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Results 451 - 500 of 1774
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McManus Matthew F - - 2005
Normal central nervous system development is dependent on extensive cell migration. Cells born in the proliferative ventricular zone migrate radially along specialized glial processes to their final locations. In contrast, most inhibitory interneurons found in the adult mammalian cerebral cortex and some other structures migrate along a nonradial pathway and ...
Osborne Nicola J - - 2005
Within the hindbrain region, neural crest cell migration is organized into three streams that follow the segmentation of the neuroepithelium into distinct rhombomeric compartments. Although the streaming of neural crest cells is known to involve signals derived from the neuroepithelium, the molecular properties underlying this process are poorly understood. Here, ...
Gross Joshua B - - 2005
As a step toward resolving the developmental origin of the ossified skull in adult anurans, we performed a series of cell labeling and grafting studies of the cranial neural crest (CNC) in the clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. We employ an indelible, fixative-stable fluorescent dextran as a cell marker to follow ...
Placzek Marysia M Centre for Developmental and Biomedical Genetics, Department of Biomedical Science, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK. - - 2005
One of the key organizers in the CNS is the floor plate - a group of cells that is responsible for instructing neural cells to acquire distinctive fates, and that has an important role in establishing the elaborate neuronal networks that underlie the function of the brain and spinal cord. ...
Roeb Elke - - 2005
To study the effect of gelatinases (especially MMP-9) on migration of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) overexpressing hepatoma cells. Wild type HepG2 cells, cells stably transfected with TIMP-1 and TIMP-1 antagonist (MMP-9-H401A, a catalytically inactive matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) which still binds and neutralizes TIMP-1) were incubated in Boyden chambers either ...
Young H M - - 2005
Neural crest cells that originate in the caudal hindbrain migrate into and along the developing gastrointestinal tract to form the enteric nervous system. While they are migrating, neural-crest-derived cells are also proliferating. Previous studies have shown that the expression of glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and endothelin-3 is highest in the ...
Chiba Shunmei S Department of Immunology, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, 2-16-1 Sugao, 216-8511 Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki, - - 2005
We developed neural tube-like structures accompanying neural crest-like cells by treating embryonic stem (ES) cells with retinoic acid. The structures contained pseudostratified Nestin+Vimentin+ neuroepithelial cells surrounded by Masson staining+ basement membrane. betaIIItubulin+Synaptophysin+ mature neurons and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)+ glial cells dispersed outside of the membrane. Addition of Noggin ...
Hinoue Atsushi - - 2005
In vertebrate embryos, neural crest cells emigrate out of the neural tube and contribute to the formation of a variety of neural and nonneural tissues. Some neural crest cells undergo apoptotic death during migration, but its biological significance and the underlying mechanism are not well understood. We carried out an ...
Odenwald Ward F - - 2005
One of the longstanding goals of neurobiologists is to describe, in molecular terms, how a neural progenitor cell (NPC) can generate an ordered series of uniquely fated neurons and glia. Recent studies reveal that many, or all, neural-subtype identities can be linked to sequentially changing regulatory programs within NPCs. Two ...
Ward Ellen J - - 2005
The Drosophila egg chamber provides an excellent model for studying the link between patterning and morphogenesis. Late in oogenesis, a portion of the flat follicular epithelium remodels to form two tubes; secretion of eggshell proteins into the tube lumens creates the dorsal appendages. Two distinct cell types contribute to dorsal ...
Lee Vivian M - - 2005
Lineage diversification in the vertebrate neural crest may occur via instructive signals acting on pluripotent cells, and/or via early specification of subpopulations towards particular lineages. Mesencephalic neural crest cells normally form cholinergic parasympathetic neurons in the ciliary ganglion, while trunk neural crest cells normally form both catecholaminergic and cholinergic neurons ...
Mallat Michel - - 2005
Cell corpses generated during CNS development are eliminated through phagocytosis performed by a variety of cells, including mesenchyme-derived macrophages and microglia, or glial cells originating in the neurogenic ectoderm. Mounting evidence indicates that in different species, phagocytes not only clear cell corpses but also engulf still-living neural cells or axons, ...
Cheung Martin M Developmental Neurobiology, National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London, NW7 1AA, - - 2005
Trunk neural crest cells are generated at the border between the neural plate and nonneural ectoderm, where they initiate a distinct program of gene expression, undergo an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and delaminate from the neuroepithelium. Here, we provide evidence that members of three families of transcription induce these properties in ...
Yeo Weeteck - - 2005
Early neural cell death is programmed cell death occurring within proliferating and undifferentiated neural progenitors. Little is known about the regulation and role of early neural cell death. In Xenopus embryos, primary neurogenesis is disrupted following the inhibition of early neural cell death, indicating that it is required for normal ...
Arduini, Brigitte L
The neural crest (NC) of vertebrate animals gives rise to many derivatives, including pigment cells, peripheral neurons, glia and elements of the craniofacial skeleton. The generation of NC-derived cells has been studied extensively to elucidate mechanisms involved in cell fate specification, differentiation, migration and survival. Zebrafish trpm7/touchtone, endzone, and foxd3/sympathetic ...
Mellough, Carla Bernadette
[Truncated abstract] Microenvironmental changes associated with apoptotic neural degeneration may instruct a proportion of newly transplanted donor cells to differentiate towards the fate of the deteriorating host cellular phenotype. In the work described in this thesis, this hypothesis was tested by inducing apoptotic retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death in neonatal ...
Trainor Paul A - - 2005
Craniofacial evolution is considered fundamental to the origin of vertebrates and central to this process was the formation of a migratory, multipotent cell population known as the neural crest. The number of cell types that arise from the neural crest is truly astonishing as is the number of tissues and ...
Guidry Clyde - - 2005
Despite advances in surgical management of fibrocontractive retinal disorders, proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) remain major causes of blindness and there is still considerable uncertainty about the origins and roles of the cell types involved. Muller cells and cells identified as retinal glia are consistently identified in ...
Burns Alan J - - 2005
The enteric nervous system, the intrinsic innervation of the gastrointestinal tract, consists of large numbers of phenotypically diverse neurons and glial cells, arranged in complex interconnecting plexuses situated between the smooth muscle layers of the gut wall. Recently, the enteric nervous system has attracted much attention from developmental biologists whose ...
Akagi Tadamichi - - 2005
While a number of retinal transplantation studies using various types of donor cells have been performed thus far, our study focused on iris tissue as a donor cell source. This is because donor cells from iris pigment epithelium have the following characteristics: (1) they are embryonically related to the neural ...
Sakai Daisuke - - 2005
In early vertebrate development, the neural crest is specified in the embryonic ectoderm at the boundary of the neural plate and the nonneural ectoderm. After the induction, the neural crest cells undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition, delaminating from the epithelium, and migrate extensively in the embryonic environment to give rise to a ...
Fontaine-Pérus Josiane - - 2005
Embryonic chimera production was used to study the developmental processes of the mouse nervous system. The difficulty of performing in situ transplantation experiments of neural primordium of mouse embryo was overcome by isotopic and isochronic grafting of mouse neural tube fragments into chick embryo. Mouse neural tube cells differentiated perfectly ...
Rodriguez Luis G - - 2005
The wound-healing assay is simple, inexpensive, and one of the earliest developed methods to study directional cell migration in vitro. This method mimics cell migration during wound healing in vivo. The basic steps involve creating a "wound" in a cell monolayer, capturing the images at the beginning and at regular ...
Di Bella Maria Antonietta - - 2005
Renewal of cell population is needed in the tunic of ascidians, as the tunic cells are involved in many biological functions. Tunic cells are thought to arrive by migrating across the mantle epithelium into the tunic from the blood lacunae or the mesenchymal space. Electron microscope observations show that the ...
Elena de Bellard Maria - - 2005
Neural crest cells emerge from the neural tube early in development. They migrate extensively throughout the embryo and form most of the head and peripheral nervous system, giving rise to sensory and sympathetic ganglia, heart regions, adrenal cells, head bones, teeth, muscle cells, sensory organs, melanocytes, and other cell types. ...
Han Dong-Wook - - 2005
Neural cortical cells, isolated from prenatal rat cerebra, were grown on surface-modified poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid, 65:35) (PLGA) films coated with poly-D: -lysine (PDL) with either laminin (LN), fibronectin (FN) or collagen (CN). Immunocytochemistry showed that the isolated cells were highly immunopositive for both neurofilament and MAP-2 with well-organized neurites and somatodendritic ...
Kulesa Paul M - - 2005
Segmentation is crucial to the development of the vertebrate body plan. Underlying segmentation in the head is further revealed when cranial neural crest cells emerge from even numbered rhombomeres in the hindbrain to form three stereotypical migratory streams that lead to the peripheral branchial arches. To test the role of ...
Xiao Suhong - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Homocysteine, which increases in folate deficiency, can upregulate folate receptors (FR) at the translational level by increasing the interaction between a short cis-element in the 5'-untranslated region of FR-alpha mRNA and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein-E1 (hnRNP-E1). Perturbation of this RNA-protein interaction on GD8.5 induces neural tube defects and neurocristopathies in ...
Kuratani Shigeru - - 2005
The vertebrate head characteristically has two types of mesenchyme: the neural crest-derived ectomesenchyme and the mesoderm derived mesenchyme. Conserved patterns of development in various animal taxa imply the presence of shared inductive events for cephalic mesenchyme. These developmental programs can serve as developmental constraints that emerge as morphological homology of ...
Gittenberger-de Groot Adriana C - - 2005
Cardiovascular development has become a crucial element of transgene technology in that many transgenic and knockout mice unexpectedly present with a cardiac phenotype, which often turns out to be embryolethal. This demonstrates that formation of the heart and the connecting vessels is essential for the functioning vertebrate organism. The embryonic ...
Campos Lia Scotti - - 2004
Neural stem cells (NSC) are a tissue-specific subtype of self-renewing and multipotent cells that can give rise to all neural populations. In this review, the importance of maintaining cell-cell contacts in the study of NSC is highlighted, and data obtained from some crucial single-cell studies is compared to results obtained ...
Karlsson Eva Nordberg - - 2004
Until recently, the function of the fifth domain of the thermostable modular xylanase Xyn10A from Rhodothermus marinus was unresolved. A putative homologue to this domain was however identified in a mannanase (Man26A) from the same microorganism which raised questions regarding a common function. An extensive search of all accessible data-bases ...
Kasemeier-Kulesa Jennifer C - - 2005
The neural crest is a migratory population of cells that produces many diverse structures within the embryo. Trunk neural crest cells give rise to such structures as the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and sympathetic ganglia (SG), which form in a metameric pattern along the anterior-posterior axis of the embryo. While ...
Anghelina Mirela - - 2004
Linear arrays of cells, or cell columns, have been observed in the extracellular matrix prior to neovascularization, but their nature and significance remains elusive. Based on the emerging evidence implicating a role for monocytes and macrophages (MC/MPH) in vasculogenesis, we hypothesized that MC/MPH also can form linear or branched columns, ...
Ito Masaru - - 2004
We devised a unique new single-cell cloning method which uses microscope cover glasses and established a melanoblast cell line derived from mouse neural crest cells. A microscope cover glass was nicked and broken into small pieces and put on a dish. Culture medium and a suspension of 20-30 cells/ml were ...
Uddman Rolf - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to localize in cranial ganglia of man the occurrence of the putative gaseous neural messenger carbon monoxide (CO) and the biliverdin degrading enzyme biliverdin reductase (BVR). METHODS: Immunocytochemistry with antibodies against the CO-inducing enzymes HO-1, HO-2, BVR and calcitonin gene-related peptide was used. ...
Sakamoto Hironosuke - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Although the origin of cardiac myxomas is still controversial, the 2 main hypotheses are that the tumor cells originate either from multipotential mesenchymal cells or from endocardial neural tissue. METHODS AND RESULTS: The production of various cytokines in 2 human cardiac myxoma cell lines was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent ...
Eaton Mary - - 2004
Cell therapy to treat neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury (SCI) is in its infancy. However, the development of cellular strategies that would replace or be used as an adjunct to existing pharmacological treatments for neuropathic pain have progressed tremendously over the past 20 years. The earliest cell therapy studies ...
Teddy Jessica M - - 2004
The proper assembly of craniofacial structures and the peripheral nervous system requires neural crest cells to emerge from the neural tube and navigate over long distances to the branchial arches. Cell and molecular studies have shed light on potential intrinsic and extrinsic cues, which, in combination, are thought to ensure ...
Wilson Yvette M - - 2004
Neural crest (NC) cells arise in the dorsal neural tube (NT) and migrate into the embryo to develop into many different cell types. A major unresolved question is when and how the fate of NC cells is decided. There is widespread evidence for multipotential NC cells, whose fates are decided ...
Fries Julia E - - 2004
P2Y receptors are metabotropic G-protein linked purinergic receptors, which are especially widespread in the central nervous system. The purpose of the present study was to determine the distribution patterns of P2Y receptors in distinct retinal cell types in the adult retina. Retinal ganglion cells (RGC), bipolar cells (BPC) and Muller ...
Arduini Brigitte L - - 2004
The specification, differentiation and maintenance of diverse cell types are of central importance to the development of multicellular organisms. The neural crest of vertebrate animals gives rise to many derivatives, including pigment cells, peripheral neurons, glia and elements of the craniofacial skeleton. The development of neural crest-derived pigment cells has ...
Xie Xin - - 2004
Previous studies have revealed the presence of Na+ / Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) activity associated with GM1 ganglioside in the nuclear envelope (NE) of neurons and glia as well as various neural cell lines. The nuclear NCX1 exchanger, unlike that in the plasma membrane, was shown to be tightly associated with ...
Yanagisawa Makoto - - 2004
The CNS consists of neuronal and glial cells generated from common neural progenitor cells during development. Cellular events for neural progenitor cells, such as proliferation and differentiation, are regulated by multiple intrinsic and extrinsic cell signals. Although much is known on the importance of the proteinous factors in regulating the ...
Walton Jeanette D - - 2004
Cellular heterogeneity is a hallmark of human neuroblastoma tumors and cell lines. Within a single neuroblastoma are cells from distinct neural crest lineages whose relative abundance is significant for prognosis. We postulate that a self-renewing multipotent tumor stem cell, which gives rise to diverse cell lineages, is the malignant progenitor ...
Joseph Nancy M - - 2004
Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) persist in peripheral nerves throughout late gestation but their function is unknown. Current models of nerve development only consider the generation of Schwann cells from neural crest, but the presence of NCSCs raises the possibility of multilineage differentiation. We performed Cre-recombinase fate mapping to determine ...
Sakuragawa Norio - - 2004
Previous studies from our laboratory showed that human amnion epithelial cells (AECs) have multiple functions, such as synthesis and release of catecholamines, acetylcholine, neurotrophic factors, activin, and noggin. In this study, we investigated the identity of neural progenitor cells in human amnion mesenchyme cells (AMCs), which lie immediately adjacent to ...
Yeo Weeteck - - 2004
The importance of programmed cell death (PCD) during vertebrate development has been well established. During the development of the nervous system in particular, neurotrophic cell death in innervating neurons matches the number of neurons to the size of their target field. However, PCD also occurs during earlier stages of neural ...
Jeffery William R - - 2004
The neural crest, a source of many different cell types in vertebrate embryos, has not been identified in other chordates. Current opinion therefore holds that neural crest cells were a vertebrate innovation. Here we describe a migratory cell population resembling neural crest cells in the ascidian urochordate Ecteinascidia turbinata. Labelling ...
Le Douarin Nicole M - - 2004
The neural crest (NC) yields pluripotent cells endowed with migratory properties. They give rise to neurons, glia, melanocytes and endocrine cells, and to diverse 'mesenchymal' derivatives. Experiments in avian embryos have revealed that the differentiation of the NC 'neural' precursors is strongly influenced by environmental cues. The reversibility of differentiated ...
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