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Weibel Douglas B - - 2005
It is difficult to harness the power generated by biological motors to carry out mechanical work in systems outside the cell. Efforts to capture the mechanical energy of nanomotors ex vivo require in vitro reconstitution of motor proteins and, often, protein engineering. This study presents a method for harnessing the ...
Zalups Rudolfs K - - 2005
Recently, the activity of the organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) protein has been implicated in the basolateral uptake of inorganic mercuric species in renal proximal tubular cells. Unfortunately, very little is known about the role of OAT1 in the renal epithelial transport of organic forms of mercury, such as methylmercury ...
de Paula Le Sueur Luciana - - 2005
Phoneutria nigriventer spider venom (PNV) induces, in rats, local edema as result of an increased vascular permeability, as well as causes blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown by altering transendothelial transport routes in hippocampal microvessels. In this work we investigated the in vitro effects of PNV on cell viability and cellular transport ...
Bridges Christy C - - 2005
System x(-) (c) is a heterodimeric transporter, comprised of a light chain, xCT, and heavy chain, 4F2hc, which mediates the sodium-independent exchange of cystine and glutamate at the plasma membrane. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that stable transfection of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells with human xCT ...
Bedhomme Mariette - - 2005
The distribution of folates in plant cells suggests a complex traffic of the vitamin between the organelles and the cytosol. The Arabidopsis thaliana protein AtFOLT1 encoded by the At5g66380 gene is the closest homolog of the mitochondrial folate transporters (MFTs) characterized in mammalian cells. AtFOLT1 belongs to the mitochondrial carrier ...
Laparra José Moisés - - 2005
Foods and drinking water are the main sources of human exposure to inorganic arsenic [As(III) and As(V)]. After oral ingestion, the intestinal epithelium is the first barrier to absorption of these species. A human intestinal cell line (Caco-2) was used to evaluate cell retention and transport of As(III) (15.6-156.0 microM) ...
Morin Kevin W - - 2005
INTRODUCTION: (E)-5-(2-Iodovinyl)-2'-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (IVFRU) is a pyrimidine nucleoside analogue that accumulates selectively in murine cells expressing herpes simplex type-1 thymidine kinase (HSV-1 TK). The uptake of [(125)I]IVFRU in human 143B osteosarcoma cells transduced with a retroviral vector bearing the HSV-1 TK gene (143B-LTK cells) is now reported. METHODS: HSV-1 TK gene ...
des Rieux Anne - - 2005
An in vitro model of the human follicle associated epithelium (FAE) was characterized and the influence of nanoparticle properties on the transcellular transport across the in vitro model was investigated. The model was established by co-culturing Caco-2 and Raji cells, with Caco-2 cells alone as control. The conversion of Caco-2 ...
Ren Yunli - - 2005
Assay of hydrogenase activity pertaining to H2 production needs anaerobic conditions. To establish a simplified method for assay of hydrogenase activities by using intact cells of Enterobater aerogenes, different chemicals capable of enhancing the cell-wall permeability to electron mediators were examined. As a result, Triton X-100 and CTAB were found ...
Lenaerts Kaatje - - 2005
Glutamine is an essential amino acid for enterocytes, especially in states of critical illness and injury. In several studies it has been speculated that the beneficial effects of glutamine are dependent on the route of supply (luminal or systemic). The aim of this study was to investigate the relevance of ...
Diaz-Griffero Felipe - - 2005
Avian leukosis virus (ALV) requires endocytosis and a low pH step for successful viral entry. Here we report that transient treatment with lysosomotropic agents was not sufficient to block ALV subgroup B (ALV-B) entry, while it completely inhibited uptake of the pH-dependent Semliki Forest virus. Extended incubations with lysosomotropic agents ...
Zhou Yuzhao - - 2005
Aluminum (Al) can cause neurotoxicity, a low-turnover osteomalacia, and microcytic anemia. To test the null hypothesis that the chemical form (species) of Al does not influence its mechanism or rate of absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, Al flux across and uptake into Caco-2 cells was investigated. Caco-2 cells were grown ...
Bosnar Martina - - 2005
Macrolide antibiotics have an outstanding ability to concentrate within host cells, particularly phagocytes. In the study described in this paper five different macrolide antibiotics were compared regarding the uptake and release kinetics in human peripheral blood polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and three different cell lines, two phagocytic cell lines (RAW 264.7 ...
Ebert Bettina - - 2005
Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) is known to actively transport various anticancer drugs and to restrict the uptake of the food carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine from the gut lumen. The present study reveals that BCRP is involved in the transport of phase-2 metabolites of the carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (BP) in the human intestinal ...
Bhardwaj Rajinder K RK Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, NJ 08854-8022, - - 2005
In the present investigation, the uptake and transport kinetics of valacyclovir (VACV), 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), and benzylpenicillin (BENZ) were studied in stably transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK)/human peptide transporter 1 (hPepT1)-V5&His clonal cell lines expressing varying levels of epitope-tagged hPepT1 protein (low, medium, and high expression) and in Caco-2 cells ...
Hay, Jordan O.
Roger M. Spanswick, Susan R. McCouch, Larry P. Walker
Cheng Zhen - - 2005
Numerous new molecular targets for diseases are rapidly being identified and validated in the postgenomic era, urging scientists to explore novel techniques for accelerating molecular probe development. In this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was investigated as a potential tool for high-throughput screening and characterization of molecular ...
Fu Guo-Hui - - 2005
Successful application of arsenic trioxide (As2O3) in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has been attracting worldwide interest, but the exact mechanism for the action of As2O3 remains somewhat obscure. In the present work, we show for the first time that As2O3 facilitates the DIDS-sensitive anion transport activity of ...
Yamada Kiyoshi - - 2005
Using human (SK-MEL 23, SK-MEL 24 and G361) and murine (B16) melanoma cell lines, the coregulatory potential of the uptake of the positron emission tomography (PET) tracer, [Fluorine-18] 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (F-18 FDG) has been investigated in relationship to tumor characteristics. Comparative studies among the four melanoma cell lines demonstrated that the ...
Aduayom I - - 2005
In a previous study, we characterized Cd-Hg interactions for uptake in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. We pursued our investigations on metal uptake from metal mixtures, focusing on the effects of Hg on cellular homeostasis. A 4-fold higher equilibrium accumulation value of 0.3 micromol/L (203)Hg was measured in the presence of ...
McMillan J M - - 2005
S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) is an endogenous molecule that is known to be protective against hepatotoxic injury. Although oral SAMe appears to be absorbed across the intestinal mucosa, its systemic bioavailability is low. The reason for this is unknown. Using the Caco-2 cell culture model for enterocyte absorption, we determined the mode ...
Chang Chiung-Wen - - 2005
Organisms exhibit a diverse set of responses when exposed to low-phosphate conditions. Some of these responses are specific for phosphorus limitation, including responses that enable cells to efficiently scavenge phosphate from internal and external stores via the production of high-affinity phosphate transporters and the synthesis of intracellular and extracellular phosphatases. ...
Hong Wanjin - - 2005
SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) are now generally accepted to be the major players in the final stage of the docking and the subsequent fusion of diverse vesicle-mediated transport events. The SNARE-mediated process is conserved evolutionally from yeast to human, as well as mechanistically and structurally across different ...
Chang Cheng - - 2005
The organic anion transporting polypeptides OATPs are key membrane transporters for which crystal structures are not currently available. They transport a diverse array of xenobiotics and are expressed at the interface of hepatocytes, renal tubular cells, enterocytes, and the choroid plexus. To aid the understanding of the key molecular features ...
Asano Nagayoshi - - 2006
During pregnancy, the zinc level in fetal serum is up to two-fold higher than that in the maternal serum at the end of pregnancy, but the mechanism of zinc release from the placenta into fetal circulation is not well understood. In this study, we determined the expression profiles of zinc ...
Takamoto Kozo - - 2005
Megalin, a family of endocytic receptors related to the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, is a major pathway for proximal tubular aminoglycoside accumulation. We previously reported that aminoglycoside antibiotics reduce SGLT1-dependent glucose transport in pig proximal tubular epithelial LLC-PK1 cells in parallel with the order of their nephrotoxicity. In this study, ...
Maragakis Nicholas J - - 2005
We have examined the expression of glutamate transporters in primary and immortalized glial precursors (GRIPs). We subsequently transduced these cells with the GLT1 glutamate transporter and examined the ability of these cells to protect motor neurons in an organotypic spinal cord culture. We show that glial restricted precursors and GRIP-derived ...
Hayes Derek - - 2005
Transport of L-cystine across the cell membrane is essential for synthesis of the major cellular antioxidant, glutathione (gamma-glutamylcysteinylglycine). In this study, uptake of L-[14C]cystine by three of the high affinity sodium-dependent mammalian glutamate transporters (GLT1, GLAST and EAAC1) individually expressed in HEK cells has been determined. All three transporters display ...
Landowski Christopher P - - 2005
Floxuridine is a clinically proven anticancer agent in the treatment of metastatic colon carcinomas and hepatic metastases. However, prodrug strategies may be necessary to improve its physiochemical properties and selectivity and to reduce undesirable toxicity effects. Previous studies with amino acid ester prodrugs of nucleoside drugs targeted to the PEPT1 ...
Zhang Yanhong - - 2005
This review will focus on the transport and intracellular formation of S-nitrosothiols in cell culture models. The major points made in this article are: (1) S-Nitrosothiols are actively metabolized by cells. (2) S-Nitrosothiols affect cells in ways distinctly different from those of nitric oxide and can act through mechanisms that ...
Chanteux Hugues - - 2005
Pivampicillin (PIVA), an acyloxymethylester of ampicillin, is thought to enhance the oral bioavailability of ampicillin because of its greater lipophilicity compared to that of ampicillin. The fate of PIVA in intestinal cells and the exact location of its conversion into ampicillin have, however, never been unambiguously established. Polarized Caco-2 cells ...
Palm Fredrik - - 2005
Renal medullary tubular cells in the loop of Henle have crucial importance for the regulation of homeostasis of the extracellular fluid. These cells receive limited amount of blood and oxygen, and are also constantly challenged by the hypertonic environment. The medullary tubular cells in the last part of the loop ...
Li Sheng - - 2005
Many of the biological effects of nitric oxide are mediated by S-nitrosothiols. However, the mechanisms by which S-nitrosothiols transduce their activity across cell membranes are unclear. We show that the pathway responsible for the cellular effects of S-nitrosothiols is specific for S-nitrosocysteine (CSNO), is stereoselective, and requires direct uptake of ...
Su T Z - - 2005
Pregabalin (PGB) is a novel drug under development for the treatment of epilepsy, neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, and generalized anxiety disorder. In this study, we investigated PGB transport in rats, mammalian cell lines, and Xenopus laevis oocytes. In contrast to gabapentin (GBP), PGB absorption in rats showed unique linear pharmacokinetics. PGB ...
Onganer P U - - 2005
The possible functional role of voltage-gated Na(+) channel (VGSC) expression in controlling endocytic membrane activity in human small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines (H69, H209, H510) was studied using uptake of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The normal human airway epithelial (16HBE14o) cell line was used in a comparative approach. Uptake of ...
Erkan Elif - - 2005
End-stage renal disease due to proteinuric states has a great impact on the quality of life by necessitating renal replacement therapy. Understanding the pathophysiologic consequences of proteinuria is crucial in order to develop treatment strategies to halt the progression. We have previously reported that cultured porcine proximal tubule cells respond ...
Hadden M Kyle - - 2005
Neurotensin is a linear tridecapeptide that elicits a variety of physiological responses in the brain, including hypothermia and antinociception, and reduced levels have been linked to schizophrenia. Previously in our laboratory we developed a truncated neurotensin derivative, KK13. This hexapeptide exhibited key pharmacokinetic and behavioural characteristics of an antipsychotic and ...
Ouchetto H - - 2005
A fluorescent labelled artificial siderophore 1 was synthesized by coupling a 7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD) derivative to the terminal amino group of a new trihydroxamate-containing amine 2, a ferrichrome-type siderophore that was obtained from tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane. Compound 1 was shown to be a suitable tool for experiments on siderophore transport and uptake processes ...
Raynal N J - - 2005
Cadmium uptake was studied in isolated adrenocortical cells of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) to test the hypothesis that the greater sensitivity of trout cells to Cd-induced disruption of cortisol secretion observed in previous studies is correlated to higher level of metal accumulation. There was no ...
Gratzl, Miklos
Background of the invention: 1. Field of the Invention: The invention relates to a method for solving deconvolution problems where it is desired to reconstruct a signal over a time range or another variable of interest. It finds particular application in determining a flux from a source which is spaced ...
Xia Cindy Q - - 2005
The function of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and its role in drug absorption, distribution, and elimination has recently been evaluated. The objective of the present study was to examine the expression, localization, and functional characteristics of BCRP in Caco-2 cells, a widely used human intestinal epithelial cell model for ...
Merino Gracia - - 2005
Methylcarbamate benzimidazoles [albendazole (ABZ), fenbendazole (FBZ), and their respective sulfoxide derivatives, albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO) and oxfendazole (OXF)] are therapeutically important anthelmintic agents with low bioavailability. We studied their in vitro interaction with the apical ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug efflux transporters, breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2), P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), and MRP2 (ABCC2) ...
Bae S Y - - 2005
Arginine is a semi-essential amino acid that serves as sole substrate for enzymes involved in diverse cell processes including redox balance via nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cell proliferation via arginase. Neurons that express nNOS require intracellular arginine to generate nitric oxide (NO). Using a TH+ neuronal cell line (CAD ...
Etxeberria Ed - - 2005
The capacity of plant heterotrophic organs to transport and accumulate incoming nutrients (mostly in the form of sucrose) directly impacts their final size, crop productivity and nutritional value. Endocytosis as a mechanism for nutrient uptake in heterotrophic cells was investigated using suspension culture cells of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) and ...
Müller J - - 2005
Many cationic drugs are administered during pregnancy and might enter the fetal circulation by transplacental passage. This study was performed to characterize the apical uptake of choline and several cationic drugs at cultured epithelial cells of the human placenta. Total uptake of [3H]choline in BeWo cells was H(+)-independent and to ...
Ozvegy-Laczka Csilla - - 2005
The human ABCG2 protein is an ATP binding cassette half-transporter, which protects our cells and tissues against various xenobiotics, while overexpression of ABCG2 in tumor cells confers multidrug resistance. It has been documented that single amino acid changes at position 482 resulted in altered drug resistance and transport capacity. In ...
Aleo Maria Francesca - - 2005
Tubular epithelium represents the primary target of mercuric ions (Hg(2+)) nephrotoxicity. Although widely investigated, the mechanisms of Hg(2+) cell uptake, accumulation and excretion all along the nephron remain largely unknown. In the present study, native distal tubular-derived Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells exposed to subcytotoxic (micromolar) HgCl(2) concentrations were used ...
Sundén, Bengt
Fuel cells are expected to play a significant role in the next generation of energy systems and road vehicles for transportation. However, substantial progress is required in reducing manufacturing costs and improving performance. This book aims to contribute to the understanding of the transport processes in solid oxide fuel cells ...
Figueiredo Ana E - - 2005
L-Arginine is the substrate for nitric oxide synthesis and may enter cells by the y+ and y+ L transport systems. Peritoneal membrane characteristics may depend on vascular function and the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway. In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated erythrocyte L-arginine uptake in stable peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients with various ...
Hosoya Ken-ichi - - 2005
The retinal capillary endothelial cells are connected to each other by tight junctions that play a key role in permeability as the inner blood-retinal barrier (inner BRB). Thus, understanding the inner BRB transport mechanism is an important step towards drug targeting of the retina. Nevertheless, inner BRB transport studies have ...
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