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Janelsins Michelle C MC Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, New York 14642, USA. - - 2010
Chemotherapeutic agents produce persistent difficulties in memory through an unknown mechanism. We tested the hypothesis that chemotherapeutic agents readily able to cross the blood-brain barrier (cyclophosphamide and fluorouracil), as opposed to those not known to readily cross the barrier (paclitaxel and doxorubicin), reduce neural cell proliferation following chemotherapy. We found ...
Curran Kevin K Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-7420, - - 2010
Pigment cells of the zebrafish, Danio rerio, offer an exceptionally tractable system for studying the genetic and cellular bases of cell fate decisions. In the zebrafish, neural crest cells generate three types of pigment cells during embryogenesis: yellow xanthophores, iridescent iridophores and black melanophores. In this study, we present evidence ...
Martinez-Morales Patricia L - - 2010
Genes of the SOX family of high-mobility group transcription factors are essential during nervous system development. In this study, we show that SOX5 is expressed by neural progenitors in the chick spinal cord and is turned off as differentiation proceeds. The overexpression of SOX5 in neural progenitors causes premature cell ...
Inoue Shogo - - 2010
Neural crest-derived cells are believed to migrate into the fetal adrenal cortex from the medially-located hilus. However, there appears to be a paucity of observations of the migration and distribution of medullary cells in humans. In sagittal as well as horizontal sections of human fetuses between 9 and 16 weeks ...
Gammill Laura S - - 2010
Neural crest cells, the migratory precursors of numerous cell types including the vertebrate peripheral nervous system, arise in the dorsal neural tube and follow prescribed routes into the embryonic periphery. While the timing and location of neural crest migratory pathways has been well documented in the trunk, a comprehensive collection ...
Tsai Shang-Yi - - 2010
Opioids have been demonstrated to play an important role in CNS development by affecting proliferation and differentiation in various types of neural cells. This study examined the effect of a stable delta opioid peptide [D-Ala(2), D-Leu(5)]-enkephalin (DADLE) on proliferation and differentiation in an AF5 CNS neural progenitor cell line derived ...
Yao Xing - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Embryonic stem (ES) cells poss unlimited self-renewal capacity and the ability to differentiate into cell of all three germ layers in vitro. Induced differentiation of ES cells to neural lineage cells has great potential in basic study of neurogenesis and regeneration therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors ...
Meamar Rokhsareh - - 2010
"Ecstasy" or methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is primarily a recreational drug commonly used during the child bearing period, thus, there is a major concern regarding the embryonic and fetal toxicity of this drug. Here, we report the cardio- and neuro-toxic effects of MDMA on beating embryoid bodies (EBs) and neural cell-containing EBs ...
Ernfors Patrik - - 2010
Melanocytes are derived from the neural crest (NC), which are transient multipotent cells arising by delamination from the developing dorsal neural tube. During recent years, signaling systems and molecular mechanisms of melanocyte development have been studied in detail, but the exact diversification of the NC into melanocytes and how they ...
Kurosaka Satoshi - - 2010
Coordinated cell migration during development is crucial for morphogenesis and largely relies on cells of the neural crest lineage that migrate over long distances to give rise to organs and tissues throughout the body. Recent studies of protein arginylation implicated this poorly understood posttranslational modification in the functioning of actin ...
Thomas Penny S - - 2010
The small GTP-binding protein Rac1, a member of the Rho family of small GTPases, has been implicated in regulation of many cellular processes including adhesion, migration and cytokinesis. These functions have largely been attributed to its ability to reorganize cytoskeleton. While the function of Rac1 is relatively well known in ...
Lipinski Robert J - - 2010
Evidence from mechanical, teratological, and genetic experimentation demonstrates that holoprosencephaly (HPE) typically results from insult prior to the time that neural tube closure is completed and occurs as a consequence of direct or indirect insult to the rostral prechordal cells that induce the forebrain or insult to the median forebrain ...
Zehir Ahmet - - 2010
The neural crest (NC) lineage gives rise to a wide array of cell types ranging from neurons and glia of the peripheral nervous system to skeletal elements of the head. The mechanisms regulating NC differentiation into such a large number of cell types remain largely unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play key ...
Mumaw Jennifer L - - 2010
Neurodegerative disorders affect millions of people worldwide. Neural cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) have the potential for cell therapies and/or compound screening for treating affected individuals. While both protein and gene expression indicative of a neural phenotype has been exhibited in these differentiated cells, ultrastuctural studies thus ...
Gondi Christopher S - - 2010
Despite advances in clinical therapies and technologies, the prognosis for patients with malignant glioma is poor. Neural stem cells (NSCs) have a chemotactic tropism toward glioma cells. The use of NSCs as carriers of therapeutic agents for gliomas is currently being explored. Here, we demonstrate that cells isolated from the ...
Tsuda Sachiko - - 2010
During the development of the vertebrate nervous system, mitosis of neural progenitor cells takes place near the lumen, the apical side of the neural tube, through a characteristic movement of nuclei known as interkinetic nuclear migration (INM). Furthermore, during the proliferative period, neural progenitor cells exhibit planar cell divisions to ...
Gordon Julie - - 2010
The thymus and parathyroids are pharyngeal endoderm-derived organs that develop from common organ primordia, which undergo a series of morphological events resulting in separate organs in distinct locations in the embryo. Previous gene expression and functional analyses have suggested a role for BMP4 signaling in early thymus organogenesis. We have ...
Aihara Yuko - - 2010
The neural crest (NC) is a group of cells located in the neural folds at the boundary between the neural and epidermal ectoderm. NC cells differentiate into a vast range of cells,including neural cells, smooth muscle cells, bone and cartilage cells of the maxillofacial region, and odontoblasts. The molecular mechanisms ...
Tate Ciara C - - 2010
Cell transplantation is a promising treatment strategy for many neurological disorders, including stroke, which can target multiple therapeutic mechanisms in a sustained fashion. We investigated the ability of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and MSC-derived SB623 cells to rescue neural cells via trophic support following an in vitro stroke model. ...
Puy Leonie du - - 2010
Here we report the culture and differentiation of porcine neural cells derived from the inner cell masses (ICMs) of blastocyst-stage embryos. Manually dissected ICMs were cultured on feeder layers of inactivated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Neural rosette-like structures were selected and passaged mechanically. These structures were transient and disappeared after ...
Anderson Richard B - - 2010
The enteric nervous system is derived from neural crest cells that emigrate from the hindbrain, enter the foregut and colonise the entire length of the gastrointestinal tract. Previous studies have shown that although enteric neural crest-derived cells migrate in chains, they have the ability to detach from their existing chain ...
Peña-Altamira Emiliano - - 2010
Recent evidence suggests that nitric oxide (NO) has a remarkable anti-proliferative action towards dividing neural precursor cells as well as towards cells giving rise to neural-derived tumors. The present paper summarizes essential literature-derived information on this issue and provides novel experimental evidence for these NO-mediated actions regarding a well characterized ...
Olson Wendy M - - 2010
Microgravity (microG) is known to influence cytoskeletal structure, but its effects on cell migration are not well understood. To examine the effects of altered gravity on neural crest cell (NCC) migration, we inserted Xenopus laevis embryos into two separate microG-simulating slow turning lateral vessels (STLVs) just before neurulation (stage 11-12), ...
Chen Ching-Wen - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Neural induction is a complex process and the detailed mechanism of FGF-induced neurogenesis remains unclear. METHODS: By using a serum-free neural induction method, we showed that FGF1 dose-dependently promoted the induction of Sox1/N-cadherin/nestin triple positive cells, which represent primitive neuroblasts, from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. RESULTS: We demonstrated ...
Bishop Cory D - - 2010
Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a ubiquitously expressed molecular chaperone that controls the folding, assembly and activity of proteins, many of which are involved in signal transduction. Recent work has shown that HSP90 is present extracellularly, indicating a heretofore under-appreciated requirement for extracellular chaperoning, particularly among migratory cells. We ...
Andersen Erica - - 2010
The zebrafish is an ideal model for imaging cell behaviors during development in vivo. Zebrafish embryos are externally fertilized and thus easily accessible at all stages of development. Moreover, their optical clarity allows high resolution imaging of cell and molecular dynamics in the natural environment of the intact embryo. We ...
Etheridge L Alton - - 2010
Dispatched 1 (Disp1) encodes a twelve transmembrane domain protein that is required for long-range sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling. Inhibition of Disp1 function, both by RNAi or dominant-negative constructs, prevents secretion and results in the accumulation of Shh in source cells. Measuring the Shh response in neuralized embryoid bodies (EBs) derived ...
Shibata Shinsuke - - 2010
While several mouse strains have recently been developed for tracing neural crest or oligodendrocyte lineages, each strain has inherent limitations. The connection between human SOX10 mutations and neural crest cell pathogenesis led us to focus on the Sox10 gene, which is critical for neural crest development. We generated Sox10-Venus BAC ...
Reyes Michelle M Biology Dept, California State University Northridge, Northridge, CA 91330, - - 2010
The neural crest is a group of multipotent cells that emerges after an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition from the dorsal neural tube early during development. These cells then migrate throughout the embryo, giving rise to a wide variety derivatives including the peripheral nervous system, craniofacial skeleton, pigment cells, and endocrine organs. While ...
Degistirici Ozer - - 2010
Human tooth contains a distinct population of neural crest-derived progenitor cells (dNC-PCs) which are known to give rise to specialized daughter cells of an osteogenic lineage. We hypothesised that dNC-PCs could develop into neural crest-derived bone in a self-propagating and extracorporal culture system. Thus, we examined the three-dimensional structure obtained ...
Qian Dong-Xiang - - 2010
The aim of this study was to compare the neural differentiation potential and the expression of neurotrophic factors (NTFs) in differentiated adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) using three established induction protocols, serum free (Protocol 1), chemical reagents (Protocol 2), and spontaneous (Protocol 3) protocols. Protocol 1 produced the highest percentage of ...
Choi Youngsil - - 2010
Expression of the cell surface adhesion receptor syndecan-2 is known to be involved in the regulation of cancer cell migration. However, the molecular mechanism of syndecan-2-mediated cell migration remains unknown. Here we report that Rac contributes to the regulation of syndecan-2-mediated cancer cell migration. Overexpression of syndecan-2 enhanced migration and ...
Iwata Jun-ichi - - 2010
Transforming growth factor-beta (Tgf-beta) signaling is crucial for regulating craniofacial development. Loss of Tgf-beta signaling results in defects in cranial neural crest cells (CNCC), but the mechanism by which Tgf-beta signaling regulates bone formation in CNCC-derived osteogenic cells remains largely unknown. In this study, we discovered that Tgf-beta regulates the ...
Shi P - - 2009
Mechanical cues may have important roles in tissue morphogenesis; progression through complex functions like differentiation may be associated with changes in cellular force generation and mechanosensing. To explore this concept, we use elastomer pillar arrays to map forces generated by neural stem cells in vitro, and identify two distinct dynamics ...
Mitreci? Dinko - - 2009
Common pathological features of neurodegenerative diseases are progressive dysfunction and neuronal death. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), motor neurons are selectively affected, leading to death because of paralysis. The main therapeutic goal in neurodegenerative diseases is to diminish neural dysfunction and to replace non-functional cells with the new ones. "Cell-oriented" ...
Zhang Hong-Tian - - 2009
Controversies exist concerning the need for mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to be transdifferentiated prior to their transplantation. In the present study, we compared the results of grafting into the rat contused spinal cord undifferentiated, adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (uADSCs) versus ADSCs induced by two different protocols to form differentiated nervous ...
Garcez Ricardo Castilho - - 2009
Proliferation of neural crest (NC) stem cells and their subsequent differentiation into different neural cell types are key early events in the development of the peripheral nervous system. Soluble growth factors present at the sites where NC cells migrate are critical to the development of NC derivatives in each part ...
Haldin Caroline E CE Dept. of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Cell Biology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, - - 2010
Neural crest cells are the primary innovation that led to evolution of the vertebrates, and transcription factors of the SoxE family (Sox8, Sox9 and Sox10) are among the central players regulating the development of these cells. In all vertebrates examined to date, one or more SoxE proteins are required for ...
Aman Andy - - 2010
During development, functional structures must form with the correct three-dimensional geometry composed of the correct cell types. In many cases cell types are specified at locations distant to where they will ultimately reside for normal biological function. Although cell migration is crucial for normal development and morphogenesis of animal body ...
Ishido Masami - - 2010
Parkinson disease is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder. Although the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are incompletely understood, it has been suggested that environmental origins of sporadic Parkinson disease occur early in life. Here we examined the in vitro effects of the environmental dopaminergic toxin rotenone on neural stem cells, derived from the ...
Choi D S - - 2009
We developed a nanoscale neural probing device for in vitro sensing of neural activity. Single vertical platinum (Pt) nanowires were fabricated on a microelectrode array by focused ion beam (FIB)-chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in order to improve the spatial resolution of recording and to minimize damage to the cells. Rat ...
Ahlstrom Jon D - - 2009
By developing a technique for imaging the avian neural crest epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), we have discovered cellular behaviors that challenge current thinking on this important developmental event, including the probability that complete disassembly of the adherens junctions may not control whether or not a neural epithelial cell undergoes an EMT. ...
Nichane Massimo - - 2010
A complex set of extracellular signals is required for neural crest (NC) specification. However, how these signals function to coordinate cell-cycle progression and differentiation remains poorly understood. Here, we report in Xenopus a role for the transcription factor signal transducers and activators of transcription-3 (Stat3) in this process downstream of ...
Adameyko Igor - - 2009
Current opinion holds that pigment cells, melanocytes, are derived from neural crest cells produced at the dorsal neural tube and that migrate under the epidermis to populate all parts of the skin. Here, we identify growing nerves projecting throughout the body as a stem/progenitor niche containing Schwann cell precursors (SCPs) ...
Su Yuhong - - 2009
The neural crest is a multipotent population of migratory cells that arises in the central nervous system and subsequently migrates along defined stereotypic pathways. In the present work, we analyzed the role of a repulsive axon guidance protein, draxin, in the migration of neural crest cells. Draxin is expressed in ...
Chung Kuei-Fang - - 2009
Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla are neural crest-derived cells of the sympathoadrenal lineage. Unlike the closely-related sympathetic neurons, a subpopulation of proliferation-competent cells exists even in the adult. Here, we describe the isolation, expansion, and in vitro characterization of proliferation-competent progenitor cells from the bovine adrenal medulla. Similar to ...
Dup?? Val??rie - - 2009
Previous work has emphasized the crucial role of retinoic acid (RA) in the ontogenesis of the vast majority of mesenchymal structures derived from the neural crest cells (NCC), which migrate through, or populate, the frontonasal process and branchial arches. Using somatic mutagenesis in the mouse, we have selectively ablated two ...
Guo Chang-Mei - - 2009
PURPOSE: The migration of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells is an initial step in the development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). We investigated the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in an in vitro model of wound healing and effects of recombinant human CTGF (rhCTGF) on modulating migration and Ca(2+) ...
Hunt David P J - - 2009
Skin-derived precursor cells (SKPs) are a novel population of neural crest-related precursor cells that can be isolated from embryonic and adult skin. SKPs are capable of generating neuronal, glial and mesodermal progeny. Fate mapping and microdissection experiments have demonstrated a neural crest origin of SKPs within defined niches in adult ...
Hwang Yoo-Seok - - 2009
Myosin-X (MyoX) belongs to a large family of unconventional, nonmuscle, actin-dependent motor proteins. We show that MyoX is predominantly expressed in cranial neural crest (CNC) cells in embryos of Xenopus laevis and is required for head and jaw cartilage development. Knockdown of MyoX expression using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides resulted in ...
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