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Williams B Blairanne BB Neuroscience Graduate Program, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232- 8552, - - 2010
Expansion of a polyglutamine tract in Huntingtin (Htt) leads to the degeneration of medium spiny neurons in Huntington's disease (HD). Furthermore, the HTT gene has been functionally linked to iron (Fe) metabolism, and HD patients show alterations in brain and peripheral Fe homeostasis. Recently, we discovered that expression of mutant ...
Hoeger Ulrich - - 2010
A new type of free coelomic cell was isolated from the coelomic fluid of the polychaete Nereis virens. This cell type was present only during sexual maturation and only in males with fully developed spermatozoa. In vivo acridine orange staining and electron microscopy showed that this cell type consists mainly ...
Bone Derek B J - - 2010
Nucleoside and nucleobase uptake is integral to mammalian cell function, and its disruption has significant effects on the cardiovasculature. The predominant transporters in this regard are the equilibrative nucleoside transporter subtypes 1 (ENT1) and 2 (ENT2). To examine the role of ENT1 in more detail, we have assessed the mechanisms ...
Stamati Ioanna - - 2010
Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is a minimally invasive procedure used for treating a range of neoplastic diseases, which utilises combined action of light and a PDT drug called a photosensitiser. The efficiency of this treatment depends crucially on the properties of the photosensitiser used, namely on its efficient uptake by cells ...
Schnabolk Gloriane W - - 2010
Organic anion transporter 6 (Oat6; Slc22a20), a member of the OAT family, was demonstrated previously to mediate the transport of organic anions (Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 291:F314-F321, 2006). In the present study, we sought to further delineate the function of murine Oat6 (mOat6) by analyzing the effect of select ...
Jou Ming-Yu - - 2010
Zinc (Zn) homeostasis in adults is achieved principally through a balance between intestinal absorption and excretion involving adaptive mechanisms programmed by levels of dietary Zn. Zn absorption in infants is not as tightly regulated as that in adults, which may induce potential toxicity in infants due to the relatively high ...
Rajapaksa Thejani E - - 2010
In mucosal tissues, epithelial M cells capture and transport microbes across the barrier to underlying immune cells. Previous studies suggested that high affinity ligands targeting M cells may be used to deliver mucosal vaccines; here, we show that particle composition and dispersion buffer ionic strength can independently influence their uptake ...
Fan Xuetao - - 2010
Amino acids activate nutrient signaling via the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), we therefore evaluated the relationship between amino acid transporter gene expression and proliferation in human ovarian cancer cell lines. Expression of three cancer-associated amino acid transporter genes, LAT1, ASCT2 and SN2, was measured by qRT-PCR and Western blot. ...
Oz Murat M Integrative Neuroscience Section, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, - - 2010
The serotonin transporter (SERT) mediates clearance of serotonin from the synapse, thereby, regulating extracellular serotonin concentrations. Radioligand uptake techniques are typically used to assess SERT function in tissue and heterologous expression systems. The need for sufficient protein in samples, however, requires use of homogenate preparations, potentially masking effects limited to ...
Muñoz-Martínez Francisco - - 2010
Functional aminophospholipid translocases are composed of at least two proteins: an alpha subunit from the P4 subfamily of P-type ATPases and a beta subunit from the CDC50-Lem3p family. Over-expression and knockdown of the human beta subunit CDC50A in KB cells enhanced and decreased, respectively, the uptake of both fluorescent aminophospholipid ...
Agretti P - - 2011
Thyroid gland is highly dependent on dietary intake of iodine for normal function, so it is particularly subjected to "endocrine disruptor" action. The human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) is an integral plasma membrane glycoprotein mediating the active transport of iodide into thyroid follicular cells, a crucial step for thyroid hormone biosynthesis. ...
Tavares Sandra - - 2010
The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of folate status on the uptake of several physiologically relevant substances by Caco-2 cells. For this, Caco-2 cells cultured in high-folate conditions (HF) and low-folate conditions (LF) were compared. Growth rates of HF and LF Caco-2 cells were similar. However, ...
Oddi Sergio - - 2010
Nonspecific binding of anandamide to plastic exhibits many features that could be mistaken as biological processes, thereby representing an important source of conflicting data on the uptake and release of this lipophilic substance. Herein, we propose an improved method to assay anandamide transport, by using glass slides (i.e., coverslips) as ...
Yamamoto Atsushi - - 2010
System L, which is encoded by LAT1 and LAT2, is an amino acid transport system that transports neutral amino acids, including several essential amino acids in an Na+-independent manner. Due to its broad substrate selectivity, system L has been proposed to mediate the transport of amino-acid-related drugs across the blood-tissue ...
Araújo João R - - 2010
This study aimed to characterize (3)H-folic acid ((3)H-FA) and (14)C-methyltetrahydrofolic acid ((14)C-MTHF) uptake by rat (RBE4) and human (hCMEC/D3) blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelial cell lines. Uptake of (3)H-FA and (14)C-MTHF by RBE4 cells was time dependent and linear for the first 2 min of incubation; uptake by hCMEC/D3 cells showed ...
Taylor Ulrike - - 2010
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have interesting optical properties, such as exceptionally high quantum yields and virtually limitless photostability. Therefore, they show the potential for applications as biomarkers especially suitable for in vivo and long-term studies. The generation of GNPs using pulsed laser light rather than chemical means provides nanoparticles, which are ...
Fievez V - - 2010
To improve transport of vaccine-loaded nanoparticles, the phage display technology was used to identify novel lead peptides targeting human M cells. Using an in vitro model of the human follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) which contains both Caco-2 and M cells, a T7 phage display library was screened for its ability either ...
Zhang Chunbo - - 2010
AIMS: One possible mechanism for epilepsy drug resistance is overexpression of P-glycoprotein in the blood-brain barrier, but whether (or which) antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are transported by P-gp remains unclear. We evaluated AEDs as P-gp substrates using cell monolayers. MAIN METHODS: Bi-directional transport assays and concentration equilibrium transport assays (CETAs) were ...
Jiang Shougang - - 2010
7-Xylosyl-10-deacetylpaclitaxel is an active compound used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat cancer. However, pharmacokinetic studies yielded low plasma concentrations of 7-xylosyl-10-deacetylpaclitaxel after its oral administration in preclinical trials. Therefore, we investigated whether the observed low oral bioavailability of this compound is due to poor absorption. We studied the transepithelial ...
Nie Peixian - - 2010
Phloem unloading plays a pivotal part in photoassimilate transport and partitioning into sink organs. However, it remains unclear whether the unloading pathway alters to adapt to developmental transitions in sinks, especially in fleshy fruits accumulating a high level of soluble sugars. Using a combination of electron microscopy, transport of the ...
Galetti Maricla - - 2010
Gefitinib, an inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, has been developed and approved for treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we investigated the uptake of gefitinib in gefitinib-sensitive and -resistant NSCLC cell lines. The transport system was temperature-dependent, indicative of an active process ...
Han Yong-Hae - - 2010
17alpha-Ethinylestradiol (EE2), a synthetic and potent estrogen receptor agonist, is extensively metabolized in both intestine and liver and is largely excreted in bile and urine as the 3-O-sulfate (EE2-Sul) and 3-O-glucuronide. In the present study, EE2-Sul was evaluated as a substrate of various transporters known to be expressed in the ...
Mall Gaganpreet Kaur - - 2010
The following proteins are candidates for maintaining biotin homeostasis in humans: the biotin transporters sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT) and monocarboxylate transporter 1, the biotinyl-protein ligase holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS), and the lysine-epsilon-biotin hydrolase biotinidase. Liver cells are supplied through the portal vein with high levels of water-soluble vitamins compared with those ...
Holpuch Andrew S AS Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Pathology & Anesthesiology, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, - - 2010
To determine if solid lipid nanoparticles represent a viable strategy for local delivery of poorly water soluble and unstable chemopreventive compounds to human oral tissues. Nanoparticle uptake and compound retention evaluations employed monolayer-cultured human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines and normal human oral mucosal explants. Feasibility of nanoparticle ...
Mitsuoka Keisuke - - 2010
Oligopeptide transporters are abundantly expressed in various types of cancer cells. We here synthesized two novel dipeptides, l-phenylalanyl sarcosine (Phe-Sar) and 4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-l-phenylalanyl sarcosine (Bip(OMe)-Sar), and examined their effect on the growth of human pancreatic cancer AsPC-1 cells, which are known to highly express oligopeptide transporter PEPT1/SLC15A1. Growth of AsPC-1 cells ...
Singhal Sharad S SS Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX 76107, USA. - - 2010
RLIP76 is a stress-responsive membrane protein implicated in the regulation of multiple cellular signaling pathways. It represents the predominant glutathione-conjugate (GS-E) transporter in cells. We have shown that RLIP76 plays a crucial role in defending cancer cells from radiation and chemotherapeutic toxin-mediated apoptosis, and that its inhibition by antibodies or ...
Peng Chiung-Huei - - 2010
Astaxanthine (3,3'-dihydroxy-beta,beta'-caroten-4,4'-dione) (AST), a red-colored carotenoid pigment, possesses extremely powerful antioxidative activity. However, its drawbacks reside in poor solubility in aqueous system, resulting in extremely low bioavailability. To ameliorate such defects, we prepared AST encapsulated within liposomes (AST-L) and tested with Hep3B and HepG2 cell lines. AST-L had size 251+/-23 ...
Prausnitz Mark R - - 2010
A major barrier to drug and gene delivery is crossing the cell's plasma membrane. This study presents a physically based mechanism to deliver molecules into cells with high efficiency and viability using photoacoustic effects generated by carbon nanoparticles. The results demonstrated intracellular delivery using this method in multiple cell types ...
Wang Yi - - 2010
The transport and uptake of individual propranolol (PPL) enantiomers were studied in human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers, and a reversed-phase HPLC-UV assay was used for quantitative analysis. S-PPL and R-PPL across Caco-2 cell monolayers was determined in the concentrations range of 10-500 microM in both apical (AP) to basolateral (BL) ...
Soriano Jorge - - 2010
The study of uptake mechanisms of therapeutic drugs has a growing interest in biomedical research. In this work the cell uptake and phototoxicity of the photosensitizer Zn(II)-phthalocyanine (ZnPc) in dipalmitoyl-phosphatidyl-choline liposomes have been studied in the presence or absence of inhibitors of macropinocytosis (cytochalasin D), and clathrin-mediated endocytosis (dynasore). No ...
Suzuki Eri - - 2010
AIM: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a DNA repair enzyme, and its excessive activation, following ischemia, trauma, etc., depletes cellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) as a substrate and eventually leads to brain cell death. Nicotinamide, an NAD(+) precursor and a PARP-1 inhibitor, is known to prevent PARP-1-triggered cell death, but there ...
Geissler Stefanie - - 2010
The glycation compound pyrraline, which originates from the advanced Maillard reaction, appears in urine after consumption of pyrraline-containing food. We hypothesized that the absorption of pyrraline occurs in the form of dipeptides rather than the free amino acid. The human intestinal peptide transporter hPEPT1 was transiently expressed in HeLa cells. ...
Ananth Sudha S Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912, - - 2010
SMCT1 is a Na(+)-coupled monocarboxylate transporter expressed in a variety of tissues including kidney, thyroid, small intestine, colon, brain, and retina. We found recently that several non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit the activity of SMCT1. Here we evaluated the effect of diclofenac, also a NSAID, on SMCT1. SMCT1 cDNA was ...
Mandela Prashant P Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216, - - 2010
Treatment of rats with reserpine, an inhibitor of the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT), depletes norepinephrine (NE) and regulates NE transporter (NET) expression. The present study examined the molecular mechanisms involved in regulation of the NET by reserpine using cultured cells. Exposure of rat PC12 cells to reserpine for a period ...
Paproski Robert J - - 2010
The abundance of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1) has recently been shown to be a predictive marker of benefit from gemcitabine therapy in patients with pancreatic cancer. Since hENT1 is also important for the uptake of positron emission tomography (PET) tracer 3'-deoxy-3'-fluorothymidine (FLT) in various cultured human cell lines, ...
Bertinato Jesse - - 2010
Silver is a non-essential, toxic metal. The use of silver as an antimicrobial agent in many applications and its presence as a contaminant in foods and air can lead to accumulation in tissues. Despite its widespread use, the systems involved in the uptake of silver into mammalian cells are presently ...
Faria Ana - - 2010
There is a growing interest in dietary therapeutic strategies to combat oxidative stress-induced damage to the Central Nervous System (CNS), which is associated with a number of pathophysiological processes, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases and cerebrovascular diseases. Identifying the mechanisms associated with phenolic neuroprotection has been delayed by the lack ...
Kobayashi Masato - - 2010
OBJECTIVES: Almost all D-glucose (GLU) filtered through the glomerulus is reabsorbed by the renal proximal tubules, whereas a high portion of 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose [(18F)FDG] is excreted through the urine. However, [18F]FDG is not entirely excreted in the urine suggesting that it may be partially reabsorbed by the proximal tubules. The purpose ...
Nakamura Toshimichi - - 2010
Ipratropium bromide, an anticholinergic drug used for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, has low oral bioavailability, but systemic exposure, superior to oral administration, can be achieved by inhalation. Therefore, we investigated the pulmonary absorption mechanism of ipratropium using human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells. [3H]Ipratropium uptake by ...
Cotton Leanne M - - 2010
Protection of cells from osmotic stress is crucial for their survival. Exposure to high osmolarity promotes rapid diffusion of water across cell membranes, dramatically increasing cellular ionic strength, leading to disruption of key proteins/DNA resulting in cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. The luminal microenvironment of the epididymis is hypertonic; therefore, epididymal ...
Pan Guoyu G Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Minnesota, 308 Harvard Street SE, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, - - 2010
Stably transfected cell models are routinely used to examine drug-transporter interactions. In one such model of bcrp1-transfected MDCKII cells, we observed a significant enhancement of organic cation intracellular accumulation. Therefore, our goal was to further explore the expression and functional consequences of this cation transport system. Transport assays were carried ...
Jansen Sandra - - 2010
A study was conducted to understand the role of cell concentration and metabolic state in the transport and deposition behaviour of Pseudomonas fluorescens with and without substrate addition. Column experiments using the short-pulse technique (pulse was equivalent to 0.028 pore volume) were performed in quartz sand operating under saturated conditions. ...
Tunsophon Sakara - - 2010
We undertook studies to determine which isotype(s) of protein kinase C (PKC) is/are activated by ligand binding to the 1,25D(3)-MARRS receptor (ERp57/PDIA3) and subsequent stimulation of phosphate uptake. Isolated intestinal epithelial cells from vitamin D-replete chicks were exposed to 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) for 1, 3, or 5min, thoroughly chilled, homogenized, and P(2) ...
Murray-Taylor Faith M - - 2010
Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids are emerging as bioactive agents protective against cardiovascular disease. However, their cellular delivery pathways are poorly defined. Here we questioned whether the uptake of n-3 triglyceride-rich particles (TGRP) is mediated by cell surface proteoglycans (PG) using LDL receptor (LDLR)+/+ and LDLR-/- cell models. LDLR+/+ but not ...
Muñoz-Cabello Ana M - - 2010
In this study, we explored the presence of aquaporins (AQPs), a family of membrane water channel proteins, in carotid body (CB) type I chemoreceptor cells. The CB is a polymodal chemoreceptor whose major function is to detect changes in arterial O2 tension to elicit hyperventilation during hypoxia. The CB has ...
Nutt J E - - 2010
The standard treatment of choice for malignant pleural mesothelioma is chemotherapy with pemetrexed and platinum, but the clinical outcome is poor. This study investigates the response to pemetrexed in a panel of eight mesothelioma cell lines and the clinical outcome for patients treated with pemetrexed in relation to folate receptor ...
Liu Jihua J Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Chemistry/CCCD, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, - - 2010
Endocytic uptake and subcellular trafficking of a large array of HPMA (N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide) based copolymers possessing positively or negatively charged residues, or hydrophobic groups were evaluated by flow cytometry and living cell confocal microscopy in cultured prostate cancer cells. The degrees of cellular uptake of various copolymer fractions with narrow polydispersities ...
Jin Miao - - 2010
The intestinal absorption of chondroitin sulfate (CS) and its hydrolysate, particularly the disaccharides (Di-CS), was investigated by using human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers. Although the transepithelial transport of CS was not detectable, dose- and time-dependent transport of Di-CS was observed. The transport of Di-CS was proved to be energy-independent ...
Minematsu Tsuyoshi - - 2010
1-(2-Methoxyethyl)-2-methyl-4,9-dioxo-3-(pyrazin-2-ylmethyl)-4,9-dihydro-1H-naphtho[2,3-d]imidazolium bromide (YM155 monobromide) is a novel small-molecule survivin suppressant that induces the down-regulation of survivin and exhibits potent antitumor activity in nude mice bearing human hormone refractory prostate carcinoma cell line PC-3. Although YM155, which has a cationic moiety in its structure, is influxed into its pharmacologically effective site ...
Su C - - 2010
Cancers contain a 'side population' (SP), a subset of cells that is greatly enriched in stem cells and which contains malignant progenitors. SP cells are characterised by high efflux capability for Hoechst 33342 dye and for anti-cancer therapeutic agents through transporters; ABCG2 (ATP-binding cassette transporter G2) is currently most closely ...
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