mature function. The transition from a proliferative stage to a migratory stage is a critical juncture; errors in this process may result in tumor formation, mental retardation, or epilepsy. This transition could be the result ...
Bani-Yaghoub Mahmud - - 2005
Neural networks are formed by accurate connectivity of neurons and glial cells in the brain. These networks employ a three-dimensional bio-surface that both assigns precise coordinates to cells during development and facilitates their connectivity and functionality throughout life. Using specific topographic and chemical features, we have taken steps towards the ...
Brody Thomas - - 2005
One of the major goals of neurobiology is to describe, in molecular terms, how a neural progenitor cell can generate an ordered series of uniquely fated neurons and glia. It has become clear that many, or all, neural-subtype identities can be linked to sequentially changing regulatory programs within neural precursors. ...
Hsieh Jenny - - 2005
Neural stem cells generate distinct cell types for tissue formation and cell replacement during development and throughout adulthood. Neural development and plasticity are determined by both extrinsic and intrinsic factors that interface to regulate gene programs for controlling neuronal cell fate and function. Recent reports have shown that chromatin remodeling ...
Ishii Mamoru - - 2005
The neural crest is a multipotent, migratory cell population that contributes to a variety of tissues and organs during vertebrate embryogenesis. Here, we focus on the function of Msx1 and Msx2, homeobox genes implicated in several disorders affecting craniofacial development in humans. We show that Msx1/2 mutants exhibit profound deficiencies ...
Tsuneto Motokazu - - 2005
Ascorbic acid (AA) is known to regulate cell differentiation; however, the effects of AA on osteoclastogenesis, especially on its early stages, remain unclear. To examine the effects of AA throughout the process of osteoclast development, we established a culture system in which tartrate-resistant acid phosphate (TRAP)-positive osteoclasts were induced from ...
Newman Mary B - - 2005
The therapeutic window for treatment of individuals after stroke is narrow, regardless of the treatment regime; extension of this window would provide a major therapeutic advance. In prior reports, we demonstrated significant improvements in the behavioral defects of rats that received human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) cells 24 h after ...
Druckenbrod Noah R - - 2005
Neural crest cells leave the hindbrain, enter the gut mesenchyme at the pharynx, and migrate as strands of cells to the terminal bowel to form the enteric nervous system. We generated embryos containing fluorescent enteric neural crest-derived cells (ENCCs) by mating Wnt1-Cre mice with Rosa-floxed-YFP mice and investigated ENCC behavior ...
Tomita Yuichi - - 2005
Arodent cardiac side population cell fraction formed clonal spheroids in serum-free medium, which expressed nestin, Musashi-1, and multi-drug resistance transporter gene 1, markers of undifferentiated neural precursor cells. These markers were lost following differentiation, and were replaced by the expression of neuron-, glial-, smooth muscle cell-, or cardiomyocyte-specific proteins. Cardiosphere-derived ...
Katakowski Mark - - 2005
The subventricular germinal zone (SVZ) retains an active population of stem cells and neural precursor cells throughout adulthood. EphrinB signaling mediates angiogenesis and vasculogenesis in the developing and adult brain. Recent studies indicate that molecules involved in angiogenesis often influence neurogenesis as well. However, little work has been done considering ...
Jones Natalie C NC Stowers Institute for Medical Research, 1000 East 50th Street, Kansas City, Missouri 64110, - - 2005
The neural crest is a transient, migratory cell population found in all vertebrate embryos that generate a diverse range of cell and tissue derivatives including, but not limited, to the neurons and glia of the peripheral nervous system, smooth muscle, connective tissue, melanocytes, craniofacial cartilage, and bone. Over the past ...
Akagi Tadamichi - - 2005
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of various genes related to photoreceptor development on rodent and primate iris cells and the potential of iris cells as donor cells for retinal transplantation. METHODS: Adult rat and monkey iris tissue were cultured in serum-free medium containing basic ...
Anderson R B - - 2006
Enteric neurons arise from vagal and sacral level neural crest cells. To examine the phenotype of neural-crest-derived cells in vagal and sacral pathways, we used antisera to Sox10, p75, Phox2b, and Hu, and transgenic mice in which the expression of green fluorescent protein was under the control of the Ret ...
Nikolova Teodora - - 2005
Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells were used as an experimental model to study the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF). ES-derived nestin-positive neural progenitor cells were exposed to extremely low frequency EMF simulating power line magnetic fields at 50 Hz (ELF-EMF) and to radiofrequency EMF simulating the Global System for Mobile ...
Kobayashi Miwako - - 2006
N-myc, a member of the myc family of bHLH transcription factors, is expressed mainly in the nervous system, including derivatives of neural crest cells in the periphery during development, such as the sensory dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Previous studies suggest that N-myc is involved in the proliferation of progenitor cells ...
Shin Soojung - - 2006
Research on the cell fate determination of embryonic stem cells is of enormous interest given the therapeutic potential in regenerative cell therapy. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have the ability to renew themselves and differentiate into all three germ layers. The main focus of this study was to examine factors ...
Steventon Ben B Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, - - 2005
The concerted action of extracellular signals such as BMP, Wnt, FGF, RA and Notch activate a genetic program required to transform a naïve ectodermal cell into a neural crest cell. In this review we will analyze the extracellular signals and the network of transcription factors that are required for this ...
Ikeda Hanako - - 2005
We report directed differentiaion of retinal precursors in vitro from mouse ES cells. Six3+ rostral brain progenitors are generated by culturing ES cells under serum-free suspension conditions (SFEB culture) in the presence of Wnt and Nodal antagonists (Dkk1 and LeftyA), and subsequently steered to differentiate into Rx+ cells (16%) by ...
Morales Aixa V - - 2005
The development of the neural crest up to the stage where they leave the neural tube can be observed as a series of concatenated but independent events that involve dorsalization of the neural plate/neural tube, neural crest induction, segregation and stabilization, epithelial to mesenchymal transition and delamination. During all these ...
Aigner Stefan - - 2005
Timing and extent of cell expansion and specialization in the developing nervous system are tightly controlled. In a recent issue of Genes and Development, Seo and coworkers (2005a) show that geminin (Gem), a protein involved in cell cycle control, also regulates the transition from proliferating neural progenitors to differentiating neurons.
Schriek Gernot - - 2005
Melanocytes are derived from the neural crest. We questioned whether the migratory mechanism during the invasive growth of melanoma cells is the same as that in neural crest cell migration. We transplanted human SK-Mel 28 melanoma cells into the neural tube of the chick embryo stage 11-13 and, after up ...
Mjaatvedt Corey H - - 2005
We report the consistent distribution of a population of pigmented trp-1-positive cells in several important septal and valvular structures of the normal mouse (C57BL/6) heart. The pigmented cell population was first apparent by E16.5 p.c. in the right atrial wall and extended into the atrium along the interatrial septum. By ...
Trainor Paul A PA Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110, USA. - - 2005
Of all the model organisms used to study human development, rodents such as mice most accurately reflect human craniofacial development. Collective advances in mouse embryology and mouse genetics continue to shape our understanding of neural crest cell development and by extrapolation the etiology of human congenital head and facial birth ...
Meulemans Daniel - - 2005
A bona fide neural crest is a defining feature of vertebrate embryos. Protochordate gene expression patterns indicate that neural crest evolution coincided with the cooption of several transcriptional regulators to the neural plate border of the vertebrate ancestor. Recent cell labeling experiments in ascidians suggest that cells in this domain ...
Knight Robert D - - 2005
AP2 transcription factors regulate many aspects of embryonic development. Studies of AP2a (Tfap2a) function in mice and zebrafish have demonstrated a role in patterning mesenchymal cells of neural crest origin that form the craniofacial skeleton, while the mammalian Tfap2b is required in both the facial skeleton and kidney. Here, we ...
Podgornyi O V - - 2005
Dissociated fetal brain cells in a floating culture form clusters and then neurospheres, some of which contain structures shaped as cell "rosettes". The cells in these "rosettes" are arranged radially around the central cavity, in which their apical processes form desmosome-like contacts. Mitotic division of cells in the "rosettes" is ...
Hay Elizabeth D - - 2005
This review centers on the role of the mesenchymal cell in development. The creation of this cell is a remarkable process, one where a tightly knit, impervious epithelium suddenly extends filopodia from its basal surface and gives rise to migrating cells. The ensuing process of epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) creates the ...
Franchini Antonella - - 2005
The timing and spatial distribution of cells containing FMRFamide- and 5-HT-related molecules in the embryonic development of the mollusc Viviparus ater are examined using immunohistochemistry. FMRFamide-like molecules emerge in the early stage E8 (8% of embryonic development) before the 5-HT immunoreactivity, and they are not only found during nervous system ...
Stark Danny A - - 2005
Selective marking of a single cell within an embryo is often difficult to perform with existing methods. Here, we report a minimally invasive optical technique that uses 405-nm laser light to photoactivate a variant of green fluorescent protein (PAGFP). Single cells and small groups of cells (n < 10) are ...
Toma Jean G - - 2005
We have previously isolated, expanded, and characterized a multipotent precursor cell from mammalian dermis (termed skin-derived precursors [SKPs]) that can differentiate into both neural and mesodermal progeny. In this study, we report the isolation, expansion, and characterization of a similar precursor cell from neonatal human foreskin tissue. Like their rodent ...
Santos Romana - - 2005
Echinoderms possess mutable collagenous tissues (MCTs), which are capable of undergoing rapid changes in their passive mechanical properties mediated by secretions from a specific cell type, the juxtaligamental cell. In this study, the possible presence of MCTs in the tube feet of the echinoid Paracentrotus lividus and the asteroid Marthasterias ...
Moret Frédéric - - 2005
Dopamine is a major neuromodulator synthesized by numerous cell populations in the vertebrate forebrain and midbrain. Owing to the simple organization of its larval nervous system, ascidian tunicates provide a useful model to investigate the anatomy, neurogenesis and differentiation of the dopaminergic neural network underlying the stereotypical swimming behaviour of ...
Metwaly Hamdy - - 2005
Three cell systems (MINT1/2/3) derived from a melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (MNTI) arising in the mandible of a 1-month-old newborn boy have been established, and their cytological natures have been characterized. The cells had immunopositivities for pan-keratin, vimentin, neuron-specific enolase, S-100 protein and melanoma-associated antigen (HMB-45). These immunohistochemical phenotypes ...
Kawa Yoko - - 2005
We previously established a mouse neural crest cell line named NCCmelb4, which is positive for Kit and negative for tyrosinase. NCCmelb4 cells were useful to study the effects of extrinsic factors such as retinoic acids and vitamin D(3) on melanocyte differentiation, but in order to study the development of melanocytes ...
Schneider Ian C - - 2005
Activation of phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinase is a required signaling pathway in fibroblast migration directed by platelet-derived growth factor. The pattern of 3' PI lipids in the plasma membrane, integrating local PI 3-kinase activity as well as 3' PI diffusion and turnover, influences the spatiotemporal regulation of the cytoskeleton. In fibroblasts ...
Schmidt Corina - - 2005
The neural crest is a multipotent tissue that originates between the neural epithelium and non-neural ectoderm, which can develop into numerous cell types, including neurons, glia, pigment cells, smooth muscle, cartilage and bone. Work in a variety of animal models has shown that a number of signalling factors are necessary ...
Inoue Akira - - 2005
S1 proteins C2 and D2 are multifunctional hnRNP proteins acting as transcriptional regulators in the nucleus. Immunofluorescence staining of various cells in culture revealed that S1 proteins also occur in the cytoplasm, often in association with vimentin intermediate filaments (VFs). Here, we verified the association of S1 proteins with vimentin ...
Islam Mohammed Omedul - - 2005
We have studied the expression, localization, and function of the ABCG2 transporter, a universal stem cell marker, at the protein level in human cultured neural stem/progenitor cells (hNSPCs) using immunoblotting, immunofluorescence, and ATPase assays. Human NSPCs were isolated from human fetal brain and propagated in vitro as neurospheres. Both the ...
Maretta M - - 2005
Immunohistochemical localisation of acetylated alpha-tubulin was investigated in pig thymus using a mouse monoclonal antibody. Positive reaction to acetylated tubulin was observed in the cells involved in Hassall's bodies localized in the medulla region. Reacting product displayed a homogenous, fine or coarse granular character. The reacting peripheral cells of Hassall's ...
Fogliarini Céline - - 2005
The fetal cortical maturation is a long process with predefined steps. Abnormalities can occur at different stages of cortical maturation, resulting in various malformations. They can result from disturbance in cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cell migration and in organization of the cortex. Analysis of the different abnormalities of cortical maturation ...
Land Michael F - - 2005
Anopheles gambiae and Toxorhynchites brevipalpis represent the nocturnal and diurnal extremes of the mosquito light intensity range, and their eyes are structurally very different. A. gambiae has fused rhabdoms with huge acceptance angles, whereas T. brevipalpis has open rhabdoms with rhabdomere acceptance angles comparable with those of advanced (brachyceran) flies. ...
Yamazaki Hidetoshi - - 2005
Neural crest (NC) cells are multipotent cells that can differentiate into melanocytes, neurons, glias and myofibroblasts. They migrate into the fetal thymus on embryonic day (E) 12 in mice and may participate in thymic organogenesis. Although the abnormality of migration and distribution of NC cells in the thymus results in ...
Yamazoe Hironori - - 2005
Embryonic stem (ES) cells have the ability to replicate themselves and differentiate into various mature cells. Recently, dopaminergic neurons were efficiently induced from ES cells using mouse stromal cells (PA6 cells) as a feeder cell layer. This simple procedure seems to be very efficient to obtain dopamine-releasing cells for future ...
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