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Results 351 - 400 of 2230
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Morgan Jeanelle - - 2009
Amphiphysins are proteins thought to be involved in synaptic vesicle endocytosis. Amphiphysins share a common BAR domain, which can sense and/or bend membranes, and this function is believed to be essential for endocytosis. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking the amphiphysin ortholog Rvs161 are inviable when starved for glucose. Altering sphingolipid levels ...
Seki Satoru - - 2009
The accumulation mechanisms of amiodarone (AMD) involving transporters in lung alveolar epithelial type II cells were studied. The uptake of AMD was examined using human alveolar epithelial-derived cell line A549 as a model. AMD was transported by the carrier-mediated system, and the apparent K(m) and V(max) values were 66.8+/-30.3 muM ...
Barazesh Solmaz - - 2009
The sparse inflorescence1 (spi1), Barren inflorescence1 (Bif1), barren inflorescence2 (bif2), and barren stalk1 (ba1) mutants produce fewer branches and spikelets in the inflorescence due to defects in auxin biosynthesis, transport, or response. We report that spi1, bif1, and ba1, but not bif2, also function in promoting cell elongation in the ...
Sesma Juliana I - - 2009
Extracellular UDP-sugars promote cellular responses by interacting with widely distributed P2Y(14) receptors, but the mechanisms by which these molecules are released from cells are poorly understood. Given the active role of UDP-sugars in glycosylation reactions within the secretory pathway, we hypothesized that UDP-sugar release includes an exocytotic component. This hypothesis ...
Allen-Gipson Diane S - - 2009
Adenosine uptake into cells by nucleoside transporters plays a significant role in governing extracellular adenosine concentration. Extracellular adenosine is an important signaling molecule that modulates many cellular functions via 4 G-protein-coupled receptor subtypes (A(1), A(2A), A(2B), and A(3)). Previously, we demonstrated that adenosine is critical in maintaining airway homeostasis and ...
Christensen Nynne Meyn - - 2009
The leaf trichome of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) represents a unique secretory structure in which the basal trichome cell is connected to the epidermis by numerous plasmodesmata (PD). Small fluorescent probes microinjected into the basal trichome cell moved apically into distal trichome cells but not into the subtending epidermal cell. In ...
Mato Takashi - - 2009
As previously reported, the cerebral arterioles are surrounded by unique perivascular Mato cells. They contain many inclusion bodies rich in hydrolytic enzymes, and have strong uptake capacity. They are thus considered scavenger cells of vascular and neural tissues in steady-state. In this study, employing hypertensive SHR-SP (Izm) rats, the viability ...
Ibarra Kristie D - - 2009
Treatment for hepatitis C virus infection currently consists of pegylated interferon and ribavirin (RBV), a nucleoside analog. Although RBV clearly plays a role in aiding the treatment response, its antiviral mechanism is unclear. Regardless of the specific mechanism of RBV, we hypothesize that differences in levels of cellular uptake of ...
Villa-Bellosta Ricardo - - 2009
The role of inorganic phosphate in the pathogenesis of vascular calcification (VC) has been studied extensively in recent years. Phosphonoformic acid (PFA), an inhibitor of type II Pi transporters, has been traditionally used to study the involvement of Pi transport in VC, because PFA also prevents calcium deposition in vitro. ...
Chen Weiyang - - 2009
The effect of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Aloe barbadensis Miller) gel and whole leaf extract on the permeability of Caco-2 cell monolayers was determined. Solutions of gel and the whole leaf extract were applied to the cell monolayers, and the transepithelial electrical resistance was monitored for 2 hours, which ...
Sá M G - - 2009
Gills are the first site of impact by metal ions in contaminated waters. Work on whole gill cells and metal uptake has not been reported before in crustaceans. In this study, gill filaments of the American lobster, Homarus americanus, were dissociated in physiological saline and separated into several cell types ...
Peacey Eleanor - - 2009
The L-glutamate transporter GLT-1 is an abundant central nervous system (CNS) membrane protein of the excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT) family that controls extracellular L-glutamate levels and is important in limiting excitotoxic neuronal death. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, we have determined that four mRNAs encoding GLT-1 exist in mouse ...
Nicklin Paul - - 2009
Amino acids are required for activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase which regulates protein translation, cell growth, and autophagy. Cell surface transporters that allow amino acids to enter the cell and signal to mTOR are unknown. We show that cellular uptake of L-glutamine and its subsequent rapid ...
Brillault Julien - - 2009
Moxifloxacin (MXF) is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic that is effective against respiratory infections. However, the mechanisms of MXF lung diffusion are unknown. Active transport in other tissues has been suggested for several members of the fluoroquinolone family. In this study, transport of MXF was systematically investigated across a Calu-3 lung epithelial ...
Karamustafa F - - 2009
The transport of alendronate through Caco-2 monolayers in the absence and presence of absorption enhancers (sodium taurocholate-STC and dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin-DM-beta-CD) was studied. The viability of Caco-2 cells was determined by MTT assay. The effects of the experiment period and serum existence in Dubelco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) on cell viability were ...
Fjorback Anja W - - 2009
The serotonin transporter is a member of the monoamine transporter family that also includes transporters of dopamine and norepinephrine. We have used sensitized acceptor emission fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) to study the oligomerization of SERT in HEK-MSR-239 cells, RN46A cells and in cultured ...
Shih Joseph D - - 2009
The double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) transport protein SID-1 enables systemic RNA interference (RNAi) in Caenorhabditis elegans, whereby silencing initiated by local exposure to dsRNA spreads throughout the animal and to its progeny. Previously, we showed that providing dsRNA in the growth medium of Drosophila S2 cells that express C. elegans SID-1 ...
Pabla Navjotsingh - - 2009
The usefulness and efficacy of cisplatin, a chemotherapeutic drug, are limited by its toxicity to normal tissues and organs, including the kidneys. The uptake of cisplatin in renal tubular cells is high, leading to cisplatin accumulation and tubular cell injury and death, culminating in acute renal failure. While extensive investigations ...
Robey Robert W - - 2009
ABCG2 overexpression has been linked to resistance to topoisomerase inhibitors, leading us to examine the potential interaction between ABCG2 and becatecarin. Interaction with ABCG2 was determined by ATPase assay, competition of [(125)I]iodoarylazidoprazosin (IAAP) photolabeling and flow cytometry. Cellular resistance was measured in 4-day cytotoxicity assays. ABCG2 expression was measured by ...
Detzer Anke - - 2009
The efficient delivery of biologically functional short interfering RNA (siRNA) in vivo remains a widely unresolved technical problem in therapeutic drug development. The repertoire of concepts for the cellular uptake of oligonucleotide-based tools and drugs has been extended by the mechanistically novel finding that phosphorothioate (PS)-modified single-stranded oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ON) promote ...
Jovov Biljana - - 2009
Barrett's specialized columnar epithelium (SCE) replaces reflux-damaged squamous epithelium. The benefits of SCE lie in its superior protection of the esophagus against further reflux damage. It was shown that this protection is dependent on ion transport and barrier function of SCE. The risks of SCE lie in its higher predisposition ...
Devi Gayathri R - - 2009
Phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMO), which have a neutral chemistry, are extensively being used as tools for selective inhibition of gene expression in cell culture models and are currently in human clinical trials. PMO oligomers possess a unique structure, in which the deoxyribose moiety of DNA is replaced with a six-membered ...
Lanéelle Marie-Antoinette - - 2009
Mycobacteria produce an effective permeability layer that consists of a mycolic acid-containing cell wall. This protection confers a natural resistance to many chemical agents and results in a low permeability toward both hydrophilic and lipophilic agents. The permeability of cells is classically measured using methods that generally need cell suspensions ...
Dutot Laurence - - 2009
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), which are usually short basic peptides, are able to cross cell membranes and convey bioactive cargoes inside cells. CPPs have been widely used to deliver inside cells peptides, proteins, and oligonucleotides; however, their entry mechanisms still remain controversial. A major problem concerning CPPs remains their lack of ...
Wiles Nm - - 2009
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetically inherited condition caused by a point mutation in the beta globin gene. This results in the production of the abnormal hemoglobin, sickle hemoglobin (HbS). Hydroxycarbamide, is an antimetabolite/cytotoxic which works by inhibiting ribonucleotide reductase, blocking the synthesis of DNA and arresting cells in ...
Reilly Kelly M - - 2009
Nelarabine is the prodrug of 9-beta-arabinofuranosylguanine (ara-G) and is therapeutically classified as a purine nucleoside analog. Nelarabine is converted to ara-G by adenosine deaminase and transported into cells by a nucleoside transporter. Ara-G is subsequently phosphorylated to ara-G triphosphate (ara-GTP), thereby initiating the therapeutic effect by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Nelarabine ...
Awan Aashir - - 2009
A critical process that builds and maintains the eukaryotic cilium is intraflagellar transport (IFT). This process utilizes members of the kinesin-2 superfamily to transport cargo into the cilium (anterograde transport) and a dynein motor for the retrograde traffic. Using a novel RNAi knockdown method, we have analyzed the function of ...
Cassany Aurelia - - 2009
The trafficking of protein and RNA cargoes between the cytoplasm and the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, which is a major pathway involved in cell regulation, is mediated by nuclear transport sequences in the cargoes and by shuttling transport factors. The latter include receptors (karyopherins) that recognize the cargoes and carry ...
Diener Dennis D Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, - - 2009
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is the organism in which intraflagellar transport (IFT) was first visualized and in which the composition of IFT particles was originally elucidated. As the universality of IFT among ciliated/flagellated cells was uncovered, the diversity of organisms used to study IFT has grown. Still, because of the ease of ...
Li Shanshan S Dept. of Pharmaceutics, Rutgers, The State Univ. of New Jersey, 160 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854, - - 2009
Human organic anion transporter 1 (hOAT1) belongs to a family of organic anion transporters that play critical roles in the body disposition of clinically important drugs, including anti-human immunodeficiency virus therapeutics, anti-tumor drugs, antibiotics, antihypertensives, and anti-inflammatories. hOAT1 is abundantly expressed in the kidney. In the current study, we examined ...
Ong L-C - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The uptake of 2-[18F]-2-deoxy-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG) is widely used as a marker of increased glucose metabolism to monitor progression of cancers with positron emission tomography (PET). Many tumors have been shown to overexpress facilitated glucose transporters, especially GLUT-1 and a glycolytic enzyme, hexokinase II. PURPOSE: To define whether a quantitative ...
Lyu Su-Yun - - 2008
Purified mistletoe lectins are known to have cytotoxic and stimulating activities in the immune system. Mistletoe extract has been given subcutaneously because of its unstablity and poor absorption in the Gastrointestinal (GI) tract. A hallmark of M cells is their capacity to internalize material from the lumen and to transfer ...
Angulo Constanza - - 2008
Vitamin C is an essential micronutrient for the development of male germ cells. In the gonad, the germ cells are isolated from the systemic circulation by the blood-testis barrier, which consists of a basal layer of Sertoli cells that communicate through an extensive array of tight junction complexes. To study ...
James S R SR School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United - - 2009
Thyroid hormones are essential for the normal growth and development of the fetus, and even small alterations in maternal thyroid hormone status during early pregnancy may be associated with neurodevelopmental abnormalities in childhood. Mutations in the novel and specific thyroid hormone transporter monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) have been associated with ...
Haselkorn Robert - - 2008
Although cytoplasmic bridges between adjacent cells in the filaments of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria have been known for decades, the existence also of a continuous periplasm along the filaments raised the possibility that alternative modes of communication between cells could be utilized. The latter hypothesis was investigated by using GFP fusions to ...
Chua Constance - - 2008
OBJECT: Cancer progenitor-like cells isolated by Hoechst 33342 dye efflux (termed the "side population" [SP]) have been studied in a variety of cancers, including malignant brain tumors. In this study, the authors investigate the nature of the SP phenotype in 2 glioma cell lines, U87MG and T98G, and their response ...
Pisal Dipak S - - 2008
The aim of our study was to prepare arginine-and ornithine-conjugated Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers and study their permeability across IPEC-J2 cell monolayers, a new intestinal cell line model for drug absorption studies. Arginine and ornithine were conjugated to the amine terminals of the PAMAM(G4) dendrimers by Fmoc synthesis. The apical-to-basolateral (AB) ...
Pifl Christian - - 2009
The dopamine transporter (DAT), a membrane protein specifically expressed by dopaminergic neurons and mediating the action of psychostimulants and dopaminergic neurotoxins, is regulated by Zn(2+) which directly interacts with the protein. Herein, we report a host-cell-specific direction of the Zn(2+) effect on wild type DAT. Whereas low mumolar Zn(2+) decreased ...
Maeng Hyung Gun - - 2009
Vitamin C is an essential micronutrient, which has been implicated in various biological processes, including immune response. In fact, in vivo administration of vitamin C modulates T cell proliferation and cytokine secretion. In this study, we analyzed the mechanism by which mouse T cells take up vitamin C, and whether ...
Puckett Cindy A - - 2008
Transition metal complexes provide a promising avenue for the design of therapeutic and diagnostic agents, but the limited understanding of their cellular uptake is a roadblock to their effective application. Here, we examine the mechanism of cellular entry of a luminescent ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complex, Ru(DIP) 2dppz (2+) (where DIP = ...
Sauvage, B.
A meso-scale model was used to understand and describe the processes driving high ozone concentrations observed during both dry and monsoon seasons in monthly climatologies profiles over Lagos (Nigeria, 6.6° N, 3.3° E), obtained with the MOZAIC airborne measurements (ozone and carbon monoxide). This study focuses on ozone enhancements observed ...
Tian Xiao-Juan - - 2009
To investigate the structure-permeability relationship of dietary/nutriceutic flavonoids, the transepithelial transport and cellular uptake of 36 flavonoids (including flavones, flavonols, dihydroflavones, dihydroflavonols, isoflavones, chalcones, flavanes, flavanols, methylated and glycosidic derivatives) were investigated using the Caco-2 cell monolayer. The apparent permeability coefficients (P(app)) of the flavonoids were calculated from bilateral transport ...
Endres Paul J - - 2008
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a technique used in both clinical and experimental settings to produce high-resolution images of opaque organisms without ionizing radiation. Currently, MR imaging is augmented by contrast agents, and the vast majority these small molecule Gd(III) chelates are confined to the extracellular regions. As a result, ...
Austin Robert H - - 2008
One of the central problems in the cell is how to transport molecules around the cell to desired locations. Since low Reynolds number conditions apply and diffusional times are large, without the aid of molecular motors to transport the fluid quickly cells could not survive, yet diffusion is still essential ...
Karunakaran Senthil - - 2008
ATB(0,+) [SLC6A14 (solute carrier family 6 member 14)] is an Na(+)/Cl(-)-coupled amino acid transporter whose expression is upregulated in cancer. 1-Methyltryptophan is an inducer of immune surveillance against tumour cells through its ability to inhibit indoleamine dioxygenase. In the present study, we investigated the role of ATB(0,+) in the uptake ...
Yin Zhaobao Z Department of Pediatrics, Kennedy Center for Research on human Development, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, - - 2008
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin. The mechanism(s) that governs MeHg transport across the blood-brain barrier and other biological membranes remains unclear. This study addressed the role of the L-type large neutral amino acid transporter, LAT1, in MeHg transport. Studies were carried out in CHO-k1 cells. Over-expression of LAT1 in ...
Nair Sumitha P - - 2008
Electrochemical sensing techniques are increasingly used to study biological processes by monitoring concentration changes of the molecule of interest close to cells. The measured concentration is the result of cellular transport across the cell membrane and diffusion of the released molecules from the cells to the sensing electrode. The objective ...
Wyrsch, Nicolas
Using the new ‘quality parameter’, μ<sup>0</sup>τ<sup>0</sup>, the authors were able to show, for the first time, a clear correlation between transport properties of a series of a-Si:H films (grown at various deposition temperatures) and the efficiency of p-i-n cells incorporating the same material as i-layer. In this paper, additional experimental ...
Wyrsch, Nicolas
Undoped hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) layers and cells have been deposited by plasma chemical vapour deposition at low temperature at different powers and silane dilutions. Electronic transport properties and defect density of the layers have been compared to the cell performances to identify the important material properties for solar cell ...
Parra Leonardo A - - 2008
Rxt1/NTT4 (SLC6A17) belongs to a gene family of "orphan transporters" whose substrates and consequently functions remain unidentified. Although Rxt1/NTT4 was previously thought to function as a sodium-dependent plasma membrane transporter, recent studies localized the protein to synaptic vesicles of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. Here, we provide evidence indicating that Rxt1/NTT4 ...
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