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Results 251 - 300 of 1774
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Rupp Paul A - - 2007
Neural crest (NC) cells have been elegantly traced to follow stereotypical migratory pathways throughout the vertebrate embryo, yet we still lack complete information on individual cell migratory behaviors and how molecular mechanisms direct NC cell guidance. Here, we analyze the spatio-temporal migratory pattern of post-otic NC and the in vivo ...
Schreiner Silke - - 2007
The transcription factor Sox10 regulates early neural crest development, specification of neural crest-derived lineages and terminal differentiation of oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system. Here, we generated two novel hypomorphic Sox10 alleles in the mouse. Mutant mice either expressed a Sox10 protein with a triple alanine substitution in the dimerization ...
Le Douarin Nicole M - - 2007
Since the time of Ramon y Cajal, very significant progress has been accomplished in our knowledge of the fate of the early neural primordium. The origin of the peripheral nervous system from the transient and pluripotent embryonic structure, the neural crest has been fully deciphered using appropriate cell marking techniques. ...
Zhao Li-Ru LR Department of Neurology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 303 E. Chicago Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. - - 2007
Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) travel a long distance along the rostral migratory stream (RMS) to give rise to interneurons in the olfactory bulb (OB). Using the multiphoton microscope and time-lapse recording techniques we here report the behavior of NPCs in the RMS under both intact ...
Hess Katja - - 2008
Wild-type (dark) and white mutant axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) embryos were used to investigate the role of the secreted growth factor bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) and its antagonist, Noggin, in dorso-lateral trunk neural crest (NC) migration. Implantation of a BMP-4-coated microbead caused a melanophore-free zone around the bead, reduction of the ...
Bianco Ambra - - 2007
Although directed migration is a feature of both individual cells and cell groups, guided migration has been studied most extensively for single cells in simple environments. Collective guidance of cell groups remains poorly understood, despite its relevance for development and metastasis. Neural crest cells and neuronal precursors migrate as loosely ...
Li Shengxiu - - 2007
PURPOSE: The small eye mouse mutant (Sey) is caused by a mutation of the Pax6 gene. Previous studies, in which aggregation chimeras were used, have demonstrated that Sey/Sey cells contribute poorly to the neural retina forming small clumps of cells restricted to the inner retina at embryonic day 16.5. In ...
Klassen Henry - - 2007
The cat has served as an important nonrodent research model for neurophysiology and retinal degenerative disease processes, yet very little is known about feline neural precursor cells. To culture these cells and evaluate marker expression, brains were dissected from 45-day-old fetuses, enzymatically dissociated, and grown in the presence of EGF, ...
Kim Tae-Hee - - 2007
Here we identify the humpty dumpty (humdy) mouse mutant with failure to close the neural tube and optic fissure, causing exencephaly and retinal coloboma, common birth defects. The humdy mutation disrupts Phactr4, an uncharacterized protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and actin regulator family member, and the missense mutation specifically disrupts binding ...
Takashima Yasuhiro Y Laboratory for Stem Cell Biology, Riken Center for Developmental Biology, 2-2-3 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, 650-0047, - - 2007
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are defined as cells that undergo sustained in vitro growth and are able to give rise to multiple mesenchymal lineages. Although MSCs are already used in regenerative medicine little is known about their in vivo behavior and developmental derivation. Here, we show that the earliest wave ...
Kameda Yoko - - 2007
Studies of chick-quail chimeras have reported that avian ultimobranchial C cells originate from the neural crest. It has consequently been assumed, without much supporting evidence, that mammalian thyroid C cells also originate from the neural crest. To test this notion, we employed both Connexin43-lacZ and Wnt1-Cre/R26R transgenic mice, because their ...
Maertens Ophélia - - 2007
Elucidation of the biological framework underlying the development of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)-related symptoms has proved to be difficult. Complicating factors include the large size of the NF1 gene, the presence of several NF1 pseudogenes, the complex interactions between cell types, and the NF1-haploinsufficient state of all cells in the ...
Parker Mark A - - 2007
Most cases of hearing loss are caused by the death or dysfunction of one of the many cochlear cell types. We examined whether cells from a neural stem cell line could replace cochlear cell types lost after exposure to intense noise. For this purpose, we transplanted a clonal stem cell ...
Schmid Thomas - - 2007
During embryonic development post-mitotic neurons of the precerebellar neuroepithelium, migrate from the rhombic lip to the ventral part of the neural tube to form the precerebellar nuclei of the pons and medulla oblongata. In this study, we show that neural basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors NSCL-1 and -2 are expressed in ...
Asai Nobuharu - - 2007
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been reported to rescue neuroretinal cells under different toxic conditions. These cells include not only those expressing BDNF receptors (TrkB) but also those not expressing TrkB including photoreceptors. The purpose of this study was to determine the retinal sites at which BDNF and TrkB isoforms ...
Badaloni Aurora - - 2007
Improved and modular tools are needed for the neuroanatomical dissection of CNS axonal tracts, and to study the cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic cues that govern their assembly and plasticity. Here we describe a general purpose transgenic tracer that can be used to visualize axonal tracts and synaptic terminals in any region ...
Ozolek John A - - 2007
Phenotypic guidance of embryonic stem (ES) cell fate is paramount if these cells are to be used for tissue repair and regeneration. Our objective was to compare two different cell culture feeders and their effect on proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation of human (h) ES cells. HSF-6 hES cells were grown ...
Stark Danny A - - 2007
Tracing the lineage or neighbor relationships of cells in a migratory population or deep within an embryo is difficult with current methods. The recent explosion of photoactivatable fluorescent proteins (PAFPs) offers a unique cell labeling tool kit, yet their in vivo performance in intact embryos and applicability have not been ...
Comte Isabelle - - 2007
One of the most surprising aspects of neural development is that cells do not remain in their birthplace but actively migrate along a variety of routes to their final destinations. This review traces past, present, and future techniques used to analyze progenitor cell migration in the brain, and also discusses ...
Wakamatsu Yoshio - - 2007
Neuroepithelium is an apicobasally polarized tissue that contains neural stem cells and gives rise to neurons and glial cells of the central nervous system. The cleavage orientation of neural stem cells is thought to be important for asymmetric segregation of fate-determinants, such as Numb. Here, we show that an intermediate ...
Mataraza Jennifer M - - 2007
Cell migration, a highly complex physiological phenomenon that requires the co-ordinated and tightly regulated function of several proteins, is mediated by a number of signalling pathways. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of cell migration impacts our comprehension of numerous cell functions, ranging from development and immune surveillance to angiogenesis and ...
De Soma - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To examine changes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in eyes with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and specifically to characterize alphaB-crystallin expression in RPE cells as a biomarker in this disease. METHODS: Maculae from human patients diagnosed as having AMD or from age-matched control eyes were isolated, cryosectioned, and ...
Cebra-Thomas Judith A - - 2007
The origin of the turtle plastron is not known, but these nine bones have been homologized to the exoskeletal components of the clavicles, the interclavicular bone, and gastralia. Earlier evidence from our laboratory showed that the bone-forming cells of the plastron were positive for HNK-1 and PDGFRalpha, two markers of ...
Dixon Jill - - 2007
Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is an autosomal dominant disorder of craniofacial development which results from loss-of-function mutations in the gene TCOF1. TCOF1 encodes the nucleolar phosphoprotein, Treacle, which plays a key role in pre-ribosomal processing and ribosomal biogenesis. In mice, haploinsufficiency of Tcof1 results in a depletion of neural crest ...
Landman Kerry A - - 2007
The vertebrate enteric nervous system is formed by a rostro-caudally directed invasion of the embryonic gastrointestinal mesenchyme by neural crest cells. Failure to complete this invasion results in the distal intestine lacking intrinsic neurons. This potentially fatal condition is called Hirschsprung's Disease. A mathematical model of cell invasion incorporating cell ...
Hauser Anja E AE Department of Laboratory Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06511, - - 2007
Proliferation, mutation, and selection in the germinal center (GC) are thought to occur in distinct microanatomical compartments-the dark zone (DZ) and the light zone (LZ). Thus, affinity maturation has been posited to require frequent trafficking between zones. Here we report the use of multiphoton in vivo microscopy to determine migration ...
Jeffery William R - - 2007
This article reviews new insights from ascidians on the ancestry of vertebrate neural crest (NC) cells. Ascidians have neural crest-like cells (NCLC), which migrate from the dorsal midline, express some of the typical NC markers, and develop into body pigment cells. These characters suggest that primordial NC cells were already ...
Boulais Nicholas - - 2007
Merkel cells are post-mitotic cells scattered throughout the epidermis of vertebrates. They are particularly interesting because of the close connections that they develop with sensory nerve endings and the number of peptides they can secrete. These features suggest that they may make an important contribution to skin homeostasis and cutaneous ...
Tawk Marcel M Anatomy and Developmental Biology, UCL, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, - - 2007
The development of cell polarity is an essential prerequisite for tissue morphogenesis during embryogenesis, particularly in the development of epithelia. In addition, oriented cell division can have a powerful influence on tissue morphogenesis. Here we identify a novel mode of polarized cell division that generates pairs of neural progenitors with ...
Ota Kinya G - - 2007
Hagfish, which lack both jaws and vertebrae, have long been the subject of intense interest owing to their position at a crucial point in the evolutionary transition to a truly vertebrate body plan. However, unlike the comparatively well characterized vertebrate agnathan lamprey, little is known about hagfish development. The inability ...
Seval Y - - 2007
The stroma of the placental villi contain numerous macrophages, so-called Hofbauer cells which are of mesenchymal origin and are thought to function in many processes. Although there are many studies concerning placental vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, there has been a lack of evidence on the possible roles of Hofbauer cells in ...
Goddeeris Matthew M - - 2007
Cardiac outflow tract (OFT) septation is crucial to the formation of the aortic and pulmonary arteries. Defects in the formation of the OFT can result in serious congenital heart defects. Two cell populations, the anterior heart field (AHF) and cardiac neural crest cells (CNCCs), are crucial for OFT development and ...
Al-Nasiry S - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The current techniques for quantifying trophoblast viability, migration and invasion are mainly limited by the need to sacrifice the cells during the test procedure. In this study, the vital dye AB (AB) was used to quantify cell number and viability of BeWo and JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cells, as well as ...
Nakhai Hassan - - 2007
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are important regulators of retinal neurogenesis. In the developing retina, proneural bHLH genes have highly defined expressions, which are influenced by pattern formation and cell-specification pathways. We report here that the tissue-specific bHLH transcription factor Ptf1a (also known as PTF1-p48) is expressed from embryonic day ...
Lupien Caroline B - - 2007
PURPOSE: Müller cells are the principal glial cells of the retina. They span the entire thickness of the neural retina, and they are in close contact with neurons. Müller cells grow very slowly, and they undergo senescence with increasing passages. Moreover, successful primary cultures of Müller cells can be obtained ...
Oppitz Matthias - - 2007
Melanocytes originate from the neural crest. In a previous study, we observed that human SK-Mel 28 human melanoma cells resumed neural crest cell migration after transplantation into the chick embryo neural tube. Here, we used transgenic mouse B16-F1 melanoma cells transfected with green fluorescent protein-vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein construct to extend these ...
Di Lieto Antonio - - 2007
Serotonin (5-HT) is a neurotransmitter involved in a variety of CNS functions during development and in adulthood. 5-HT neurons are also involved in the pathogenesis of a number of psychiatric disorders. FLUOXETINE (FLX), a prototypic antidepressant, is a selective 5-HT uptake inhibitor (SSRI) with a demonstrated clinical efficacy in these ...
Aoki Hitomi - - 2007
The aim of this study was to investigate the developmental potential of embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived eye-like structures as a replacement cell therapy model for retinas with N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-induced damage. For this purpose mouse ES cells were induced to differentiate into eye-like structures in vitro for 10 days and co-cultured ...
García-Moreno Fernando - - 2007
The first layer that appears in the cortical neuroepithelium, the preplate, forms in the upper part of the cortex immediately below the pial surface. In mice, this layer exists between embryonic days (E) 10 and 13, and it hosts different cell populations. Here, we have studied the first cell population ...
Abe Toshiaki - - 2007
The transplantation of different types of cells into the eye to treat retinal diseases has advanced in the past 20 years. One of the types of cells used for transplantation is the iris pigment epithelial (IPE) cell, because autologous IPE cells are easily obtained and their properties are similar to ...
Mir Adnan - - 2007
The segregation of the vertebrate embryo into three primary germ layers is one of the earliest developmental decisions. In Xenopus, where the process is best understood, the endoderm is specified by a vegetally localized transcription factor, VegT, which releases nodal signals that specify the adjacent marginal zone of the blastula ...
Miron Veronique E - - 2007
Simvastatin, a lipophilic statin that crosses the blood-brain barrier, is being evaluated as a potential therapy for multiple sclerosis (MS) due to its anti-inflammatory properties. We assessed the effects of simvastatin on cultures of rat newborn and human fetal oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) and human adult mature oligodendrocytes (OLGs) with ...
Choi Murim - - 2007
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play many roles in mammalian cardiac development. Here we address the functions of Noggin, a dedicated BMP antagonist, in the developing mouse heart. In early cardiac tissues, the Noggin gene is mainly expressed in the myocardial cells of the outflow tract, atrioventricular canal, and future right ...
Niculescu Mihai D - - 2007
Diethanolamine (DEA) is a widely used ingredient in many consumer products and in a number of industrial applications. It has been previously reported that dermal administration of DEA to mice diminished hepatic stores of choline and altered brain development in the fetus. The aim of this study was to use ...
Nagy Nandor - - 2007
The hindgut enteric nervous system (ENS) contains cells originating from vagal and sacral neural crest. In avians, the sacral crest gives rise to the nerve of Remak (NoR) and pelvic plexus. Whereas the NoR has been suggested to serve as the source of sacral crest-derived cells to the gut, the ...
Harris Melissa L - - 2007
There are two principal models to explain neural crest patterning. One assumes that neural crest cells are multipotent precursors that migrate throughout the embryo and differentiate according to cues present in the local environment. A second proposes that the neural crest is a population of cells that becomes restricted to ...
Kamata Yoichi - - 2007
Nerve growth factor, retinoic acid, dibutyryl cAMP, ganglioside G(Q1b), and botulinum C3 exoenzyme were evaluated for their neural differentiating potential on human neuroblastoma GOTO cells. C3 exoenzyme is an ADP-ribosyltransferase inactivating Rho protein (a small GTP-binding protein). C3 exoenzyme caused the fastest differentiation of GOTO cells into neural cells and ...
Druckenbrod Noah R - - 2007
Neural crest-derived cells colonize the entire gastrointestinal tract. The migration of these enteric neural crest-derived cells (ENCCs) occurs by their formation of cellular strands that extend into the intestinal mesenchyme. We have studied the behavior of crest cells that underlies the formation and extension of these strands by time-lapse microscopy. ...
Takenaga Mitsuko - - 2007
The present study investigated whether plasma could be useful as a scaffold for cell transplantation in rats with spinal cord injury (SCI). Transplantation of cells with plasma promoted the recovery of SCI-induced motor dysfunction. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the grafted cells had differentiated into the neural lineage. When dissociated neural ...
Kiilgaard Jens F - - 2007
PURPOSE: To study topographical differences in porcine retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell proliferation (1) in vivo, after experimental central surgical subretinal injury, and (2) in vitro. METHODS: Domestic pigs underwent either experimental RPE debridement (n = 5), subretinal amniotic membrane transplantation (n= 4), or both (n= 1) in the left ...
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