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Morrison Kristin M - - 2009
Merkel cells are specialized cells in the skin that are important for proper neural encoding of light touch stimuli. Conflicting evidence suggests that these cells are lineally descended from either the skin or the neural crest. To address this question, we used epidermal (Krt14(Cre)) and neural crest (Wnt1(Cre)) Cre-driver lines ...
Kulesa Paul M - - 2009
The neural crest is an excellent model system to study cell fate and cell guidance signaling. Neural crest cells emerge from a common multipotent subpopulation and follow stereotypical migratory pathways to contribute to many diverse peripheral structures throughout the vertebrate embryo. The neural tube and diverse embryonic microenvironments from which ...
Hutson Mary Redmond - - 2009
Cardiac neural crest cells (CNCC) migrate into the caudal pharynx and arterial pole of the heart to form the outflow septum. Ablation of the CNCC results in arterial pole malalignment and failure of outflow septation, resulting in a common trunk overriding the right ventricle. Unlike preotic cranial crest, the postotic ...
Scholl Ann Marie - - 2009
Cardiac neural crest cells represent a unique subpopulation of cranial neural crest cells that are specified, delaminate and migrate from the developing neural tube to the caudal pharynx where they support aortic arch artery development. From the caudal pharynx, a subset of these cells migrates into the cardiac outflow tract ...
Annenkov Alexander - - 2009
The insulin-like growth factor receptor type 1 (IGF1R) signalling pathway is activated in the mammalian nervous system from early developmental stages. Its major effect on developing neural cells is to promote their growth and survival. This pathway can integrate its action with signalling pathways of growth and morphogenetic factors that ...
Nie Shuyi S Division of Biology 139-74, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, - - 2009
The neural crest is a highly migratory cell population, unique to vertebrates, that forms much of the craniofacial skeleton and peripheral nervous system. In exploring the cell biological basis underlying this behavior, we have identified an unconventional myosin, myosin-X (Myo10) that is required for neural crest migration. Myo10 is highly ...
Huber Katrin - - 2009
Chromaffin cells are neuroendocrine cells, which are highly specialized for the synthesis and release of multiple hormones. Like sympathetic neurons, which are essential, inter alia, for neural control of vascular tone, they are derivatives of the neural crest, a transient structure at the dorsal surface of the embryonic neural tube. ...
Cimadamore Flavio F Burnham Institute for Medical Research, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. - - 2009
Abundant cell death is observed when human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) undergo neuralization, a critical first step for future cell-based therapies addressing neurodegeneration. Using hESC neuralization as an in vitro model of human development, we demonstrated that the developing neuroepithelium acquires increased susceptibility to spontaneous cell death. We found that ...
Morsczeck Christian - - 2010
Dental stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) and dental follicle cells (DFCs) are neural crest-derived stem cells from human dental tissues. Interestingly, SHED and DFCs can successfully differentiate into neuron-like cells. We hypothesized that SHED and DFCs have the same neural cell differentiation potentials. To evaluate neural cell ...
Roberts Randolph K - - 2009
During development, neural precursors divide to produce new precursors and cells that differentiate as neurons and glia. In Drosophila, apicobasal polarity and orientation of the mitotic spindle play important roles in specifying the progeny of neural precursors for different fates. We examined orientation of zebrafish spinal cord precursors using time-lapse ...
Mühlenhoff Martina - - 2009
Polysialic acid (polySia) is a major regulator of cell-cell interactions in the developing nervous system and a key factor in maintaining neural plasticity. As a polyanionic molecule with high water binding capacity, polySia increases the intercellular space and creates conditions that are permissive for cellular plasticity. While the prevailing model ...
Defino Helton L A - - 2009
STUDY DESIGN: Osteoblastic cells derived from vertebral lamina and iliac crest were isolated and cultured under the same conditions (osteogenic medium, pH, temperature, and CO2 levels). OBJECTIVE: To compare proliferation and expression of osteoblastic phenotype of cells derived from vertebral lamina and iliac grafting. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Many factors ...
Drerup Catherine M - - 2009
This work reports the characterization and functional analysis of disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (disc1), a well-documented schizophrenia-susceptibility gene, in zebrafish cranial neural crest (CNC). Our data demonstrated that disc1 was expressed in zebrafish CNC cells. Loss of Disc1 resulted in persistent CNC cell medial migration, dorsal to the developing neural ...
Poché Ross A - - 2009
A group of retinal interneurons known as horizontal cells has recently been shown to exhibit a variety of unique biological properties, as compared with other nerve cells, that challenge many long-standing assumptions in the fields of neural development and cancer biology. These features include their unusual migratory behavior, their unique ...
Olesnicky Killian Eugenia C EC Department of Craniofacial Biology, University of Colorado Denver School of Dental Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045, - - 2009
Neural crest cells (NCCs) are a unique population of multipotent cells that migrate along defined pathways throughout the embryo and give rise to many diverse cell types including pigment cells, craniofacial cartilage and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Aberrant migration of NCCs results in a wide variety of congenital birth ...
Sanders Esmond J - - 2010
We have previously shown that growth hormone (GH) is produced within cells of the chick embryo retina where it appears to act as an autocrine/paracrine anti-apoptotic factor in the regulation of programmed cell death during retinal development. These investigations were carried out on cultured chick embryo retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) ...
Kashef Jubin J Zoologisches Institut II, Universität Karlsruhe (TH), 76131 Karlsruhe, - - 2009
Xenopus Cadherin-11 (Xcad-11) is expressed when cranial neural crest cells (CNC) acquire motility. However, its function in stimulating cell migration is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that Xcad-11 initiates filopodia and lamellipodia formation, which is essential for CNC to populate pharyngeal pouches. We identified the cytoplasmic tail of Xcad-11 as ...
Liard Olivier - - 2009
In order to improve cell therapy techniques, we have characterized a multipotent neural precursor cell isolation technique from the subventricular zone of adult pig brain. The pig is a non-primate species that is immunologically closest to human. The proliferative zone of this neurogenic structure was first localized in situ in ...
Garcia-Lopez P - - 2009
Since their discovery by Cajal in 1889, the Interstitial Cells of Cajal (ICC) have generated much controversy in the scientific community. Indeed, the nervous, muscle or fibroblastic nature of the ICC has remained under debate for more than a century, as has their possible physiological function. Cajal and his colleagues ...
Ahlstrom Jon D - - 2009
An epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is the process whereby epithelial cells become mesenchymal cells, and is typified by the generation of neural crest cells from the neuroepithelium of the dorsal neural tube. To investigate the neural crest EMT, we performed live cell confocal time-lapse imaging to determine the sequence of cellular ...
Lee Wonhye - - 2009
We present a direct cell printing technique to pattern neural cells in a three-dimensional (3D) multilayered collagen gel. A layer of collagen precursor was printed to provide a scaffold for the cells, and the rat embryonic neurons and astrocytes were subsequently printed on the layer. A solution of sodium bicarbonate ...
Appolloni Irene - - 2009
We describe the generation of mouse gliomas following the overexpression of PDGF-B in embryonic neural progenitors. Our histopathological, immunohistochemical and genome-wide expression analyses revealed a surprising uniformity among PDGF-B induced tumors, despite they were generated by transducing a highly heterogeneous population of progenitor cells known for their ability to produce ...
Chen Meizhen - - 2009
Neurogenesis during development depends on the coordinated regulation of self-renewal and differentiation of neural precursor cells (NPCs). Chromatin regulation is a key step in self-renewal activity and fate decision of NPCs. However, the molecular mechanism or mechanisms of this regulation is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate for the first ...
Qian Xiang - - 2009
Automatic segmentation and tracking systems can be useful tools for biologists to monitor and understand the proliferation and the differentiation of neural stem cells. This paper applied the self-organizing map-based multi-thresholding on the neural stem cells images. Using local variance as the local spatial feature and quadtree decomposition as the ...
Völlner Florian - - 2009
Human dental follicle cells (DFCs) derived from wisdom teeth are precursor cells for cementoblasts. In this study, we recognized that naïve DFCs express constitutively the early neural cell marker beta-III-tubulin. Interestingly, DFCs formed beta-III-tubulin-positive neurosphere-like cell clusters (NLCCs) on low-attachment cell culture dishes in serum-replacement medium (SRM). For a detailed ...
Shioi Go - - 2009
In mammalian brain development, neuroepithelial cells act as progenitors that produce self-renewing and differentiating cells. Recent technical advances in live imaging and gene manipulation now enable us to investigate how neural progenitors generate the 2 different types of cells with unprecedented accuracy and resolution, shedding new light on the roles ...
Büchmann-Møller Stine - - 2009
During vertebrate development, neural crest cells are exposed to multiple extracellular cues that drive their differentiation into neural and non-neural cell lineages. Insights into the signals potentially involved in neural crest cell fate decisions in vivo have been gained by cell culture experiments that have allowed the identification of instructive ...
Chao Daniel L - - 2009
The wiring of the nervous system requires a complex orchestration of developmental events. Emerging evidence suggests that transient cell-cell interactions often serve as positional cues for axon guidance and synaptogenesis during the assembly of neural circuits. In contrast to the relatively stable cellular interactions between synaptic partners in mature circuits, ...
Clarke Jon J MRC Centre for Developmental Neurobiology, King's College London, New Hunt's House, 4th Floor, Guy's Hospital Campus, SE1 1UL London, United Kingdom. - - 2009
Development of epithelial cell polarity and morphogenesis of a central lumen are essential prerequisites for the formation of the vertebrate neural tube. In teleost fish embryos this first involves the formation of a solid neural rod structure that then undergoes a process of cavitation to form a lumen. This process ...
Jain K K - - 2009
Cell therapy plays an important role in multidisciplinary management of the two major forms of central nervous system (CNS) injury, traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury, which are caused by external physical trauma. Cell therapy for CNS disorders involves the use of cells of neural or non-neural origin to ...
Yoneyama Masanori - - 2009
Neural progenitor cells play an essential role in both the developing embryonic nervous system and in the adult brain, where the capacity for self-renewal would be important for normal brain functions. In the present study, we used embryonic cortical neural progenitor cells to investigate the effects of trimethyltin chloride (TMT) ...
Wang Stephanie M - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Brain ischemia is the underlying cause of neuron death during stroke and brain trauma. Neural cells exposed to ischemia can undergo apoptosis. Adrenomedullin (AM) in combination with its enhancing binding protein, AMBP-1, has been shown to reduce tissue damage in inflammation. METHODS: To evaluate a beneficial effect of AM/AMBP-1 ...
Grimbly Chelsey - - 2009
Neuroblastoma cells are undifferentiated cells derived from the neural crest and are commonly used as models for studying neural function. Mouse N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells are derived from cancerous tissue and provide a model for studying the oncogenesis of neural cells. As growth hormone (GH) has been implicated as an autocrine ...
López-Barneo José - - 2009
The carotid body (CB) is a neural crest-derived organ whose major function is to sense changes in arterial O(2) tension to elicit hyperventilation during hypoxia. The CB is composed of clusters of neuron-like glomus, or type I, cells that are highly dopaminergic and contain large amounts of the glial cell ...
Kanemitsu H - - 2009
6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP), one of the major drugs for the therapy of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and autoimmune diseases, is incorporated as thioguanine in nucleic acid and it induces cytotoxicity and fetotoxicity. In the present study, pregnant rats were treated with 50 mg/kg of 6-MP on 13 embryonic days (E), and fetuses ...
Yang Yung-Yu - - 2009
The cell distribution and immunoreactivity (ir) against period (PER), pigment dispersing factor (PDF) and corazonin (CRZ), were compared between adults and nymphs in the central nervous system of the German cockroach. Although PER-ir cells in the optic lobes (OL) were expressed in the nymphs from the first instar, the links ...
Deng Xiaoyong - - 2009
Given the intensive application of nanoscale zinc oxide (ZnO) materials in our life, growing concerns have arisen about its unintentional health and environmental impacts. In this study, the neurotoxicity of different sized ZnO nanoparticles in mouse neural stem cells (NSCs) was investigated. A cell viability assay indicated that ZnO nanoparticles ...
Francis Peter J - - 2009
Cell-based therapy rescues retinal structure and function in rodent models of retinal disease, but translation to clinical practice will require more information about the consequences of transplantation in an eye closely resembling the human eye. The authors explored donor cell behavior using human cortical neural progenitor cells (hNPC(ctx)) introduced into ...
Azman Mohd S - - 2009
Neurogenesis involves cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest, differentiation, migration and the natural developmental death of the neural precursors. These processes are highly co-ordinated and governed by cell-cycle genes and neural transcription factors. Zn plays a crucial role as a functional and structural component of enzymes and transcription factors and components ...
Namba R M - - 2009
Three-dimensional polymer scaffolds are useful culture systems for neural cell growth and can provide permissive substrates that support neural processes as they extend across lesions in the brain and spinal cord. Degradable poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG) gels have been identified as a particularly promising scaffold material for this purpose; however, process ...
Yin Yili - - 2009
The chicken talpid(3) mutant, with polydactyly and defects in other embryonic regions that depend on hedgehog (Hh) signalling (e.g. the neural tube), has a mutation in KIAA0568. Similar phenotypes are seen in mice and in human syndromes with mutations in genes that encode centrosomal or intraflagella transport proteins. Such mutations ...
Vasilyev Aleksandr - - 2009
Tissue organization in epithelial organs is achieved during development by the combined processes of cell differentiation and morphogenetic cell movements. In the kidney, the nephron is the functional organ unit. Each nephron is an epithelial tubule that is subdivided into discrete segments with specific transport functions. Little is known about ...
Linker Claudia C Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University College London, Gower Street (Anatomy Building), London WC1E 6BT, UK. - - 2009
In Xenopus, the animal cap is very sensitive to BMP antagonists, which result in neuralization. In chick, however, only cells at the border of the neural plate can be neuralized by BMP inhibition. Here we compare the two systems. BMP antagonists can induce neural plate border markers in both ventral ...
Eldi Preethi - - 2009
It is now clear that the adult central nervous system contains a population of neural stem and progenitor cells which act as a reservoir to underpin cell genesis for the lifetime of the animal. Unfortunately, understanding how these cells are activated both under normal conditions and following injury or disease ...
McConnell Michael J - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Existing quantitative models of mouse cerebral cortical development are not fully constrained by experimental data. RESULTS: Here, we use simple difference equations to model neural progenitor cell fate decisions, incorporating intermediate progenitor cells and initially low rates of neural progenitor cell death. Also, we conduct a sensitivity analysis to ...
Lee William - - 2009
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) due to their unique properties have sparked interest for their use in biomedical applications in recent years. In particular, the use of CNTs as substrates/scaffolds for neural cell growth has been an area of active research over the past decade. CNTs, either native or functionalized with various ...
Adams Meghan Sara - - 2009
The neural crest is a pluripotent population of cells that arises at the junction of the neural tube and the dorsal ectoderm. These highly migratory cells form diverse derivatives including neurons and glia of the sensory, sympathetic, and enteric nervous systems, melanocytes, and the bones, cartilage, and connective tissues of ...
Nikitina Natalya - - 2009
The neural crest is a multipotent migratory embryonic cell population that is present in all vertebrates, but missing from basal chordates. In this chapter, we discuss recent work in amphioxus, ascidians, lamprey, and gnathostomes that reflects the current state of knowledge of the evolutionary origin of this fascinating cell population. ...
Duband Jean-Loup - - 2009
As opposed to the neural crest, the neural epithelium is generally viewed as a static and cohesive structure. Here, using an ex vivo system free of the environmental influences and physical constraints encountered in the embryo, we show that neural epithelial cells are on the contrary intrinsically motile, although they ...
Rieske Piotr - - 2009
Although features of variable differentiation in glioblastoma cell cultures have been reported, a comparative analysis of differentiation properties of normal neural GFAP positive progenitors, and those shown by glioblastoma cells, has not been performed. Following methods were used to compare glioblastoma cells and GFAP+NNP (NHA): exposure to neural differentiation medium, ...
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