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Results 201 - 250 of 1774
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Kuriyama Sei S Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, - - 2008
The neural crest (NC) cells have been called the 'explorers of the embryos' because they migrate all over the embryo where they differentiate into a variety of diverse kinds of cells. In this work, we analyse the role of different molecules controlling the migration of NC cells. First, we describe ...
Vazin Tandis - - 2008
Producing dopaminergic (DA) neurons is a major goal of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research. DA neurons can be differentiated from hESC by coculture with the mouse PA6 stromal cell line; this differentiation-inducing effect is termed stromal-derived inducing activity (SDIA). The molecular and biochemical nature of SDIA is, however, unknown. ...
Snelson Corey D - - 2008
Structural differences between the left and right sides of the brain exist throughout the vertebrate lineage. By studying the zebrafish pineal complex, which exhibits notable asymmetries, both the genes and the cell movements that result in left-right differences can be characterized. The pineal complex consists of the midline pineal organ ...
Thid D - - 2008
Supported phospholipid bilayers constitute a biomimetic platform for cell behavior studies and a new approach to the design of cell culture substrates. Phosphocholine bilayers are resistant to cell attachment, but can be functionalized with bioactive molecules to promote specific cell interactions. Here, we explore phosphocholine bilayers, functionalized with the laminin-derived ...
Takagi Mutsumi - - 2008
A morphological parameter of polygonal index was defined as the ratio of cell adhesion area versus the square of the major cell axis, and cells that had an adhesion area larger than 4000 mum(2) and a polygonal index larger than 0.3 were considered large polygonal cells. Cell morphology tended to ...
Milne Craig D - - 2008
As B lineage cells develop, they interact with cells, proteins, and extracellular matrix components of the surrounding microenvironment. In vitro, one critical checkpoint for developing cells occurs as they lose responsiveness to IL-7. These cells require contact with either stromal cells or other B lineage cells to mature. Our results ...
Hu Jia Sheng - - 2008
Conversions of signaling gradients into sharp "all-or-none" borders are fundamental to tissue and organismal development. However, whether such conversions can be meaningfully reduced to dissociated cells in culture has been uncertain. Here we describe ultrasensitivity, the phenomenon equivalent to an all-or-none response, in dissociated neural precursor cells (NPCs) exposed to ...
Pritz Michael B - - 2008
Using immunocytochemical methodology, cell proliferation was investigated in Alligator during early diencephalon development. These results were compared with cell proliferation during early hindbrain formation in this same species using identical techniques. The pattern of cell proliferation in the diencephalon differed from that observed in the rhombencephalon. If cell proliferation is ...
Murín Radovan - - 2008
The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs)--isoleucine, leucine, and valine--belong to the limited group of substances transported through the blood-brain barrier. One of the functions they are thought to have in brain is to serve as substrates for meeting parenchymal energy demands. Previous studies have shown the ubiquitous expression of a branched-chain ...
Kulesa Paul M - - 2008
Neural crest cell (NCC) invasion is a complex sculpting of individual cells into organized migratory streams that lead to organ development along the vertebrate axis. Key to our understanding of how molecular mechanisms modulate the NCC migratory pattern is information about cell behaviors, yet it has been challenging to selectively ...
Van den Akker Nynke M S - - 2008
We hypothesized that PDGF-B/PDGFR-beta-signaling is important in the cardiac contribution of epicardium-derived cells and cardiac neural crest, cell lineages crucial for heart development. We analyzed hearts of different embryonic stages of both Pdgf-b-/- and Pdgfr-beta-/- mouse embryos for structural aberrations with an established causal relation to defective contribution of these ...
Park Chang-Hwan - - 2008
Roles of Nurr1 and neurogenin 2 (Ngn2) have been shown in midbrain dopamine (DA) neuron development. We present here rat and mouse species-dependent differences of Nurr1 and Ngn2 actions in DA neuron differentiation. Nurr1 exogene expression caused an efficient generation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive DA cells from rat neural precursor ...
Takatsuka Atsuko - - 2008
Src family kinases (SFKs) have been implicated in the regulation of cell motility. To verify their in vivo roles during development, we generated mutant mice in which Csk, a negative regulator of SFKs, was inactivated in neural crest lineages using the Protein zero promoter in a Cre-loxP system. Inactivation of ...
Fukushima Kunihiko - - 2008
In an earlier paper [Fukushima, K., & Tohyama, K. (2005). Analysis of optic flow: a neural network model. In ICONIP 2005, International Conference on Neural Information Processing (pp. 312-317); Tohyama, K., & Fukushima, K. (2005). Neural network model for extracting 98 optic flow. Neural Networks, 18(5-6), 549-556], we proposed a ...
Allen Nicholas D ND School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Museum Avenue, Cardiff CF10 3US, UK. - - 2008
The anticipated therapeutic uses of neural stem cells depend on their ability to retain a certain level of developmental plasticity. In particular, cells must respond to developmental manipulations designed to specify precise neural fates. Studies in vivo and in vitro have shown that the developmental potential of neural progenitor cells ...
Ohta Yuki - - 2008
Transplantation of mature adipocyte-derived cells (dedifferentiated fat cells) led to marked functional recovery from spinal cord injury (SCI)-induced motor dysfunction in rats. When mature adipocytes were isolated from rat adipose tissue and grown in ceiling culture, transformation into fibroblast-like cells without lipid droplets occurred. These fibroblast-like cells, termed dedifferentiated fat ...
Zhang Siyang - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) is considered to inhibit cytokine responses and play a negative role in migration of various cells. Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (PYK2) is a non-receptor kinase and has been found crucial to cell motility. However, little is known about whether SOCS3 could regulate PYK2 ...
Arduini Brigitte L - - 2008
The development of neural crest-derived pigment cells has been studied extensively as a model for cellular differentiation, disease and environmental adaptation. Neural crest-derived chromatophores in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) consist of three types: melanophores, xanthophores and iridiphores. We have identified the zebrafish mutant endzone (enz), that was isolated in a ...
Decembrini Sarah - - 2008
Maturation of miRNAs by dicer is required in vertebrates for normal neural development. Here we report that dicer inactivation in Xenopus affects cell cycle progression, survival and timing of the generation of retinal cells, resulting in small retinas with lamination defects. In particular, dicer inactivation delays the exit from the ...
Rutishauser Urs - - 2008
Polysialic acid (PSA) is a cell-surface glycan with an enormous hydrated volume that serves to modulate the distance between cells. This regulation has direct effects on several cellular mechanisms that underlie the formation of the vertebrate nervous system, most conspicuously in the migration and differentiation of progenitor cells and the ...
Liu Yan-Qiu - - 2008
Recently, modern scientific research has been required to understand pharmacological basis of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory based on the ancient clinical experience, and to investigate the molecular mechanisms of action of Chinese herbs. Here, 20 Chinese herbs, classified into 4 properties (hot, warm, cold and cool) of TCM, were ...
Lobjois Valérie - - 2008
BACKGROUND: During the development of the nervous system, neural progenitor cells can either stay in the pool of proliferating undifferentiated cells or exit the cell cycle and differentiate. Two main factors will determine the fate of a neural progenitor cell: its position within the neuroepithelium and the time at which ...
Thiriot Aude - - 2008
In this review, we demonstrate that wild-derived mouse strains (wild-DMS) represent a useful tool for dissecting the immune system. We confirm and extend the notion that we and others have previously advanced, which is that common laboratory mice are not fully representative of the whole genus Mus. We illustrate how ...
McKay James P - - 2008
We have identified helmsman (hlm), which is expressed in the fruit fly photoreceptor cells during neural network development. Hlm is also expressed in the elongating cells of the embryonic trachea. Both photoreceptor neurons and embryonic trachea cells elongate in precise, targeted growth for cell-to-cell specific recognition. Expression of antisense hlm-interfering ...
Wong Kevin - - 2008
While microfluidic technology is reaching a new level of maturity for macromolecular assays, cell-based assays are still at an infant stage. This is largely due to the difficulty with which one can create a cell-compatible and steady microenvironment using conventional microfabrication techniques and materials. We address this problem via the ...
Patthey Cédric - - 2008
The formation of functional neural circuits that process sensory information requires coordinated development of the central and peripheral nervous systems derived from neural plate and neural plate border cells, respectively. Neural plate, neural crest and rostral placodal cells are all specified at the late gastrula stage. How the early development ...
Kabrita Colette S - - 2008
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in mammals functions as the principal circadian pacemaker synchronizing diverse physiological and behavioral processes to environmental stimuli. It consists of heterogeneous populations of cells with unique spatial organization that can vary among species, but are commonly discussed within a framework of two principal regions, the ventrolateral ...
Yang Xiu - - 2008
Neurons of cranial sensory ganglia are derived from the neural crest and ectodermal placodes, but the mechanisms that control the relative contributions of each are not understood. Crest cells of the second branchial arch generate few facial ganglion neurons and no vestibuloacoustic ganglion neurons, but crest cells in other branchial ...
Gagan Jeffrey R - - 2007
During development and growth of the neurocranium, the dura mater regulates events in the underlying brain and overlying skull by the release of soluble factors and cellular activity. Morphogenesis of the cranial bones and sutures is dependent on tissue interactions with the dura mater, which control the size and shape ...
Busch Christian - - 2007
Melanoma cells are derived from the neural crest and characterized by high migratory potential and invasive growth. To test the analogies between malignant and embryonic cell migration, in previous studies we transplanted melanoma cells and non-transformed mouse neural stem cells into the neural crest compartment of the chick embryo. Human ...
Hildreth Victoria - - 2008
Cells migrating from the neural crest are known to septate the outflow tract of the developing heart, and to contribute to the formation of the arterial valves, their supporting sinuses, the coronary arteries and cardiac neural ganglia. Neural crest cells have also been suggested to contribute to development of the ...
Carrera Iván - - 2008
We studied the development of the GABAergic system in the telencephalon of the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula using GABA and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) immunocytochemistry. The earliest GABA-expressing cells appeared in the basal telencephalon (subpallium) of stage 24 embryos. Shortly after, the subpallium showed abundant GABA-expressing neuroblasts near the meningeal surface or ...
Aoki Hitomi - - 2008
BACKGROUND: An embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived eye-like structure, made up of neural retinal lineage cells, retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, and lens cells was constructed in our laboratory. We have shown that cells from these eye-like structures can be integrated into the developing optic vesicle of chicks. The purpose of ...
Bumsted-O'Brien Keely M - - 2007
Members of the Meis subfamily of homeodomain-containing transcription factors play important roles during development and disease. Here we report that the Meis family protein Meis2 is expressed by a subpopulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic amacrine (AM) cells in the adult and embryonic retina of different vertebrate species. In mice, Meis2-expressing ...
Chen Yan-Hong - - 2007
The sperm cell of flowering plants cannot migrate unaided and must be transported by the pollen tube cell of the male gametophyte to achieve successful fertilization. Long-distance pollen tube guidance is controlled by the seven-celled female gametophyte, the embryo sac. Previous reports showed that the synergid cell of the embryo ...
Graham Anthony A MRC Centre for Developmental Neurobiology, King's College London, London SE1 1UL, - - 2007
Neurogenic placodes are specialized regions of embryonic ectoderm that generate the majority of the neurons of the cranial sensory ganglia. Here we examine in chick the mechanism underlying the delamination of cells from the epibranchial placodal ectoderm. We show that the placodal epithelium has a distinctive morphology, reflecting a change ...
Laguna Goya R - - 2008
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, characterised by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, and typically treated by dopamine replacement. This treatment, although very effective in the early stages of the disease, is not curative and has side-effects. As such there has been a search ...
Araki Masasuke - - 2007
There are several common features between the pineal organ and the lateral eye in their developmental and evolutionary aspects. The avian pineal is a photoendocrine organ that originates from the diencephalon roof and represents a transitional type between the photosensory organ of lower vertebrates and the endocrine gland of mammals. ...
Hunt David P J DP Cambridge Centre for Brain Repair, Cambridge, United Kingdom. - - 2008
Skin-derived precursor cells (SKPs) are multipotent neural crest-related stem cells that grow as self-renewing spheres and are capable of generating neurons and myelinating glial cells. SKPs are of clinical interest because they are accessible and potentially autologous. However, although spheres can be readily isolated from embryonic and neonatal skin, SKP ...
tzohary and aalster
Close up on a Microcystis colony, showing that the peripheral cells are more pigmented than the internal cells
Takebayashi-Suzuki Kimiko - - 2007
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have been shown to play a key role in controlling ectodermal cell fates by inducing epidermis at the expense of neural tissue during gastrulation. Here, we present evidence that the Xenopus POU class V transcription factor XOct-25 regulates ectodermal cell fate decisions by inhibiting the competence ...
Johnson Mahlon D - - 2007
Neural transdifferentiation is increasingly recognized in neural crest and neural stem cell tumors. Neuronal differentiation has been anecdotally described primarily in somatotroph cell adenomas associated with acromegaly, but its prevalence in adenomas and relationship to adenoma type has not been completely established. In this study we performed a retrospective morphological ...
Kawase Ayumi - - 2008
BACKGROUND: We have established two immature melanocyte cell lines from murine neural crest cells. NCC-E3 cells have Stage II melanosomes and express tyrosinase while in NCCmelb4 cells, the melanosomes remain at Stage I and tyrosinase is not expressed. These cell lines may be useful in studying the differentiation of melanocyte ...
Weiner Lorin L Cutaneous Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129, - - 2007
Mammals generate external coloration via dedicated pigment-producing cells but arrange pigment into patterns through mechanisms largely unknown. Here, using mice as models, we show that patterns ultimately emanate from dedicated pigment-receiving cells. These pigment recipients are epithelial cells that recruit melanocytes to their position in the skin and induce the ...
George Lynn - - 2007
Neural crest cells (NCCs) are a transient population of multipotent progenitors that give rise to numerous cell types in the embryo. An unresolved issue is the degree to which the fate of NCCs is specified prior to their emigration from the neural tube. In chick embryos, we identified a subpopulation ...
Epperlein Hans H - - 2007
BMP-4, a member of the TGF-beta superfamily of growth factors, is involved in various developmental processes. We investigated the effects of BMP-4 and its antagonist Noggin on axolotl trunk development. Implantation of BMP-4-coated microbeads caused inhibition of muscle and dorsal fin formation in the vicinity of the microbeads. At some ...
Correia Ana Catarina - - 2007
Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is essential for neural crest development in several vertebrates. Genetic experiments in the mouse have shown that Bmp2 is essential for the genesis of migratory neural crest cells. Using several markers and a transgenic reporter approach, we now show that neural crest cells are induced ...
Park Jung Sik - - 2007
Skeletal muscle contains several precursor cells that generate muscle, bone, cartilage and blood cells. Although there are reports that skeletal muscle-derived cells can trans-differentiate into neural-lineage cells, methods for isolating precursor cells, and procedures for successful neural induction have not been fully established. Here, we show that the preplate cell ...
Hudson Clare - - 2007
The ascidian neural plate has a grid-like organisation, with six rows and eight columns of aligned cells, generated by a series of stereotypical cell divisions. We have defined unique molecular signatures for each of the eight cells in the posterior-most two rows of the neural plate - rows I and ...
Gilbert, Scott F.
The origin of the turtle plastron is not well understood, and these nine bones have been homologized to the exoskeletal components of the clavicles, the interclavicular bone, and gastralia. Earlier data from our laboratory showed that the plastral bone-forming cells stained positively for HNK-1 and PDGFRα, two markers of skeletogenic ...
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