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Misumi Shogo - - 2009
Effective uptake of Ags by specialized M cells of gut-associated lymphoid tissues is an important step in inducing efficient immune responses after oral vaccination. Although stable nontoxic small molecule mimetics of lectins, such as synthetic multivalent polygalloyl derivatives, may have potential in murine M cell targeting, it remains unclear whether ...
Ogihara Takuo - - 2009
Oseltamivir, an ester-type prodrug of the neuraminidase inhibitor [3R,4R,5S]-4-acetamido-5-amino-3-(1-ethylpropoxy)-1-cyclohexene-1-carboxylate phosphate (Ro 64-0802), has been developed for the treatment of A and B strains of the influenza virus but has neuropsychiatric and other side effects. In this study, we characterized the transport across intestinal epithelial cells and the absorption of oseltamivir ...
Schnabl Kareena L - - 2009
Ganglioside GD3 is a glycosphingolipid found in colostrum, developing tissues, and tumors and is known to regulate cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and inflammation. Feeding a GD3-enriched diet to rats increases GD3 in intestinal lipid rafts and blood. The mechanism, efficiency, and fate of ganglioside absorption by human enterocytes have not ...
Endter Sibylle - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: Carrier-mediated transport mechanisms play crucial roles in drug absorption and elimination processes, as well as in the transport of endogenous molecules affecting cellular regulation and function. In this study we used RT-PCR analysis to characterise the mRNA transcript expression of a wide range of membrane carrier transporters in several ...
Nimmagadda Sridhar - - 2009
High levels of choline kinase (ChoK) expression and choline phospholipid metabolites are often associated with malignant transformation, invasion, and metastasis, particularly in breast cancer. These findings have led to the development of novel pharmacologic or gene therapeutic interventions for ChoK-targeted inhibition. To identify pharmacodynamic markers for the therapeutic evaluation of ...
Pomahacová Barbora - - 2009
The biosynthetic pathway of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids in Catharanthus roseus is located throughout various membranes at both the cellular and intercellular levels. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are known to export vincristine and vinblastine from human cancer cells. It has recently been shown that ABC transporters are also involved in the ...
Ghildyal Reena - - 2009
The degradation of nuclear pore components and disruption of nucleocytoplasmic trafficking during rhinovirus infection have been attributed to viral 2A protease. Here we show for the first time that rhinovirus 3C protease may also have a role. Specifically, we show that 3C and its precursor, 3CD, can target green fluorescent ...
Bakhiya Nadiya - - 2009
5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is formed when sugars are acidified or heated. It is present at high levels in numerous foods. HMF is inactive in standard genotoxicity tests, but can be metabolized to a chemically reactive intermediate, 5-sulfooxymethylfurfural (SMF), which is mutagenic and carcinogenic. We recently found that direct parental administration of ...
Kayingo Gerald G Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, Yale University, CT 06516, USA. - - 2009
Candida albicans accumulates large amounts of the polyols glycerol and d-arabitol when the cells are exposed to physiological conditions relevant to stress and virulence in animals. Intracellular concentrations of glycerol are determined by rates of glycerol production and catabolism and of glycerol uptake and efflux through the plasma membrane. We ...
Jensen Laran T LT Department of Environmental Health Sciences and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. - - 2009
The yeast Smf1p Nramp manganese transporter is posttranslationally regulated by environmental manganese. Smf1p is stabilized at the cell surface with manganese starvation, but is largely degraded in the vacuole with physiological manganese through a mechanism involving the Rsp5p adaptor complex Bsd2p/Tre1p/Tre2p. We now describe an additional level of Smf1p regulation ...
Salphati Laurent - - 2009
The human colorectal carcinoma cell line LS513 exhibits epithelial morphology, adherent properties and can grow subcutaneously to form tumors in nude mice. Thus, it is a potential model for mouse xenograft efficacy studies. The present study characterized the expression and activity of P-gp, BCRP and MRP2 in LS513 cells. We ...
Bayer Melanie - - 2009
For imaging of neuroblastoma and phaeochromocytoma, [(123)I]meta-iodobenzylguanidine ([(123)I]mIBG) is routinely used, whereas [(18)F]6-fluorodopamine ([(18)F]6-FDA) is sporadically applied for positron emission tomography in pheochromocytoma. Both substances are taken up by catecholamine transporters (CATs). In competition, some other cell types are able to take up catecholamines and related compounds probably by organic ...
Suazo Miriam - - 2009
Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a transmembrane glycoprotein widely expressed in mammalian tissues and plays a central role in Alzheimer's disease. However, its physiological function remains elusive. Cu(2+) binding and reduction activities have been described in the extracellular APP135-156 region, which might be relevant for cellular copper uptake and homeostasis. ...
Morimura Shigeru - - 2009
Formation of lamellipodia is the first step during cell migration, and involves actin reassembly at the leading edge of migrating cells through the membrane transport of WAVE2. However, the factors that regulate WAVE2 transport to the cell periphery for initiating lamellipodia formation have not been elucidated. We report here that ...
García-García J D - - 2009
Photosynthetic Euglena gracilis grown with different K(2)CrO(4) concentrations was analyzed for its ability to take up, retain and reduce Cr(VI). For comparison, cells were also exposed to CrCl(3). Cellular Cr(VI) uptake at pH 7.2 showed a hyperbolic saturation pattern with K (m) of 1.1 mM, V (m) of 16 nmol ...
Morgan Jeanelle - - 2009
Amphiphysins are proteins thought to be involved in synaptic vesicle endocytosis. Amphiphysins share a common BAR domain, which can sense and/or bend membranes, and this function is believed to be essential for endocytosis. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking the amphiphysin ortholog Rvs161 are inviable when starved for glucose. Altering sphingolipid levels ...
Seki Satoru - - 2009
The accumulation mechanisms of amiodarone (AMD) involving transporters in lung alveolar epithelial type II cells were studied. The uptake of AMD was examined using human alveolar epithelial-derived cell line A549 as a model. AMD was transported by the carrier-mediated system, and the apparent K(m) and V(max) values were 66.8+/-30.3 muM ...
Barazesh Solmaz - - 2009
The sparse inflorescence1 (spi1), Barren inflorescence1 (Bif1), barren inflorescence2 (bif2), and barren stalk1 (ba1) mutants produce fewer branches and spikelets in the inflorescence due to defects in auxin biosynthesis, transport, or response. We report that spi1, bif1, and ba1, but not bif2, also function in promoting cell elongation in the ...
Sesma Juliana I - - 2009
Extracellular UDP-sugars promote cellular responses by interacting with widely distributed P2Y(14) receptors, but the mechanisms by which these molecules are released from cells are poorly understood. Given the active role of UDP-sugars in glycosylation reactions within the secretory pathway, we hypothesized that UDP-sugar release includes an exocytotic component. This hypothesis ...
Christensen Nynne Meyn - - 2009
The leaf trichome of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) represents a unique secretory structure in which the basal trichome cell is connected to the epidermis by numerous plasmodesmata (PD). Small fluorescent probes microinjected into the basal trichome cell moved apically into distal trichome cells but not into the subtending epidermal cell. In ...
Allen-Gipson Diane S DS Department of Internal Medicine, Pulmonary, Critical Care, Sleep and Allergy Section, 985815 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5815, USA. - - 2009
Adenosine uptake into cells by nucleoside transporters plays a significant role in governing extracellular adenosine concentration. Extracellular adenosine is an important signaling molecule that modulates many cellular functions via 4 G-protein-coupled receptor subtypes (A(1), A(2A), A(2B), and A(3)). Previously, we demonstrated that adenosine is critical in maintaining airway homeostasis and ...
Mato Takashi - - 2009
As previously reported, the cerebral arterioles are surrounded by unique perivascular Mato cells. They contain many inclusion bodies rich in hydrolytic enzymes, and have strong uptake capacity. They are thus considered scavenger cells of vascular and neural tissues in steady-state. In this study, employing hypertensive SHR-SP (Izm) rats, the viability ...
Ibarra Kristie D - - 2009
Treatment for hepatitis C virus infection currently consists of pegylated interferon and ribavirin (RBV), a nucleoside analog. Although RBV clearly plays a role in aiding the treatment response, its antiviral mechanism is unclear. Regardless of the specific mechanism of RBV, we hypothesize that differences in levels of cellular uptake of ...
Villa-Bellosta Ricardo - - 2009
The role of inorganic phosphate in the pathogenesis of vascular calcification (VC) has been studied extensively in recent years. Phosphonoformic acid (PFA), an inhibitor of type II Pi transporters, has been traditionally used to study the involvement of Pi transport in VC, because PFA also prevents calcium deposition in vitro. ...
Chen Weiyang - - 2009
The effect of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Aloe barbadensis Miller) gel and whole leaf extract on the permeability of Caco-2 cell monolayers was determined. Solutions of gel and the whole leaf extract were applied to the cell monolayers, and the transepithelial electrical resistance was monitored for 2 hours, which ...
Sá M G - - 2009
Gills are the first site of impact by metal ions in contaminated waters. Work on whole gill cells and metal uptake has not been reported before in crustaceans. In this study, gill filaments of the American lobster, Homarus americanus, were dissociated in physiological saline and separated into several cell types ...
Peacey Eleanor - - 2009
The L-glutamate transporter GLT-1 is an abundant central nervous system (CNS) membrane protein of the excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT) family that controls extracellular L-glutamate levels and is important in limiting excitotoxic neuronal death. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, we have determined that four mRNAs encoding GLT-1 exist in mouse ...
Nicklin Paul P Respiratory Diseases Area, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Horsham Research Centre, West Sussex, - - 2009
Amino acids are required for activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase which regulates protein translation, cell growth, and autophagy. Cell surface transporters that allow amino acids to enter the cell and signal to mTOR are unknown. We show that cellular uptake of L-glutamine and its subsequent rapid ...
Brillault Julien - - 2009
Moxifloxacin (MXF) is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic that is effective against respiratory infections. However, the mechanisms of MXF lung diffusion are unknown. Active transport in other tissues has been suggested for several members of the fluoroquinolone family. In this study, transport of MXF was systematically investigated across a Calu-3 lung epithelial ...
Karamustafa F - - 2009
The transport of alendronate through Caco-2 monolayers in the absence and presence of absorption enhancers (sodium taurocholate-STC and dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin-DM-beta-CD) was studied. The viability of Caco-2 cells was determined by MTT assay. The effects of the experiment period and serum existence in Dubelco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) on cell viability were ...
Fjorback Anja W - - 2009
The serotonin transporter is a member of the monoamine transporter family that also includes transporters of dopamine and norepinephrine. We have used sensitized acceptor emission fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) to study the oligomerization of SERT in HEK-MSR-239 cells, RN46A cells and in cultured ...
Shih Joseph D JD Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, - - 2009
The double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) transport protein SID-1 enables systemic RNA interference (RNAi) in Caenorhabditis elegans, whereby silencing initiated by local exposure to dsRNA spreads throughout the animal and to its progeny. Previously, we showed that providing dsRNA in the growth medium of Drosophila S2 cells that express C. elegans SID-1 ...
Pabla Navjotsingh N Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Medical College of Georgia and Charlie Norwood Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Augusta, Georgia 30912, - - 2009
The usefulness and efficacy of cisplatin, a chemotherapeutic drug, are limited by its toxicity to normal tissues and organs, including the kidneys. The uptake of cisplatin in renal tubular cells is high, leading to cisplatin accumulation and tubular cell injury and death, culminating in acute renal failure. While extensive investigations ...
Robey Robert W - - 2009
ABCG2 overexpression has been linked to resistance to topoisomerase inhibitors, leading us to examine the potential interaction between ABCG2 and becatecarin. Interaction with ABCG2 was determined by ATPase assay, competition of [(125)I]iodoarylazidoprazosin (IAAP) photolabeling and flow cytometry. Cellular resistance was measured in 4-day cytotoxicity assays. ABCG2 expression was measured by ...
Detzer Anke - - 2009
The efficient delivery of biologically functional short interfering RNA (siRNA) in vivo remains a widely unresolved technical problem in therapeutic drug development. The repertoire of concepts for the cellular uptake of oligonucleotide-based tools and drugs has been extended by the mechanistically novel finding that phosphorothioate (PS)-modified single-stranded oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ON) promote ...
Jovov Biljana - - 2009
Barrett's specialized columnar epithelium (SCE) replaces reflux-damaged squamous epithelium. The benefits of SCE lie in its superior protection of the esophagus against further reflux damage. It was shown that this protection is dependent on ion transport and barrier function of SCE. The risks of SCE lie in its higher predisposition ...
Devi Gayathri R - - 2009
Phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMO), which have a neutral chemistry, are extensively being used as tools for selective inhibition of gene expression in cell culture models and are currently in human clinical trials. PMO oligomers possess a unique structure, in which the deoxyribose moiety of DNA is replaced with a six-membered ...
Lanéelle Marie-Antoinette - - 2009
Mycobacteria produce an effective permeability layer that consists of a mycolic acid-containing cell wall. This protection confers a natural resistance to many chemical agents and results in a low permeability toward both hydrophilic and lipophilic agents. The permeability of cells is classically measured using methods that generally need cell suspensions ...
Dutot Laurence - - 2009
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), which are usually short basic peptides, are able to cross cell membranes and convey bioactive cargoes inside cells. CPPs have been widely used to deliver inside cells peptides, proteins, and oligonucleotides; however, their entry mechanisms still remain controversial. A major problem concerning CPPs remains their lack of ...
Wiles Nm - - 2009
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetically inherited condition caused by a point mutation in the beta globin gene. This results in the production of the abnormal hemoglobin, sickle hemoglobin (HbS). Hydroxycarbamide, is an antimetabolite/cytotoxic which works by inhibiting ribonucleotide reductase, blocking the synthesis of DNA and arresting cells in ...
Reilly Kelly M - - 2009
Nelarabine is the prodrug of 9-beta-arabinofuranosylguanine (ara-G) and is therapeutically classified as a purine nucleoside analog. Nelarabine is converted to ara-G by adenosine deaminase and transported into cells by a nucleoside transporter. Ara-G is subsequently phosphorylated to ara-G triphosphate (ara-GTP), thereby initiating the therapeutic effect by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Nelarabine ...
Awan Aashir - - 2009
A critical process that builds and maintains the eukaryotic cilium is intraflagellar transport (IFT). This process utilizes members of the kinesin-2 superfamily to transport cargo into the cilium (anterograde transport) and a dynein motor for the retrograde traffic. Using a novel RNAi knockdown method, we have analyzed the function of ...
Diener Dennis D Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, - - 2009
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is the organism in which intraflagellar transport (IFT) was first visualized and in which the composition of IFT particles was originally elucidated. As the universality of IFT among ciliated/flagellated cells was uncovered, the diversity of organisms used to study IFT has grown. Still, because of the ease of ...
Cassany Aurelia A Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, - - 2009
The trafficking of protein and RNA cargoes between the cytoplasm and the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, which is a major pathway involved in cell regulation, is mediated by nuclear transport sequences in the cargoes and by shuttling transport factors. The latter include receptors (karyopherins) that recognize the cargoes and carry ...
Li Shanshan S Dept. of Pharmaceutics, Rutgers, The State Univ. of New Jersey, 160 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854, - - 2009
Human organic anion transporter 1 (hOAT1) belongs to a family of organic anion transporters that play critical roles in the body disposition of clinically important drugs, including anti-human immunodeficiency virus therapeutics, anti-tumor drugs, antibiotics, antihypertensives, and anti-inflammatories. hOAT1 is abundantly expressed in the kidney. In the current study, we examined ...
Lyu Su-Yun - - 2008
Purified mistletoe lectins are known to have cytotoxic and stimulating activities in the immune system. Mistletoe extract has been given subcutaneously because of its unstablity and poor absorption in the Gastrointestinal (GI) tract. A hallmark of M cells is their capacity to internalize material from the lumen and to transfer ...
Angulo Constanza - - 2008
Vitamin C is an essential micronutrient for the development of male germ cells. In the gonad, the germ cells are isolated from the systemic circulation by the blood-testis barrier, which consists of a basal layer of Sertoli cells that communicate through an extensive array of tight junction complexes. To study ...
Ong L-C LC Singapore General Hospital, Singapore National Cancer Centre, - - 2008
The uptake of 2-[18F]-2-deoxy-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG) is widely used as a marker of increased glucose metabolism to monitor progression of cancers with positron emission tomography (PET). Many tumors have been shown to overexpress facilitated glucose transporters, especially GLUT-1 and a glycolytic enzyme, hexokinase II. To define whether a quantitative relationship exists ...
James S R SR School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United - - 2009
Thyroid hormones are essential for the normal growth and development of the fetus, and even small alterations in maternal thyroid hormone status during early pregnancy may be associated with neurodevelopmental abnormalities in childhood. Mutations in the novel and specific thyroid hormone transporter monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) have been associated with ...
Haselkorn Robert - - 2008
Although cytoplasmic bridges between adjacent cells in the filaments of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria have been known for decades, the existence also of a continuous periplasm along the filaments raised the possibility that alternative modes of communication between cells could be utilized. The latter hypothesis was investigated by using GFP fusions to ...
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