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Results 351 - 400 of 1774
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Kretz M - - 2006
Mice harboring a null mutation in the gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43) die shortly after birth due to an obstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract of the heart. These hearts exhibit prominent pouches at the base of the pulmonary outlet, i.e., morphological abnormalities that were ascribed to Cx43-deficiency in ...
Nagy Nandor - - 2006
Normal development of the enteric nervous system (ENS) requires the coordinated activity of multiple proteins to regulate the migration, proliferation, and differentiation of enteric neural crest cells. Much of our current knowledge of the molecular regulation of ENS development has been gained from transgenic mouse models and cultured neural crest ...
Cobourne Martyn T - - 2006
The mammalian dentition is composed of serial groups of teeth, each with a distinctive crown and root morphology, highly adapted to its particular masticatory function. In the embryo, generation of individual teeth within the jaws relies upon interactions between ectoderm of the first branchial arch and the neural crest-derived ectomesenchymal ...
Mitsiadis Thimios A - - 2006
Recent advances in molecular and developmental genetics have provided tools for understanding evolutionary changes in the nature of the epithelial-mesenchymal interactions regulating the patterned outgrowth of the tooth primordia. Tissue recombination experiments in mice have identified the oral epithelium as providing the instructive information for the initiation of tooth development. ...
Danesin Cathy - - 2006
In the embryonic chick ventral spinal cord, the initial emergence of oligodendrocytes is a relatively late event that depends on prolonged Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling. In this report, we show that specification of oligodendrocyte precursors (OLPs) from ventral Nkx2.2-expressing neural progenitors occurs precisely when these progenitors stop generating neurons, indicating ...
Evans Darrell J R - - 2006
Fate maps based on quail-chick grafting of avian cephalic neural crest precursors and paraxial mesoderm cells have identified the majority of derivatives from each population but have not unequivocally resolved the precise locations of and population dynamics at the interface between them. The relation between these two mesenchymal tissues is ...
Zhao Hu H Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology School of Dentistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033, - - 2006
The cranial neural crest (CNC) is a transient cell population that originates at the crest of the neural fold and gives rise to multiple cell types during craniofacial development. Traditionally, researchers have used tissue explants, such as the neural tube, to obtain primary neural crest cells for their studies. However, ...
Wang Chen C Key Laboratory of Stem Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences and Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, - - 2006
FGF8, a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, has been shown to play important roles in different developing systems. Mouse embryonic carcinoma P19 cells could be induced by retinoic acid (RA) to differentiate into neuroectodermal cell lineages, and this process is cell aggregation dependent. In this report, we ...
Gunawan Rico C - - 2006
This paper explores the effects of the surface density and concentration profiles of extra cellular matrix proteins on the migration of rat intestinal IEC-6 cells. Microfluidic devices were used to create linear, immobilized gradients of laminin. This study investigated both the impact of the steepness and local concentrations on the ...
Stanchina Laure L INSERM, U654, Bases moléculaires et cellulaires des maladies génétiques, Hôpital Henri Mondor, Creteil, F-94000, France; Université Paris 12, Faculté de Médecine, IFR10, Créteil, F-94000, - - 2006
The requirement for SOX10 and endothelin-3/EDNRB signalling pathway during enteric nervous system (ENS) and melanocyte development, as well as their alterations in Waardenburg-Hirschsprung disease (hypopigmentation, deafness and absence of enteric ganglia) are well established. Here, we analysed the genetic interactions between these genes during ENS and melanocyte development. Through phenotype ...
Anderson Richard B - - 2006
BACKGROUND & AIMS: During development, the enteric nervous system is derived from neural crest cells that emigrate from the hindbrain, enter the foregut, and colonize the gut. Defects in neural crest migration can result in intestinal aganglionosis. Hirschsprung's disease (congenital aganglionosis) is a human condition in which enteric neurons are ...
Towler Dwight A - - 2006
During vertebrate development, mesenchymal progenitors capable of forming bone, cartilage, muscle, fat, or tendon arise from either neural crest or somitic mesoderm. Transcriptional programs that specify mesenchymal cell fates are initiated and modified by paracrine cues provided by TGF-beta superfamily members and mediated in part via the regulated assembly of ...
Technau Gerhard M - - 2006
Development of the central nervous system (CNS) involves the transformation of a two-dimensional epithelial sheet of uniform ectodermal cells, the neuroectoderm, into a highly complex three-dimensional structure consisting of a huge variety of different neural cell types. Characteristic numbers of each cell type become arranged in reproducible spatial patterns, which ...
Pyriform cells with a short apical horn and two divergent antapical spines. Plate arrangement: Para, hexa. The cells are dorso-ventrally compressed.
Ma Bao-Feng - - 2006
Neural stem cells are multipotent and self-renewing cells with important potential application in cell replacement therapy in brain damage. Many studies have shown that nestin-positive cells represent neural stem and progenitor cells in the central neural system. Here, we derived neural stem cells from the subventricular zone of a newborn ...
Nagy Nandor - - 2006
Neural crest cells (NCC) migrate, proliferate, and differentiate within the wall of the gastrointestinal tract to give rise to the neurons and glial cells of the enteric nervous system (ENS). The intestinal microenvironment is critical in this process and endothelin-3 (ET3) is known to have an essential role. Mutations of ...
Wang Jyh-Horng - - 2006
The purpose of this study was to explore the phenotypic potential of embryonic rat cerebral cortical stem cells by inducing differentiation on lysine-alanine sequential (LAS) polymer substrates at neurosphere level. LAS polymer is a heterologous polymer of lysine and alanine and has been demonstrated to enhance axon growth of neurons ...
Moretti Massimo - - 2006
The study of cellular differentiation encompasses many vital parts of biology and medicine. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) are essential and ubiquitous macromolecules associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix (ECM) of a wide range of cells and tissues. Heparan sulfate chains (HS) of HSPG bind and sequester a multitude ...
Zhang Shulin - - 2006
In some tissues, stem cells are enriched within the side population (SP) cells characterized by the efficient efflux of Hoechst 33342, but few data are yet available to address whether such is the case in bone tissue. When we Hoechst-stained and FACS-analyzed freshly isolated 20- or 21-day fetal rat calvaria ...
Kulesa Paul M - - 2006
Human metastatic melanoma cells express a dedifferentiated, plastic phenotype, which may serve as a selective advantage, because melanoma cells invade various microenvironments. Over the last three decades, there has been an increased focus on the role of the tumor microenvironment in cancer progression, with the goal of reversing the metastatic ...
Stewart Rodney A - - 2006
The vertebrate neural crest is a pluripotent cell population that generates a large variety of cell types, including peripheral neurons, cartilage and pigment cells. Mechanisms that control the patterning of the neural crest toward specific cell fates remain only partially understood. Zebrafish homozygous for the sympathetic mutation 1 (sym1) have ...
Pogoda Hans-Martin HM Max-Planck Institute of Immunobiology, 79108 Freiburg, - - 2006
Mammalian basic helix-loop-helix proteins of the achaete-scute family are proneural factors that, in addition to the central nervous system, are required for the differentiation of peripheral neurons and sensory cells, derivatives of the neural crest and placodal ectoderm. Here, in identifying the molecular nature of the pia mutation, we investigate ...
Boot Marit J - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Elevated homocysteine levels during embryonic development can result in neural tube and cardiovascular defects. The mechanisms that underlie the toxic effect of homocysteine are largely unknown. METHODS: We cultured mouse neural tube explants to study the effects of homocysteine on the migratory behavior of neural crest cells and on ...
Lee Eun-Jin - - 2006
We serendipitously found a distal Disabled-1 (Dab1)-immunoreactive cell in retina of the C57BL/6J black mouse. The somata of these cells are located in the outermost part of the inner nuclear layer (INL). Their processes extend toward the outer plexiform layer (OPL), receiving synaptic inputs from horizontal and interplexiform cells. In ...
Al-Kofahi Omar - - 2006
Understanding cell lineage relationships is fundamental to understanding development, and can shed light on disease etiology and progression. We present a method for automated tracking of lineages of proliferative, migrating cells from a sequence of images. The method is applicable to image sequences gathered either in vitro or in vivo. ...
Ido Atsushi - - 2006
There is a significant difference between the developmental patterns of cranial and trunk neural crest cells in the amniote. Thus, whereas cranial neural crest cells generate bone and cartilage, trunk neural crest cells do not contribute to skeletal derivatives. We examined whether mouse trunk neural crest cells can undergo chondrogenesis ...
Cayuso Jordi J Instituto de Biología Molecular de Barcelona, CSIC, Parc Científic de Barcelona, C/Josep Samitier 1-5, - - 2006
During CNS development, the proliferation of progenitors must be coordinated with the pattern of neuronal subtype generation. In the ventral neural tube, Sonic hedgehog acts as a long range morphogen to organise the pattern of cell differentiation by controlling the activity of Gli transcription factors. Here, we provide evidence that ...
St Amand Tara R - - 2006
The heterogeneous cell types of the cardiac conduction system are responsible for coordinating and maintaining rhythmic contractions of the heart. While it has been shown that the cells of the conduction system are derived from myocytes, additional cell types, including neural crest cells, may play a role in the development ...
Ciruna Brian B Developmental Genetics Program, Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine and Department of Cell Biology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA. - - 2006
Environmental and genetic aberrations lead to neural tube closure defects (NTDs) in 1 out of every 1,000 births. Mouse and frog models for these birth defects have indicated that Van Gogh-like 2 (Vangl2, also known as Strabismus) and other components of planar cell polarity (PCP) signalling might control neurulation by ...
Modlin Irvin M - - 2006
As early as the 2nd century, Galen proposed that 'vital spirits' in the blood regulated human bodily functions. However, the concept of hormonal activity required a further 18 centuries to develop and relied upon the identification of 'ductless glands', Schwann's cell and the recognition by Bayliss and Starling of chemical ...
Deng Y-B - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in rodent models has proved to be an effective therapeutic approach for spinal cord injury (SCI). However, further studies in primate models are still needed before clinical application of MSC to patients. METHODS: MSC were isolated from rhesus monkey BM and induced ex ...
Bailey Andrew P - - 2006
Sensory placodes are unique domains of thickened ectoderm in the vertebrate head that form important parts of the cranial sensory nervous system, contributing to sense organs and cranial ganglia. They generate many different cell types, ranging from simple lens fibers to neurons and sensory cells. Although progress has been made ...
Traverso Edwin E - - 2006
The Xenopus laevis gene tumorhead (TH) is a regulator of cell proliferation of the ectodermal germ layer during embryonic development. TH overexpression results in increased cell proliferation within the developing ectoderm, causing an expansion of the neural plate. Conversely, loss of TH function results in inhibition of proliferation of ectodermal ...
Silver Debra L - - 2006
Pigment cells in developing vertebrates are derived from a transient and pluripotent population of cells called neural crest. The neural crest delaminates from the developing neural tube and overlying ectoderm early in development. The pigment cells are the only derivative to migrate along the dorso-lateral pathway. As they migrate, the ...
Mokrý J - - 2006
NSCs are responsible for the generation of CNS cell types derived from the neural tube. Published data resulting from experiments studying the differentiation of NSCs in vitro or in vivo have confirmed their spontaneous tripotency, i.e. their ability to generate cells of the neuronal, astroglial and oligodendroglial lineages. The relationship ...
Kano T - - 2006
When microelectrode recording of single cell activity is employed for targeting the subthalamic nucleus (STN), multiple sampling of single cells is needed to determine whether the electrode has passed through the ventral boundaries of the STN. In contrast, stepwise recording of multiple cell activities by a semimicroelectrode reveals robust changes ...
Ohno-Matsui Kyoko - - 2006
PURPOSE: To determine whether human amniotic membranes (AMs) can induce human and rat iris pigment epithelial (IPE) cells grown on them to develop characteristics of RPE cells in situ better than IPE cells grown on plastic plates, and to determine whether subretinal transplantation of IPE cell sheets grown on AMs ...
Dupin Elisabeth - - 2006
As a transitory structure providing adult tissues of the vertebrates with very diverse cell types, the neural crest (NC) has attracted for long the interest of developmental biologists and is still the subject of ongoing research in a variety of animal models. Here we review a number of data from ...
Lv Xin - - 2006
In order to understand the survival signals of neural cells during the development of the central nervous system (CNS), we explored the role of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) in the survival of primary culture mouse neural cells (MNCs). We found that when the activity of PC-PLC in the neural cells ...
Brown Christopher B - - 2006
Normal cardiovascular development requires complex remodeling of the outflow tract and pharyngeal arch arteries to create the separate pulmonic and systemic circulations. During remodeling, the outflow tract is septated to form the ascending aorta and the pulmonary trunk. The initially symmetrical pharyngeal arch arteries are remodeled to form the aortic ...
Liour Sean S - - 2006
Previously, we showed that radial glia-like (RG) cells differentiated from embryonic stem (ES) cells after retinoic acid induction (Liour and Yu, 2003: Glia 42:109-117). In the present study, we demonstrate that the production of RG cells from ES cells is independent of the neural differentiation protocol used. These ES cell-derived ...
Dutt Shilpee - - 2006
Neural crest cells are specialized multipotent embryonic stem cells found exclusively in vertebrates[1,2,3]. During embryonic development, these cells arise from the dorsal neural tube, undergo epithelial to mesenchymal transition, and subsequently migrate along stereotyped pathways to reach specific tissue targets, where they differentiate into a wide variety of cell types, ...
Sommer Lukas - - 2006
Because of its unique ability to generate a wide variety of both neural and nonneural derivatives, the neural crest is an ideal model system to study the factors regulating cell lineage decisions in stem and progenitor cells. The use of various cell culture techniques and in vivo functional assays, including ...
Wang Jikui - - 2006
Congenital cardiovascular diseases are the most common form of birth defects in humans. A substantial portion of these defects has been associated with inappropriate induction, migration, differentiation and patterning of pluripotent cardiac neural crest stem cells. While TGF-beta-superfamily signaling has been strongly implicated in neural crest cell development, the detailed ...
Noden Drew M DM Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, - - 2006
After their initial discovery in the mid 1800s, neural crest cells transitioned from the category of renegade intra-embryonic wanderers to achieve rebel status, provoked especially by the outrageous claim that they participate in skeletogenesis, an embryonic event theretofore reserved exclusively for mesoderm. Much of the 20th century found neural crest ...
Raible David W DW Department of Biological Structure, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA. - - 2006
How distinct cell fates are generated from initially homogeneous cell populations is a driving question in developmental biology. The neural crest is one such cell population that is capable of producing an incredible array of derivatives. Cells as different in function and form as the pigment cells in the skin ...
Sandell Lisa L LL Stowers Institute of Medical Research, 901 Volker Blvd., Kansas City, Missouri 64110, - - 2006
Patterning and morphogenesis of neural crest-derived tissues within a developing vertebrate embryo rely on a complex balance between signals acquired by neural crest cells in the neuroepithelium during their formation and signals from the tissues that the neural crest cells contact during their migration. Axial identity of hindbrain neural crest ...
Knight Robert D RD Centre for Developmental and Biomedical Genetics, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sheffield, South Yorkshire, - - 2006
The skeletal derivatives of the cranial neural crest (CNC) are patterned through a combination of intrinsic differences between crest cells and extrinsic signals from adjacent tissues, including endoderm and ectoderm. In this chapter, we focus on how CNC cells positionally interpret these cues to generate such highly specialized structures as ...
von Bergwelt-Baildon Michael - - 2006
CD40-activated B cells (CD40-B cells) have previously been introduced as an alternative source of antigen-presenting cells for immunotherapy. CD40-B cells can prime naive and expand memory T cells, and they can be generated in large numbers from very small amounts of peripheral blood derived from healthy individuals or cancer patients ...
Katoh Hironori - - 2006
Cell migration is essential for normal development and many pathological processes. Rho-family small GTPases play important roles in this event. In particular, Rac regulates lamellipodia formation at the leading edge during migration. The small GTPase RhoG activates Rac through its effector ELMO and the ELMO-binding protein Dock180, which functions as ...
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