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Results 301 - 350 of 1774
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Yen Men-Luh - - 2007
The in vitro study of human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMMSCs) has largely depended on the use of primary cultures. Although these are excellent model systems, their scarcity, heterogeneity, and limited lifespan restrict their usefulness. This has led researchers to look for other sources of MSCs, and recently, such ...
Théveneau Eric - - 2007
Neural crest cells (NCC) have the particularity to invade the environment where they differentiate after separation from the neuroepithelium. This process, called delamination, is strikingly different between cranial and trunk NCCs. If signalings controlling slow trunk delamination start being deciphered, mechanisms leading to massive and rapid cranial outflow are poorly ...
Hutson Mary R - - 2007
Neural crest cells are multipotential cells that delaminate from the dorsal neural tube and migrate widely throughout the body. A subregion of the cranial neural crest originating between the otocyst and somite 3 has been called "cardiac neural crest" because of the importance of these cells in heart development. Much ...
Garriock Robert J - - 2007
In the frog embryo, a sub-population of trunk neural crest (NC) cells undergoes a dorsal route of migration to contribute to the mesenchyme in the core of the dorsal fin. Here we show that a second population of cells, originally located in the dorsomedial region of the somite, also contributes ...
Otaegi Gaizka - - 2007
We analyzed whether the embryonic (E12.5-E14.5) mouse retina possesses genuine neural stem cells and how they respond to defined growth factors and extracellular matrix molecules. Whereas most combinations produced no or limited cell survival and proliferation in culture, FGF-2 plus heparin and laminin stimulated proliferation and the formation of aggregates ...
O' Donnell Anne-Marie - - 2006
Intrinsic innervation of the developing chick cloaca is provided by the enteric nervous system, a network of neurons and glia that lies within its walls. The enteric nervous system originates from neural crest cells that migrate from the vagal and sacral regions of the neural tube during the early stages ...
Zou Peng - - 2006
Midkine, a heparin-binding growth factor, was found to be expressed in neural precursor cells, which consist of neural stem cells and the progenitor cells. When embryonic brain cells were allowed to form neurospheres enriched in neural precursor cells, numbers were significantly smaller from the midkine-deficient brain than from the wild-type ...
Auguste Kurtis I - - 2007
We reported previously that astroglia cultured from aquaporin-4-deficient (AQP4-/-) mice migrate more slowly in vitro than those from wild-type (AQP4+/+) mice (J. Cell Sci. 2005;118, 5691-5698). Here, we investigate the migration of fluorescently labeled AQP4+/+ and AQP4-/- astroglia after implantation into mouse brains in which directional movement was stimulated by ...
Shamir Maoz - - 2006
Empirical studies seem to support conflicting hypotheses with regard to the nature of the neural code. While some studies highlight the role of a distributed population code, others emphasize the possibility of a "single-best-cell" readout. One particularly interesting example of single-best-cell readout is provided by the winner-takes-all (WTA) approach. According ...
Raff M - - 2006
There has been a revolution in understanding animal development in the last 25 years or so, but there is at least one area of development that has been relatively neglected and therefore remains largely mysterious. This is the intracellular programmes and timers that run in developing precursor cells and change ...
England Samantha J SJ Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, - - 2006
Mechanisms for shaping and folding sheets of cells during development are poorly understood. An example is the complex reorganisation of the forebrain neural plate during neurulation, which must fold a sheet into a tube while evaginating two eyes from a single contiguous domain within the neural plate. We, for the ...
Lund Raymond D - - 2007
Progressive photoreceptor degeneration resulting from genetic and other factors is a leading and largely untreatable cause of blindness worldwide. The object of this study was to find a cell type that is effective in slowing the progress of such degeneration in an animal model of human retinal disease, is safe, ...
Simpson Matthew J - - 2007
A general mathematical model of cell invasion is developed and validated with an experimental system. The model incorporates two basic cell functions: non-directed (diffusive) motility and proliferation to a carrying capacity limit. The model is used here to investigate cell proliferation and motility differences along the axis of an invasion ...
Zuo Yufeng - - 2006
Rac GTPases are known to play a crucial role in regulating cytoskeletal changes necessary for cell migration. Migration has been shown to be positively regulated by Rac in most cell types. However, there is also a large body of conflicting evidence in some other cell types with respect to the ...
Wallingford John B - - 2006
Cilia are microtubule-based protrusions that are found on the surface of most vertebrate cells. Long studied by cell biologists, these organelles have recently caught the attention of developmental biologists and human geneticists. In this review, I will discuss recent findings suggesting a link between cilia and the planar cell polarity ...
Palevitch Ori - - 2007
The ontogeny of two gonadotropin-releasing-hormone (GnRH) systems, salmon GnRH (sGnRH) and chicken GnRH-II (cGnRH-II), was investigated in zebrafish (Danio rerio). In situ hybridization (ISH) first detected sGnRH mRNA-expressing cells at 1 day post-fertilization (pf) anterior to the developing olfactory organs. Subsequently, cells were seen along the ventral olfactory organs and ...
Motohashi Tsutomu - - 2007
Neural crest cells migrate throughout the embryo and differentiate into diverse derivatives: the peripheral neurons, cranial mesenchymal cells, and melanocytes. Because the neural crest cells have critical roles in organogenesis, detailed elucidation of neural crest cell differentiation is important in developmental biology. We recently reported that melanocytes could be induced ...
Chang P-A - - 2006
Neuropathy target esterase (NTE), the human homologue of a protein required for brain development in Drosophila, is expressed primarily in neural cells but is also detected in non-neural cells. Although NTE has been proposed to play a role in neurite outgrowth and process elongation during neurodifferentiation, the function of NTE ...
Real Carla - - 2006
The differentiation of a given cell should be irreversible in order to ensure cell-type-specific function and stability of resident tissue. However, under stimulation in vitro or during regeneration, differentiated cells may recover properties of immature cells. Yet the mechanisms whereby differentiated cells can change fate or reverse to precursor cells ...
Livengood Jill A - - 2006
Human infection by Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent for Lyme disease, can result in serious acute and late-term disorders including neuroborreliosis, a degenerative condition of the peripheral and central nervous systems. To examine the mechanisms involved in the cellular pathogenesis of neuroborreliosis, we investigated the ability of B. burgdorferi to ...
Sugita Sunao S Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-5-45 Yushima, Tokyo, Japan. - - 2006
The ocular microenvironment is immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory. Pigment epithelial (PE) cells isolated from the eye possess a new property of suppressing T cell receptor-dependent activation of T cells in vitro. This property depends on their capacity to produce cell-surface and soluble inhibitory molecules. The iris pigment epithelia (IPE) do so ...
Lu, Carole Chih-Chen
The neural crest is a transient population of cells that migrate away from the dorsal neural tube in the vertebrate embryo. As the developing hindbrain constricts into rhombomeres, cranial neural crest cells migrate in three discrete streams adjacent to even-numbered rhombomeres, rhombomere 2 (r2), r4, and r6. To test the ...
Cui Hongjuan - - 2006
Human neuroblastoma I-type cells have been proposed as a population of malignant neural crest stem cells, based on their high tumorigenic potential, expression of stem cell markers, and ability to differentiate into cells of neural crest lineages, including neuroblastic (N-type) and Schwann/glial (S-type) cells. Here, we demonstrate at single cell ...
Schäfer Matthias - - 2007
The floor plate is a signaling center in the ventral neural tube of vertebrates with important functions during neural patterning and axon guidance. It is composed of a centrally located medial floor plate (MFP) and a bilaterally positioned lateral floor plate (LFP). While the role of the MFP as source ...
Jeffery William R - - 2006
Migratory neural crest-like cells, which express the cell surface antigen HNK-1 and develop into pigment cells, have recently been identified in the ascidian Ecteinascidia turbinata. Here we use HNK-1 expression as a marker to determine whether neural crest-like cells are responsible for pigment development in diverse ascidian species. We surveyed ...
Ezin Akouavi M - - 2006
In previous work (Elul, T., Keller, R., 2000. Monopolar protrusive activity: a new morphogenic cell behavior in the neural plate dependent on vertical interactions with the mesoderm in Xenopus. Dev. Biol. 224, 3-19; Ezin, A.M., Skoglund, P. Keller, R. 2003. The midline (notochord and notoplate) patterns the cell motility underlying ...
Casulari L A - - 2006
Glucocorticoids (Gc) influence the differentiation of neural crest-derived cells such as those composing sympathoadrenal tumors like pheochromocytomas, as well as neuroblastomas and gangliomas. In order to obtain further information on the effects of Gc on cells evolving from the neural crest, we have used the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-SH ...
Decembrini Sarah - - 2006
The reason why different types of vertebrate nerve cells are generated in a particular sequence is still poorly understood. In the vertebrate retina, homeobox genes play a crucial role in establishing different cell identities. Here we provide evidence of a cellular clock that sequentially activates distinct homeobox genes in embryonic ...
Oishi Kazuhiko - - 2006
Although it is now clear that several subpopulations of neural stem cells (NSCs) exist during early development and adulthood, the angiogenic potential of NSCs remains a subject of debate. Here, we report that CD44(+) CD90(+) cells isolated from primary neurospheres can form vascular-tube structures in vitro. NSCs isolated from the ...
Yamazaki Hidetoshi - - 2007
The tooth, composed of dentin and enamel, develops through epithelium-mesenchyme interactions. Neural crest (NC) cells contribute to the dental mesenchyme in the developing tooth and differentiate into dentin-secreting odontoblasts. NC cells are known to differentiate into chondrocytes and osteoblasts in the craniofacial region. However, it is not clear whether the ...
Hong Elim - - 2006
Through the direct analysis of cell behaviors, we address the mechanisms underlying anterior neural tube morphogenesis in the zebrafish and the role of the cell adhesion molecule N-cadherin (N-cad) in this process. We demonstrate that although the mode of neurulation differs at the morphological level between amphibians and teleosts, the ...
Dixon Jill J School of Dentistry and Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, United Kingdom. - - 2006
Neural crest cells are a migratory cell population that give rise to the majority of the cartilage, bone, connective tissue, and sensory ganglia in the head. Abnormalities in the formation, proliferation, migration, and differentiation phases of the neural crest cell life cycle can lead to craniofacial malformations, which constitute one-third ...
Rembold Martina M Developmental Biology Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, - - 2006
The cellular mechanisms underlying organ formation are largely unknown. We visualized early vertebrate eye morphogenesis at single-cell resolution by in vivo imaging in medaka (Oryzias latipes). Before optic vesicle evagination, retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) modulate their convergence in a fate-specific manner. Presumptive forebrain cells converge toward the midline, whereas medial ...
Lazzari Giovanna - - 2006
Embryonic stem cells differentiate into neuroectodermal cells under specific culture conditions. In primates, these cells are organized into rosettes expressing Pax6 and Sox1 and are responsive to inductive signals such as Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and retinoic acid. However, direct derivation of organized neuroectoderm in vitro from preimplantation mammalian embryos has ...
McLennan Rebecca - - 2007
The neural crest provides an excellent model system to study invasive cell migration, however it is still unclear how molecular mechanisms direct cells to precise targets in a programmed manner. We investigate the role of a potential guidance factor, neuropilin-1, and use functional knockdown assays, tissue transplantation and in vivo ...
Vasiliev J M - - 2006
This review describes the large group of morphogenetic processes designated as search migrations. Search migrations typically include two stages: i) search, when a group of cells or of the cytoplasmic processes migrate over the cell-free spaces, and ii) choice, the stage when migrating cells reach specific loci where they stop ...
Motohashi Tsutomu - - 2006
Embryonic stem (ES) cells from many organisms have the capacity to generate in vitro a wide variety of cell types depending on their environment. Understanding precisely how such toti- or pluripotent cells may be driven towards a specific lineage represents a major challenge if our ambition of using ES cells ...
Kelsh Robert N RN Centre for Regenerative Medicine, University of Bath, Department of Biology and Biochemistry, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY, UK. - - 2006
For both vertebrate developmental and evolutionary biologists, and also for clinicians, the neural crest (NC) is a fundamental cell population. An understanding of Sox10 function in NC development is of particular significance since Sox10 mutations underlie several neurocristopathies. Surprisingly, experiments in different model organisms aimed at identifying Sox10's role(s) have ...
Goetz A Katrin - - 2006
It was, until now, not entirely clear how the nervous system attains its cellular phenotypic diversity and wired complexity during development. Here we describe how environmental interactions alone can modify the development of neurogenic precursor cells. Upon evaluating distinct growth-permissive substrates in an embryonic stem cell-neurogenesis assay, we found that ...
Lieu Ann-Shung - - 2006
OBJECT: Promotion of the repair and regeneration of damaged adult neurons is a major goal of neurological science. In this study, the effects of G protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting protein 1 (GIT1) overexpression in human neuron cells were tested in human neuronal cells by using an adenoviral vector. METHODS: A ...
Pearse Damien D - - 2006
The implantation of exogenous cells or tissues has been a popular and successful strategy to overcome physical discontinuity and support axon growth in experimental models of spinal cord injury (SCI). Cellular therapies exhibit a multifarious potential for SCI restoration, providing not only a supportive substrate upon which axons can traverse ...
Comte I - - 2006
The aim of the present study was to isolate neural stem cells from a complex tissue: the avian olfactory epithelium; by using sedimentation field flow fractionation (SdFFF). By using "Hyperlayer" elution mode, fraction collection and cell characterization methods, results shows that SdFFF could be a useful cell sorter to isolate ...
Vickaryous Matthew K - - 2006
Metazoans are composed of a finite number of recognisable cell types. Similar to the relationship between species and ecosystems, knowledge of cell type diversity contributes to studies of complexity and evolution. However, as with other units of evolution, the cell type often resists definition. This review proposes guidelines for characterising ...
Sauka-Spengler Tatjana - - 2006
The neural crest, a uniquely vertebrate characteristic, gives rise to pigment cells, much of the peripheral nervous system, the craniofacial skeleton, and a plethora of other cell types. Classical embryological studies have revealed important details about the migratory pathways followed by these cells, and their subsequent differentiation into diverse derivatives. ...
Fukushima Koji - - 2006
Biliary ducts are lined with epithelial cells, which consist of at least two types of cholangiocytes, small and large. In contrast to large cholangiocytes, which are involved in secretion, the role of small cholangiocytes has not been elucidated. To address this question, we analyzed the migration-based characteristics of these cells ...
van Echten-Deckert Gerhild - - 2006
Sphingolipids were discovered more than a century ago in the brain. Cerebrosides and sphingomyelins were named so because they were first isolated from neural tissue. Although glycosphingolipids and especially those containing sialic acid in their oligosaccharide moiety are particularly abundant in the brain, sphingolipids are ubiquitous cellular membrane components. They ...
Whitlock K E - - 2006
Cells containing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) are essential not only for reproduction but also for neuromodulatory functions in the adult animal. A variety of studies have hinted at multiple origins for GnRH-containing cells in the developing embryo. We have shown, using zebrafish as a model system, that GnRH cells originate from ...
Vogel, Kristine S.
Our purpose is to examine the role of the NF1 gene product neurofibromin in modulating the migratory and invasive properties of neural crest cells (NCC) and neural crest-derived sarcoma cells. As a negative regulator of Ras signaling neurofibromin may influence the responses of NC-derived cells to growth factors and extracellular ...
Kimura Ikuo - - 2006
Neudesin encodes a secreted signal with neurotrophic activity in neurons. Most neurotrophic factors are involved in neural cell proliferation and/or differentiation. However, the role of neudesin in neural development remains to be elucidated. We examined the expression of neudesin in mouse embryonic cerebral cortex and cultured mouse neural precursor cells ...
Milhavet Ollivier - - 2006
The study of prion transmission and targeting is a major scientific issue with important consequences for public health. Only a few cell culture systems that are able to convert the cellular isoform of the prion protein into the pathologic scrapie isoform of the prion protein (PrP(Sc)) have been described. We ...
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