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Results 301 - 350 of 2234
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Thangaraju Muthusamy - - 2009
3-bromopyruvate is an alkylating agent with antitumor activity. It is currently believed that blockade of adenosine triphosphate production from glycolysis and mitochondria is the primary mechanism responsible for this antitumor effect. The current studies uncovered a new and novel mechanism for the antitumor activity of 3-bromopyruvate. The transport of 3-bromopyruvate ...
Teskac K - - 2010
The potential for colloidal carriers to increase drug bioavailability has spurred a renewed interest in their uptake mechanisms and movement within cells. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) were used as a carrier for a promising chemopreventive drug, resveratrol (RSV). The effects of SLN, empty or loaded with RSV (SLN-RSV), on the ...
Eggenberger Kai - - 2009
Efficient drug delivery is essential for many therapeutic applications. In this context, Trojan peptoids have attracted attention as powerful tools to deliver bioactive molecules into living cells. Certain cell-penetrating peptides, peptide mimetics, and peptoids have been shown to be endowed with a transport function and the structural features of this ...
Zhao Gang - - 2010
Monoamine transporters playing major roles in regulating normal and abnormal synaptic activity are associated with various neuropsychological disorders. In spite of the discovery of a series of structurally different monoamine transporter antagonists for the therapy approach, no practical pharmaceutical can act as a transporter activator. Here, we isolated luteolin and ...
Jung Kyung-Ho - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: Cell preparation procedures injurious to Na/I symporters (NIS) could deter their usefulness for reporter gene assays and in vivo cell imaging. In this study, we investigated the effects of cell collection by trypsinization on radioiodide transport and in vivo cell imaging results. METHODS: The influence of trypsinization procedures on ...
Fujii Takeshi - - 2009
Acetylcholine (ACh) is known to be a key neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous systems, but it is also produced in a variety of non-neuronal tissues and cells, including lymphocytes, placenta, amniotic membrane, vascular endothelial cells, keratinocytes, and epithelial cells in the digestive and respiratory tracts. To investigate contribution ...
Weinman Edward J - - 2009
Renal sodium-dependent phosphate transporter 2a (Npt2a) binds to a number of PDZ adaptor proteins including sodium-hydrogen exchanger regulatory factor-1 (NHERF-1), which regulates its retention in the apical membrane of renal proximal tubule cells and the response to parathyroid hormone (PTH). The present experiments were designed to study the lateral mobility ...
Vaijayanthimala Vairakkannu - - 2009
The labeling of cells with fluorescent nanoparticles is promising for various biomedical applications. The objective of this study is to evaluate the biocompatibility and the mechanism of the cellular uptake of fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) in cancer cells (HeLa) and pre-adipocytes (3T3-L1). With flow cytometry and the use of a battery ...
Lee K - - 2009
The transport and metabolism of the antitumour drug candidate 2'-benzoyloxycinnamaldehyde (BCA) was characterized in Caco-2 cells. BCA disappeared rapidly from the donor side without being transported to the receiver side during its absorptive transport across Caco-2 cells. Its metabolites 2'-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (HCA) and o-coumaric acid (OCA) were formed in both the ...
Afonso-Oramas Domingo - - 2009
The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a membrane glycoprotein responsible for dopamine (DA) uptake, which has been involved in the degeneration of DA cells in Parkinson's disease (PD). Given that DAT activity depends on its glycosylation status and membrane expression, and that not all midbrain DA cells show the same susceptibility ...
Kim Ji-Hyun - - 2009
The function of endocytic pathway in filamentous fungi has remained elusive. Recently, we have identified that FgEnd1, which has a 27% amino acid homology and shares specific EH3 domain with ScEnd3 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a putative member of the endocytic machinery in Fusarium graminearum. The failure of the scend3 ...
Ritchie James W A - - 2010
This study identifies interactions between transport of the aromatic amino acid L: -tryptophan (Trp) and thyroid hormones (TH) in HepG2 human hepatoma cells. The major portion of Trp uptake in HepG2 cells occurs via the NEM-sensitive amino acid transport System L2 (consistent with hepatic LAT3 expression), with a smaller aromatic-AA ...
Yawata Ayako - - 2009
Cimicifugoside, a triterpenoid isolated from Cimicifuga simplex, which has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine due to its anti-inflammatory, analgesic or anti-pyretic action, was examined for inhibition of nucleoside transport and synergistic potentiation of methotrexate cytotoxicity. Cimicifugoside inhibited uptake of uridine, thymidine and adenosine in human leukemia U937 cells ...
Beck Laurent - - 2009
PiT1 is a Na(+)-phosphate (P(i)) cotransporter located at the plasma membrane that enables P(i) entry into the cell. Its broad tissue expression pattern has led to the idea that together with the closely related family member PiT2, PiT1 is the ubiquitous supplier of P(i) to the cell. Moreover, the role ...
Iversen Patrick L - - 2009
Phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMO), which have a neutral chemistry, are extensively being used as tools for selective inhibition of gene expression in cell culture models and are currently in human clinical trials. Unlike phosphorothioates (PS ODN) and other charged oligonucleotides, little is known about the uptake characteristics of neutral oligomers. ...
Sobolev A S - - 2009
A major challenge in the development of specific and effective cancer treatments is the paradoxical situation that exploiting a molecular target that is accessible (surface membrane or extracellular matrix) is critical for achieving tumor selectivity whereas delivery of the therapeutic inside the cell, to the cell nucleus is generally required ...
Kwan Wai San - - 2009
ABCB1, some ABCCs and SLCOs have been reported to affect the intracellular accumulation of various protease inhibitors in vitro and ex vivo. Darunavir is the most recently licensed protease inhibitor and we sought to investigate the ability of transport inhibitors to influence its intracellular accumulation in lymphocytes from healthy volunteers. ...
Biswal Bijesh Kumar - - 2009
Methotrexate (MTX) has been used as an effective anti-cancer drug for a long time. Conceptually, it is accepted that MTX and folic acid are transported by folate receptors (FRs) in cancerous cells, but the exact mechanism of MTX uptake in human leukemia is unknown. The objective of this study was ...
Baetas-da-Cruz Wagner - - 2009
Complex carbohydrate structures are essential molecules of infectious microbes and host cells, and are involved in cell signaling associated with inflammatory and immune responses. The uptake of mannose-tailed glycans is usually carried out by macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs), and other professional phagocytes to trigger MHC class I- and MHC class ...
Yellepeddi Venkata K - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Biotin is an essential micronutrient and its levels are high in rapidly proliferating cells such as cancer cells. We hypothesized that the synthesis of poly (amido)amine (PAMAM) dendrimers with biotin molecules might contribute to enhanced cancer cell-specific uptake. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PAMAM dendrimers were biotinylated using sulfo-NHS-LC-biotin and structural ...
Kinne Anita - - 2009
Mutations in the gene encoding the thyroid hormone transporter, monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), underlie severe mental retardation. We wanted to understand the functional consequences of a series of missense mutations in MCT8 in order to identify therapeutic options for affected patients. We established cell lines stably expressing 12 MCT8 variants ...
Chothe Paresh P PP Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia 30912, - - 2010
A sodium-coupled oligopeptide transporter (SOPT1) was described originally in ARPE-19 cells. The transporter is inducible by HIV-1 Tat. Recent studies of conjunctival epithelial cells have identified a second oligopeptide transporter (SOPT2). This study was conducted to determine whether the newly discovered SOPT2 is expressed in ARPE-19 cells, to examine whether ...
Bakhiya Nadiya - - 2009
Aristolochic acid (AA), present in Aristolochia species, is the major causative agent in the development of severe renal failure and urothelial cancers in patients with AA nephropathy. It may also be a cause of Balkan endemic nephropathy. Epithelial cells of the proximal tubule are the primary cellular target of AA. ...
Polachek Hana - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: Placental transfer of Levofloxacin (LF), a broad spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic, and its inhibition was investigated in BeWo cells, a human trophoblast cell line. METHODS: The experiments of LF uptake by BeWo cells were performed after preincubation and in the presence of the P-glycoprotein inhibitors (Cyclosporin A, Verapamil and Quercetin), ...
Hellwig Michael - - 2009
Pyrraline is a quantitatively dominating glycation compound of the advanced Maillard reaction in foods and can be found in urine after consumption of pyrraline-containing food items. The purpose of this study was to investigate the transport of pyrraline and its dipeptide derivatives alanylpyrraline (Ala-Pyrr) and pyrralylalanine (Pyrr-Ala) at intestinal and ...
Yun Mijin - - 2009
We analyzed the pattern of (11)C-acetate and (18)F-FDG uptake on PET/CT in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We also assessed the expression of important regulatory enzymes related to glycolysis and lipid synthesis in relation to (18)F-FDG and (11)C-acetate uptake in human HCC cell lines. The significance of (11)C-acetate uptake regulation ...
Prouillac Caroline - - 2009
The mycotoxin zearalenone, produced by Fusarium species, is a worldwide contaminant of concern in cereals and other plant products. Due to its estrogenic activity, zearalenone (ZEA) is known to have toxicological effect in animals on reproductive system and the placental transfer of ZEA was suggested by in vivo studies. Although ...
Zhao Gang - - 2009
Safflower, the dry flower of Carthamus tinctorius L., has long been applied for empirically treating cerebral ischemia and depression in traditional Chinese medicine. Pathogenesis of major depression involves monoaminergic transmission. The present study assessed whether safflower or its isolate would be effective in functionally regulating monoamine transporter using in vitro ...
Rotoli Bianca Maria - - 2009
Since arginine metabolites, such as nitric oxide and polyamines, influence the expression of genes involved in erythroid differentiation, the transport of the cationic amino acid may play an important role in erythroid cells. However, available data only concern the presence in these cells of CAT1 transporter (system y(+)), while no ...
Villa-Bellosta Ricardo - - 2009
The main nonhormonal mechanism for controlling inorganic phosphate (P(i)) homeostasis is renal adaptation of the proximal tubular P(i) transport rate to changes in dietary phosphate content. Opossum kidney (OK) cell line is an in vitro renal model that maintains the ability of renal adaptation to the extracellular P(i) concentration. We ...
Heggland Ingrid - - 2009
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a neurotoxicant which enters the brain and may cause permanent change. Thus, the properties of MeHg transport across cell membranes are a key factor in designing an appropriate model for MeHg neurotoxicity. This study uses cell cultures to examine the uptake and efflux mechanisms of methylmercury in ...
Lagisetty Pallavi - - 2009
N4-Modified, novel Ara-C conjugate capable of radiolabeling with gamma ray-emitting ((99m)Tc) as well as positron emitting ((18)F) radionuclides, that is, N4-hydrazine derivative was synthesized. The radiolabeling of N4-(hydrazinonicotinyl)-1-beta-arabinofuranosyl cytosine (HAra-C) with (99m)Tc was performed with over 95% labeling yield. To label HAra-C with (18)F, 4-fluoro((18)F)-benzaldehyde was synthesized from 4-formyl-N,N,N-trimethylanilinium triflate ...
Sakai Miho - - 2009
Macrophage phagocytosis activates NADPH oxidase, an electron transport system in the plasma membrane. This study examined the feasibility of utilizing electrons transferred through the plasma membrane via NADPH oxidase to run a biofuel cell. THP-1 human monocytic cells were chemically stimulated to differentiate into macrophages. Further they were activated to ...
Machová Eva - - 2009
Choline is an essential nutrient necessary for synthesis of membrane phospholipids, cell signalling molecules and acetylcholine. The aim of this study was to detect and characterize the choline transporter-like 1 (CTL1/SLC44A1) protein in CNS tissues and the hybrid neuroblastoma x glioma cell line NG108-15, which synthesizes acetylcholine and has high ...
Doihara Hitoshi - - 2009
Recently, we discovered that transient receptor potential ankyrin1 channel (TRPA1) is highly expressed in human and rat enterochromaffin (EC) cells, and those TRPA1 agonists such as allyl isothiocyanates (AITC) and cinnamaldehyde (CA) enhance the release of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) from EC cells in vitro. In this study, QGP-1 cells, a ...
Blair Brian G - - 2009
Copper transporter 2 (CTR2) is known to mediate the uptake of Cu(+1) by mammalian cells. Several other Cu transporters, including the influx transporter CTR1 and the two efflux transporters ATP7A and ATP7B, also regulate sensitivity to the platinum-containing drugs. We sought to determine the effect of CTR2 on influx, intracellular ...
Schneiderhan W - - 2009
BACKGROUND: CD147 (basigin, EMMPRIN) is a multifunctional, highly conserved glycoprotein enriched in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) which is associated with poor prognosis in many malignancies. The role of CD147 in pancreatic cancer, however, remains elusive. METHODS AND RESULTS: Silencing of CD147 by RNA interference (RNAi) reduced the proliferation rate of ...
Hwang Pung-Pung - - 2009
Transepithelial transport is one of the major processes involved in the mechanism of homeostasis of body fluids in vertebrates including fish. The current models of ion regulation in fish gill ionocytes have been proposed mainly based on studies in traditional model species like salmon, trout, tilapia, eel and killifish, but ...
Phan Tri Giang - - 2009
The logistic problem of B cell antigen encounter in the lymph node has recently been studied by dynamic imaging using two-photon microscopy. These studies combined with the early studies of antigen transport have yielded a more complete picture of the orchestration of B cell activation in vivo. Here we summarize ...
Misumi Shogo - - 2009
Effective uptake of Ags by specialized M cells of gut-associated lymphoid tissues is an important step in inducing efficient immune responses after oral vaccination. Although stable nontoxic small molecule mimetics of lectins, such as synthetic multivalent polygalloyl derivatives, may have potential in murine M cell targeting, it remains unclear whether ...
Ogihara Takuo - - 2009
Oseltamivir, an ester-type prodrug of the neuraminidase inhibitor [3R,4R,5S]-4-acetamido-5-amino-3-(1-ethylpropoxy)-1-cyclohexene-1-carboxylate phosphate (Ro 64-0802), has been developed for the treatment of A and B strains of the influenza virus but has neuropsychiatric and other side effects. In this study, we characterized the transport across intestinal epithelial cells and the absorption of oseltamivir ...
Schnabl Kareena L - - 2009
Ganglioside GD3 is a glycosphingolipid found in colostrum, developing tissues, and tumors and is known to regulate cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and inflammation. Feeding a GD3-enriched diet to rats increases GD3 in intestinal lipid rafts and blood. The mechanism, efficiency, and fate of ganglioside absorption by human enterocytes have not ...
Endter Sibylle - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: Carrier-mediated transport mechanisms play crucial roles in drug absorption and elimination processes, as well as in the transport of endogenous molecules affecting cellular regulation and function. In this study we used RT-PCR analysis to characterise the mRNA transcript expression of a wide range of membrane carrier transporters in several ...
Nimmagadda Sridhar - - 2009
High levels of choline kinase (ChoK) expression and choline phospholipid metabolites are often associated with malignant transformation, invasion, and metastasis, particularly in breast cancer. These findings have led to the development of novel pharmacologic or gene therapeutic interventions for ChoK-targeted inhibition. To identify pharmacodynamic markers for the therapeutic evaluation of ...
Pomahacová Barbora - - 2009
The biosynthetic pathway of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids in Catharanthus roseus is located throughout various membranes at both the cellular and intercellular levels. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are known to export vincristine and vinblastine from human cancer cells. It has recently been shown that ABC transporters are also involved in the ...
Ghildyal Reena - - 2009
The degradation of nuclear pore components and disruption of nucleocytoplasmic trafficking during rhinovirus infection have been attributed to viral 2A protease. Here we show for the first time that rhinovirus 3C protease may also have a role. Specifically, we show that 3C and its precursor, 3CD, can target green fluorescent ...
Bakhiya Nadiya - - 2009
5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is formed when sugars are acidified or heated. It is present at high levels in numerous foods. HMF is inactive in standard genotoxicity tests, but can be metabolized to a chemically reactive intermediate, 5-sulfooxymethylfurfural (SMF), which is mutagenic and carcinogenic. We recently found that direct parental administration of ...
Kayingo Gerald - - 2009
Candida albicans accumulates large amounts of the polyols glycerol and d-arabitol when the cells are exposed to physiological conditions relevant to stress and virulence in animals. Intracellular concentrations of glycerol are determined by rates of glycerol production and catabolism and of glycerol uptake and efflux through the plasma membrane. We ...
Jensen Laran T LT Department of Environmental Health Sciences and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. - - 2009
The yeast Smf1p Nramp manganese transporter is posttranslationally regulated by environmental manganese. Smf1p is stabilized at the cell surface with manganese starvation, but is largely degraded in the vacuole with physiological manganese through a mechanism involving the Rsp5p adaptor complex Bsd2p/Tre1p/Tre2p. We now describe an additional level of Smf1p regulation ...
Salphati Laurent - - 2009
The human colorectal carcinoma cell line LS513 exhibits epithelial morphology, adherent properties and can grow subcutaneously to form tumors in nude mice. Thus, it is a potential model for mouse xenograft efficacy studies. The present study characterized the expression and activity of P-gp, BCRP and MRP2 in LS513 cells. We ...
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