Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 2256
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Frederick Mallory R - - 2011
Biofilms are microbial communities encased in a layer of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The EPS matrix provides several functional purposes for the biofilm, such as protecting bacteria from environmental stresses, and providing mechanical stability. Quorum sensing is a cell-cell communication mechanism used by several bacterial taxa to coordinate gene expression ...
Tabuchi Hisahiro - - 2010
Transporters mediate the uptake of nutrients such as amino acids and the excretion of metabolites. The fact that transporters play crucial roles in regulating cell metabolism suggests that they might be useful targets for cell engineering to enhance the yield and/or quality of monoclonal antibody (MAb) produced by CHO cells. ...
Ciarimboli Giuliano - - 2011
Anticancer treatment with ifosfamide but not with its structural isomer cyclophosphamide is associated with development of renal Fanconi syndrome leading to diminished growth in children and bone problems in adults. Since both cytotoxics share the same principal metabolites, we investigated whether a specific renal uptake of ifosfamide is the basis ...
Li Lei - - 2010
Objective To study the regulatorymechanism of SATB1 repression in cells other than T cells or erythroid cells,which have high expression level of SATB1. MethodsHeLa epithelial cells were treated with either hist one deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) trichostatin A (TSA) or DNAmethylation inhibitor 5-Aza-C before detecting SATB1 expression. Luciferase reporter system was ...
Lei Li - - 2010
Objective To study the regulatory mechanism of SATB1 repression in cells other than T cells or erythroid cells, which have high expression level of SATB1. Methods HeLa epithelial cells were treated with either histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) trichostatin A (TSA) or DNA methylation inhibitor 5-Aza-C before detecting SATB1 expression. Luciferase ...
Dhar Sheetal - - 2011
Currently gold nanoparticles are being explored for drug delivery and other biomedical applications; therefore it is necessary to study the fate of such nanoparticles inside the body. The objective of the present study was to investigate the cellular uptake and toxicity of the gold nanoparticles synthesized using a microbial polysaccharide, ...
Larson Steven B - - 2010
Human methemoglobin was crystallized in a unique unit cell and its structure was solved by molecular replacement. The hexagonal unit cell has unit-cell parameters a = b = 54.6, c = 677.4 Å, with symmetry consistent with space group P6₁22. The unit cell has the second highest aspect ratio of ...
Mendiburo M J - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Heme iron is found in the diet mainly in the form of hemoglobin and myoglobin. It is known that heme iron (heme-Fe) and inorganic iron are absorbed differently. Intracellularly, heme oxygenase-1 (HO1) participates in the cleavage of the heme ring producing biliverdin, CO and ferrous iron. Iron released from ...
Leitenmaier Barbara - - 2011
Hyperaccumulators store accumulated metals in the vacuoles of large leaf epidermal cells (storage cells). For investigating cadmium uptake, we incubated protoplasts obtained from leaves of Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges ecotype) with a Cd-specific fluorescent dye. A fluorescence kinetic microscope was used for selectively measuring Cd-uptake and photosynthesis in different cell types, ...
Dix Andrew V AV Department of Chemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, - - 2010
Oligoarginine and guanidinium-rich molecular transporters have been shown to facilitate the intracellular delivery of a diverse range of biologically relevant cargos. Several such transporters have been suggested to interact with cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans as part of their cell-entry pathway. Unlike for other guanidinium-rich transporters, the cellular uptake of guanidinoglycosides ...
Nishimura T - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to clarify the cytoprotective mechanism(s) induced in a conditionally immortalized syncytiotrophoblast cell line (TR-TBT 18d-1) exposed to hypertonic conditions. Hypertonicity-induced apoptosis of TR-TBT 18d-1 cells, but this was blocked by addition of 1 mM taurine to the culture medium. TauT-knockdown using siRNA revealed that ...
Parihar Arpana - - 2011
Our previous studies in hamster cheek pouch model have shown that chlorin p (6) (Cp (6)), a chlorophyll derivative is a suitable photosensitizer for photodynamic treatment (PDT) of small tumors (<5 mm). However, for bigger tumors, the accumulation of Cp (6) was inadequate, which compromised the effectiveness of PDT. The purpose ...
Dusotoit-Coucaud Anaïs - - 2010
Hevea brasiliensis is an important industrial crop for natural rubber production. Latex biosynthesis occurs in the cytoplasm of highly specialized latex cells and requires sucrose as the unique precursor. Ethylene stimulation of latex production results in high sugar flow from the surrounding cells of inner bark towards the latex cells. ...
Okubo-Kurihara Emiko - - 2011
Sucrose plays an important role in several cellular processes since it is a general source of metabolic energy, serves as a precursor for starch and cellulose synthesis, and is a metabolic starting point for carboxylate- and amino acid synthesis. While plant vacuole is the main cellular storage pool, where sucrose ...
Iskandar Irma I Division of Periodontology, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University Health Sciences Center, Columbus, OH 43210, - - 2011
Clarithromycin inhibits several periodontal pathogens and is concentrated inside gingival fibroblasts and epithelial cells by an active transporter. We hypothesized that polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and less mature myeloid cells possess a similar transporter for clarithromycin. It is feasible that clarithromycin accumulation inside PMNs could enhance their ability to kill Aggregatibacter ...
Dejong Nicolaas - - 2010
Molecular ultrasound imaging uses targeted contrast agents consisting of microbubbles. Drug uptake using microbubbles can be induced by sonoporation, a method that induces transient cell membrane pores by oscillating or jetting microbubbles so that therapeutics can enter the cell. This study focuses on inducing sonoporation with CD31-targeted microbubbles in endothelial ...
Zimmermann Mathias - - 2010
Aim of this study was to examine the dipeptide transport of β-Ala-Lys-N(ɛ)-AMCA in the human glioma cell line U373-MG and its potential regulation by diverse hormones and culture media. A mixed glial primary cell culture of the newborn rat served as reference cell system. β-Ala-Lys-N(ɛ)-AMCA (β-Ala-Lys-N(ɛ)-7-amino-4-methyl-coumarin-3-acetic acid) is a highly ...
Reyes-Reyes E Merit - - 2010
AS1411 is a first-in-class anticancer agent, currently in phase II clinical trials. It is a quadruplex-forming oligodeoxynucleotide that binds to nucleolin as an aptamer, but its mechanism of action is not completely understood. Mechanistic insights could lead to clinically useful markers for AS1411 response and to novel targeted therapies. Previously, ...
Kuang Yu Y Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, - - 2010
Altered choline (Cho) metabolism in cancerous cells can be used as a basis for molecular imaging with PET using radiolabeled Cho. In this study, the metabolism of tracer Cho was investigated in a woodchuck hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line (WCH17) and in freshly derived rat hepatocytes. The transporter responsible for ...
Barz Matthias - - 2010
In this article we report the synthesis and in vitro evaluation of well-defined, folate functionalized and fluorescently labeled polymers based on the clinically approved N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-methacrylamide (HPMA). The polymers were prepared applying the RAFT polymerization method as well as the reactive ester approach. The molecular weights of the polymers synthesized were ...
McCurdy David W - - 2010
Hexoses accumulate to high concentrations (∼ 200 mM) in storage parenchyma cells of tomato fruit. Hexoses are sourced from the fruit apoplasm as hydrolysis products of phloem-imported sucrose. Three hexose transporters (LeHT1, LeHT2, LeHT3), expressed in fruit storage parenchyma cells, may contribute to hexose uptake by these cells. An analysis ...
Wang Chunxia - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to investigate the potentiation of the anticancer activity and enhanced cellular retention of paclitaxel-loaded PLGA nanoparticles after surface conjugation with wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) against colon cancer cells. Glycosylation patterns of representative colon cancer cells confirmed the higher expression levels of WGA-binding glycoproteins in ...
Wang Jun J Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, - - 2010
Transport of protein and RNA cargoes between the nucleus and cytoplasm (nucleocytoplasmic transport) is vital for a variety of cellular functions. The studies of kinetics involved in such processes have been hindered by the lack of quantitative tools for measurement of the nuclear and cytosolic fractions of an intracellular protein ...
Lyu Su-Yun - - 2010
A galactose- and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-specific lectin (Viscum album L. var. coloratum agglutinin, VCA), which is known for its anti-tumor activity, was isolated from Korean mistletoe. Mistletoe preparations have been given subcutaneously because of the unstability and poor absorption in the GI tract. In this study, we investigated the effect of incubation ...
Wallin Hanna - - 2010
Cystatins are present in mammals, birds, fish, insects, plants, fungi and protozoa and constitute a large protein family, with most members sharing a cysteine protease inhibitory function. In humans 12 functional cystatins exist, forming three groups based on molecular organisation and distribution in the organism. The type 1 cystatins (A ...
Plotnik David A DA Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, - - 2010
The basis for the use of nucleoside tracers in PET is that activity of the cell-growth-dependent enzyme thymidine kinase 1 is the rate-limiting factor driving tracer retention in tumors. Recent publications suggest that nucleoside transporters might influence uptake and thereby affect the tracer signal in vivo. Understanding transport mechanisms for ...
Zoldakova Miroslava - - 2010
The combretastatin A4 analogous chalcone (2E)-3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one 1 and its dichloridoplatinum(II) (6-aminomethylnicotinate) complex 2 were previously found to be highly active against a variety of cancer cell lines while differing in their apoptosis induction and long-term regrowth retardation (Schobert et al. [1]). Further differences were identified now. The cellular uptake of ...
Fang Fang F Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, New York 14642, - - 2010
A variety of steroids, including pregnenolone sulfate (PREGS) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) are synthesized by specific brain cells, and are then delivered to their target sites, where they exert potent effects on neuronal excitability. The present results demonstrate that [(3)H]DHEAS and [(3)H]PREGS are relatively high affinity substrates for the organic ...
Lim Byung-Chan - - 2011
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a dysgenetic syndrome involved in multiple organs, and the pathognomonic cortical tuber act as an epileptic substrate. The amino acid transport system L (LAT) is a major nutrient transport system, and LAT1 is highly expressed in malignant tumors to support tumor cell growth. To study ...
Diao Lei - - 2010
Pramipexole is a hydrophilic, weakly basic drug, but exhibits high oral bioavailability in humans (>90%). In rats, rOct1 and rOct2 contribute toward pramipexole excretion into urine. The objective of this study was to assess whether pramipexole is a substrate for human OCT1-3. In vitro uptake studies were performed using hOCT1-MDCK ...
Bryan Amanda A Dept. of Cell Biology & Biochemistry, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 3601 4th Street, Lubbock, TX 79430, - - 2010
The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa employs acyl homoserine lactones (AHL) as signaling compounds to regulate virulence gene expression via quorum sensing. The AHL N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (3OC(12)-HSL) also induces mammalian cell responses, including apoptosis and immune modulation. In certain cell types the apoptotic effects of 3OC(12)-HSL are mediated via a calcium-dependent ...
Shah Dhawal - - 2010
Arsenic contamination of ground water affects the health of millions of people worldwide. Bioremediation has the potential to lower contaminant levels in cases where physical methods are either ineffective or cost prohibitive. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered for enhanced arsenite accumulation by overexpression of transporters responsible for the influx ...
Thomas Thommey P TP Michigan Nanotechnology Institute for Medicine and Biological Sciences, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Allergy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, - - 2010
This communication describes the synthesis and in vitro biological evaluation of novel generation 5 PAMAM dendrimers conjugated with riboflavin as a targeting ligand. Cell-based experiments demonstrated that a dendrimer conjugated with riboflavin is able to undergo cellular binding and uptake in KB cells, and when the dendrimer is also conjugated ...
Zhao Gang - - 2010
We previously reported that safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) ethyl acetate extract (HE) possessed an inhibitory action on serotonin (5HT) uptake in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing 5HT transporter (SERT) (S6 cells). Here, HE was adopted to go through an activity-guided isolation, and then an ingredient with potent SERT inhibitory ...
Kuteykin-Teplyakov Konstantin - - 2010
P-glycoprotein (Pgp) efflux assays are widely used to identify Pgp substrates. The kidney cell lines Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK)-II and LLC-PK1, transfected with human MDR1 (ABCB1) are used to provide recombinant models of drug transport. Endogenous transporters in these cells may contribute to the activities of recombinant transporters, so that ...
Cheng Fan F Department of Neural and Behavioral Sciences, The Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA 17033, - - 2010
The opioid growth factor (OGF; [Met(5)]-enkephalin), a constitutively expressed and tonically active inhibitory peptide, interacts with the OGF receptor (OGFr) to form an endogenous growth-regulating pathway in homeostasis. Amplification of OGF-OGFr interfacing in animal and clinical studies depresses development, neoplasia, angiogenesis, and immunity. Disruption of the OGF-OGFr axis accelerates cell ...
Li Buhong - - 2010
The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity of hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME)-mediated PDT in the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positive and negative human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells. The intracellular uptake of HMME in C666-1 (EBV+) and CNE2 (EBV-) cells was quantitatively determined after incubating with different concentration of ...
Wang Qi Q Oregon Hearing Research Center, Oregon Health Sciences University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239, - - 2010
Aminoglycosides enter inner ear hair cells via apical endocytosis, or mechanoelectrical transduction channels, implying that, in vivo, aminoglycosides enter hair cells from endolymph prior to exerting their cytotoxic effect. If so, circulating aminoglycosides likely cross the strial blood-labyrinth barrier and enter marginal cells prior to clearance into endolymph. We characterized ...
Hosoya Ken-ichi - - 2010
We have reported previously that creatine is biosynthesized from glycine and L-arginine in Müller cells, but the mechanism responsible for glycine and L-arginine uptake by Müller cells remains elusive. To explore this issue, [(14)C]glycine and [(3)H]L-arginine uptake by Müller cells was characterized using a conditionally immortalized rat Müller cell line ...
Williams B Blairanne BB Neuroscience Graduate Program, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232- 8552, - - 2010
Expansion of a polyglutamine tract in Huntingtin (Htt) leads to the degeneration of medium spiny neurons in Huntington's disease (HD). Furthermore, the HTT gene has been functionally linked to iron (Fe) metabolism, and HD patients show alterations in brain and peripheral Fe homeostasis. Recently, we discovered that expression of mutant ...
Hoeger Ulrich - - 2010
A new type of free coelomic cell was isolated from the coelomic fluid of the polychaete Nereis virens. This cell type was present only during sexual maturation and only in males with fully developed spermatozoa. In vivo acridine orange staining and electron microscopy showed that this cell type consists mainly ...
Bone Derek B J - - 2010
Nucleoside and nucleobase uptake is integral to mammalian cell function, and its disruption has significant effects on the cardiovasculature. The predominant transporters in this regard are the equilibrative nucleoside transporter subtypes 1 (ENT1) and 2 (ENT2). To examine the role of ENT1 in more detail, we have assessed the mechanisms ...
Stamati Ioanna - - 2010
Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is a minimally invasive procedure used for treating a range of neoplastic diseases, which utilises combined action of light and a PDT drug called a photosensitiser. The efficiency of this treatment depends crucially on the properties of the photosensitiser used, namely on its efficient uptake by cells ...
Schnabolk Gloriane W - - 2010
Organic anion transporter 6 (Oat6; Slc22a20), a member of the OAT family, was demonstrated previously to mediate the transport of organic anions (Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 291:F314-F321, 2006). In the present study, we sought to further delineate the function of murine Oat6 (mOat6) by analyzing the effect of select ...
Jou Ming-Yu - - 2010
Zinc (Zn) homeostasis in adults is achieved principally through a balance between intestinal absorption and excretion involving adaptive mechanisms programmed by levels of dietary Zn. Zn absorption in infants is not as tightly regulated as that in adults, which may induce potential toxicity in infants due to the relatively high ...
Rajapaksa Thejani E - - 2010
In mucosal tissues, epithelial M cells capture and transport microbes across the barrier to underlying immune cells. Previous studies suggested that high affinity ligands targeting M cells may be used to deliver mucosal vaccines; here, we show that particle composition and dispersion buffer ionic strength can independently influence their uptake ...
Fan Xuetao - - 2010
Amino acids activate nutrient signaling via the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), we therefore evaluated the relationship between amino acid transporter gene expression and proliferation in human ovarian cancer cell lines. Expression of three cancer-associated amino acid transporter genes, LAT1, ASCT2 and SN2, was measured by qRT-PCR and Western blot. ...
Oz Murat M Integrative Neuroscience Section, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, - - 2010
The serotonin transporter (SERT) mediates clearance of serotonin from the synapse, thereby, regulating extracellular serotonin concentrations. Radioligand uptake techniques are typically used to assess SERT function in tissue and heterologous expression systems. The need for sufficient protein in samples, however, requires use of homogenate preparations, potentially masking effects limited to ...
Muñoz-Martínez Francisco - - 2010
Functional aminophospholipid translocases are composed of at least two proteins: an alpha subunit from the P4 subfamily of P-type ATPases and a beta subunit from the CDC50-Lem3p family. Over-expression and knockdown of the human beta subunit CDC50A in KB cells enhanced and decreased, respectively, the uptake of both fluorescent aminophospholipid ...
Agretti P - - 2011
Thyroid gland is highly dependent on dietary intake of iodine for normal function, so it is particularly subjected to "endocrine disruptor" action. The human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) is an integral plasma membrane glycoprotein mediating the active transport of iodide into thyroid follicular cells, a crucial step for thyroid hormone biosynthesis. ...
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >