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Results 451 - 500 of 2282
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Parra Leonardo A - - 2008
Rxt1/NTT4 (SLC6A17) belongs to a gene family of "orphan transporters" whose substrates and consequently functions remain unidentified. Although Rxt1/NTT4 was previously thought to function as a sodium-dependent plasma membrane transporter, recent studies localized the protein to synaptic vesicles of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. Here, we provide evidence indicating that Rxt1/NTT4 ...
Bisson M A - - 2008
Hyper- and hypotonic stresses elicit apparently symmetrical responses in the alga Ventricaria. With hypertonic stress, membrane potential difference (PD) between the vacuole and the external medium becomes more positive, conductance at positive PDs (Gmpos) increases and KCl is actively taken up to increase turgor. With hypotonic stress, the membrane PD ...
Lim Sing Fee - - 2008
A CHO mutant line, MAR-11, was isolated using a cytotoxic lectin, Maackia amurensis agglutinin (MAA). This mutant has decreased levels of cell surface sialic acid relative to both wild-type CHO-K1 and Lec2 mutant CHO cells. The CMP-sialic acid transporter (CMP-SAT) gene in the MAR-11 mutant cell has a C-T mutation ...
Lorenz Myriam R - - 2008
Fluorescent polyisoprene nanoparticles were synthesized by the miniemulsion technique as marker particles for cells. The uptake of the non-functionalized polyisoprene nanoparticles, without any transfection agents, into different adherent (HeLa) and also suspension (Jurkat) cell lines is strikingly efficient and fast compared to other polymeric particles, and leads to high loading ...
Zingg Jean-Marc - - 2008
Three closely related human sec14p-like proteins (hTAP1, 2, and 3, or SEC14L2, 3, and 4, respectively) have been described. These proteins may participate in intracellular lipid transport (phospholipids, squalene, tocopherol analogues and derivatives) or influence regulatory lipid-dependent events. Here, we show that the three recombinant hTAP proteins associate with the ...
Gigout Anne - - 2008
The surfactant Pluronic F-68 (PF-68) is widely used in large-scale mammalian cell culture to protect cells from shear stress that arises from agitation and gas sparging. Several studies suggested that PF-68 is incorporated into the cell plasma membrane and could enter the cells, but without providing any direct evidence. The ...
Chou C-H CH College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University Health Sciences Center, Columbus, OH 43218-2357, - - 2008
Macrolide antibiotics penetrate cells, but the mechanism by which this occurs is unclear. The objective of this study was to characterize the mechanisms of clarithromycin uptake by gingival fibroblasts and oral epithelium. Cultured human gingival fibroblasts and SCC-25 cells were incubated with [(3)H]-clarithromycin. We assayed clarithromycin transport by measuring cell-associated ...
Paproski Robert J - - 2008
3'-Deoxy-3'-fluorothymidine (FLT) is a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer used to identify proliferating tumor cells. The purpose of this study was to characterize FLT transport by human nucleoside transporters (hNTs) and to determine the role of hNTs for FLT uptake in various human cancer cell lines. FLT binding to hNTs ...
Giannoudis Athina - - 2008
We have previously shown that imatinib uptake into chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells is dependent on human organic cation transporter 1 (hOCT1; SLC22A1), and that low hOCT1 expression is an important determinant of clinical outcome to imatinib treatment. We hypothesized that dasatinib might be transported differently than imatinib, possibly accounting ...
Korjamo Timo - - 2008
The effects of novel quaternary chitosan derivatives on the paracellular transport of mannitol and cell viability were studied in the Caco-2 cell model. The N-betainate derivative with the degree of substitution of 0.05 was very effective at 1.0% (w/v) concentration. The activity decreased as the degree of substitution increased. The ...
Fowler Christopher J - - 2008
Very little is known about the processes regulating the cellular uptake of the endogenous cannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). In the present study, we investigated whether inhibition of 2-AG hydrolysis reduced its uptake, i.e. whether this compound behaves in a manner analogous to the related endocannabinoid anandamide. The selective fatty acid amide ...
Moriya Mizue - - 2008
Ionic copper entering blood plasma binds tightly to albumin and the macroglobulin transcuprein. It then goes primarily to the liver and kidney except in lactation, where a large portion goes directly to the mammary gland. Little is known about how this copper is taken up from these plasma proteins. To ...
Klein Melinda A - - 2008
The ability of Thlaspi caerulescens, a zinc (Zn)/cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator, to accumulate extremely high foliar concentrations of toxic heavy metals requires coordination of uptake, transport, and sequestration to avoid damage to the photosynthetic machinery. The study of these metal hyperaccumulation processes at the cellular level in T. caerulescens has been ...
Fischer Wiebke - - 2008
To reach its target cells, the antiepileptic drug valproate has to cross both the intestinal epithelial barrier and the blood-brain barrier in intact form as well as in sufficient amounts. This study was performed to characterize the epithelial transport of valproate at intestinal (Caco-2) and at blood-brain barrier (RBE4) cells. ...
Bánóczi Zoltán - - 2008
The calpain enzymes play important roles in numerous processes in the cell. In vivo analysis of calpain activity might be useful for clarification of their role in different diseases. Our early results suggested that a peptide substrate, Dabcyl-TPLKSPPPSPR- EDANS, based on the calpain cleavage sequences is suitable for developing a ...
Sawabe Keiko - - 2008
Cellular uptake of sepiapterin resulted in an efficient accumulation of tetrahydrobiopterin. Tetrahydrobiopterin is much less permeable across the cell membrane than sepiapterin or dihydrobiopterin, the precursors of the tetrahydrobiopterin-salvage pathway. The uptake of sepiapterin by the cell was examined under metabolic arrest with N-acetylserotonin, an inhibitor of sepiapterin reductase. The ...
Manser Catherine C MRC Centre for Neurodegeneration Research, Department of Neuroscience P037, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College, De Crespigny Park, Denmark Hill, London, United - - 2008
Neurofilaments are synthesised in neuronal cell bodies and then transported through axons. Damage to neurofilament transport is seen in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here, we show that PKN1, a neurofilament head-rod domain kinase is cleaved and activated in SOD1G93A transgenic mice that are a model of ALS. Moreover, we demonstrate ...
Bartz, Jason C.
The long-term objective of this proposal is to identify mechanisms of prion transport to secondary lymphoreticular system (LRS) tissues. The hypothesis to be tested is that following peripheral exposure to prions; host proteins (e.g. complement) bind prions allowing for trapping by cells in the spleen and enhancing uptake by macrophages ...
Kim Chun Sung - - 2008
PURPOSE: L-Type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is highly expressed in cancer cells to support their continuous growth and proliferation. We have examined the effect of 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH), an inhibitor of system L amino acid transporters, and the mechanism by which BCH suppresses cell growth in cancer cells. METHODS: ...
Vanhoutte Nicolas - - 2008
A tetracycline-dependent inducible system was used to achieve controlled expression of the glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) in C6 glioma cells. Non-induced cells show modest glutamate uptake and, in the presence of L-cystine, these cells tend to release substantial amounts of glutamate. Overnight exposure to doxycycline increased D-[3H]-aspartate uptake, reaching similar ...
Takahashi Kazuhide - - 2008
Lamellipodia formation necessary for epithelial cell migration and invasion is accomplished by rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton at the leading edge through membrane transport of WAVE2. However, how WAVE2 is transported to the cell periphery where lamellipodia are formed remains to be established. We report here that hepatocyte growth factor ...
Todesco L - - 2008
The high-affinity Na+-dependent carnitine transporter OCTN2 (SLC22A5) has a high renal expression and reabsorbs most filtered carnitine. To gain more insight into substrate specificity of OCTN2, we overexpressed hOCTN2 in L6 cells and characterized the structural requirements of substances acting as human OCTN2 (hOCTN2) inhibitors. A 1905-bp fragment containing the ...
Brisson Lydie - - 2008
Caco-2 cells were used as a model for investigating and comparing the absorption of alpha-tocopherol (Tol) and alpha-tocopheryl acetate (Tac) solubilized in micelles based on a mixture of sodium taurocholate (NaTC) and oleic acid. Surprisingly, the uptake of Tac was found to be similar to that of Tol, and in ...
Granillo Olivia M - - 2008
Nitric oxide (NO) effects are often mediated via S-nitrosothiol (SNO) formation; SNO uptake has recently been shown to be mediated in some cell types via system L-type amino acid transporters (LAT-1, 2). Inhaled NO therapy may exert some biological effects via SNO formation. We therefore sought to determine if pulmonary ...
McFarland Matthew J - - 2008
The precise mechanism by which the cellular uptake of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) occurs has been the source of much debate. In the current study, we show that neuronal differentiated CAD (dCAD) cells accumulate anandamide by a process that is inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)arachidonylamide (AM404). We also ...
Handy Richard D - - 2008
There is an emerging literature reporting toxic effects of manufactured nanomaterials (NMs) and nanoparticles (NPs) in fish, but the mechanistic basis of both exposure and effect are poorly understood. This paper critically evaluates some of the founding assumptions in fish toxicology, and likely mechanisms of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion ...
Ugele Bernhard - - 2008
Human trophoblasts depend on the supply of external precursors such as dehydroepiandrosterone-3-sulfate (DHEA-S) and 16alpha-OH-DHEA-S for synthesis of estrogens. Recently, we have characterized the uptake of DHEA-S by isolated mononucleated trophoblasts and identified different transporter polypeptides involved in this process. Immunohistochemistry of 1st and 3rd trimester placenta detected organic anion ...
Omidi Yadollah - - 2008
Brain trafficking of amino acids is mainly mediated by amino acids transport machineries of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), where astrocytes play a key maintenance role. However, little is known about astrocytes impacts on such transport systems, in particular system L that consists of large and small neutral amino acids (NAAs) ...
Zhao Gang - - 2008
Common flowering quince (FQ) is the fruit of Chaenomeles speciosa (Sweet) Nakai. FQ-containing cocktails have been applied to the treatment of neuralgia, migraine, and depression in traditional Chinese medicine. The present study assessed whether FQ is effective in dopamine transporter (DAT) regulation and antiparkinsonism by utilizing in vitro and in ...
Sai Y - - 2008
PURPOSE: To characterize the uptake mechanism of zidovudine (AZT), a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, in syncytiotrophoblast cells using the TR-TBT 18d-1 cell line previously established by our group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of several transporter inhibitors on the initial and steady-state apical uptake of AZT by TR-TBT 18d-1 were ...
Hosoya Ken-ichi - - 2008
Vitamin C is mainly transported across the inner blood-retinal barrier (inner BRB) as dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) via a facilitative glucose transporter (GLUT) 1, and accumulates as ascorbic acid (AA) in the retina. Müller cells, huge glial cells, exhibit passive structural and metabolic functions for retinal neurons and the inner BRB. ...
Huang Min - - 2008
Immucillin-H (BCX-1777, forodesine) is a transition state analogue and potent inhibitor of PNP that shows promise as a specific agent against activated human T-cells and T-cell leukemias. The immunosuppressive or antileukemic effects of Immucillin-H (ImmH) in cultured cells require co-administration with deoxyguanosine (dGuo) to attain therapeutic levels of intracellular dGTP. ...
Suwa Ryuichi - - 2008
Barium (Ba)-induced phytotoxicity at 100, 1000, or 5000 microM Ba in soybean plants (Glycine max) was investigated under hydroponic culture conditions. Soybean growth and leaf photosynthetic activity were significantly inhibited by all three levels of Ba treatments. In the case of photosynthetic activity, 5000 microM Ba treatment shutdown stomatal opening ...
Bahhady Rana - - 2008
The aim of this study was to characterize factor(s) in rat bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) that enhance(s) insulin transport across primary rat alveolar epithelial cell monolayers (RAECM) in primary culture. BALF was concentrated 7.5-fold using the Centricon device and the retentate was used to characterize the factor(s) involved in enhancing ...
Murata Kousaku - - 2008
Sphingomonas species A1 is a newly identified pit-forming bacterium that directly incorporates a macromolecule (alginate) into its cytoplasm through a pit-dependent transport system, which we termed a superchannel. A pit is a novel, high-dimensional organ acquired through the fluidity and reconstitution of cell surface molecules, including flagellin, and through cooperation ...
Fan Y - - 2008
The hypothesis tested was that ketoconazole can modulate P-glycoprotein, thereby altering cellular uptake and apparent permeability (P(app)) of multidrug-resistant substrates, such as cyclosporin A (CSA) and digoxin, across Caco-2, MDCKII-MDR1, and MDCKII wild-type cell transport models. (3)H-CSA/(3)H-digoxin transport experiments were performed with and without co-exposure to ketoconazole, and (3)H-ketoconzole transport ...
Singh, Santosh Kumar
Phosphorous (P) starved cells of the cyanobacterium Anabaena oryzae   showed higher phosphate uptake rates than P-sufficient cells. The P-uptake obeyed saturation kinetics. The Km value for P-deficient cells was lower (54.34 μM) than P-sufficient cells (82.64 μM) while Vmax was higher in P-deficient and lower in P-sufficient cells. Salinity ...
Meller Birgit - - 2008
PURPOSE: In radioiodine therapy the "stunning phenomenon" is defined as a reduction of radioiodine uptake after diagnostic application of (131)I. In the current study, we established an in vitro model based on the "Fisher rat thyrocyte cell line no. 5" (FRTL-5) to investigate the stunning. METHODS: TSH-stimulated FRTL-5 cells were ...
Vumma Ravi - - 2008
Human fibroblast cells are an advantageous model to study the transport of amino acids across cell membranes, since one can control the environmental factors. A major problem in all earlier studies is the lack of precise and detailed knowledge regarding the expression and functionality of tyrosine transporters in human fibroblasts. ...
Orbán Tamás I - - 2008
ABCG2 is a half-transporter which causes multidrug resistance when overexpressed in tumor cells. Availability of combined localization and functional assays would greatly improve cell biology and drug modulation studies for this transporter. Here we demonstrate that an N-terminally GFP-tagged version of the protein (GFP-G2) can be used to directly monitor ...
Shiao-Wen Tsai
In this study, we demonstrate that the uptake rate of the surface-modified gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with folic acid by specific cells can be increased significantly, if the membranes of these cells have sufficient folic-acid receptors. Two human breast cancer cell lines were studied; one is MDA-MB-435S cell, and the other ...
Maubach, Julie
Epidemiological studies comparing typical Western and traditional Eastern lifestyles indicate that dietary intake of soyderived phytoestrogens, including genistein, daidzein, and equol, may have significant health protective effects on hormone-dependent cancers, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. Phytoestrogens have been demonstrated to exert varying effects depending on tissue, endogenous hormone concentrations, and receptor ...
Lai Yin Hwa - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to construct a human M cell model to evaluate the transport of polystyrene and albumin microparticles via this model. The integrity of the M cell model was evaluated by determining the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), and the alkaline phosphate activity was determined as an ...
Tagawa Maki - - 2008
FITC-albumin uptake by cultured alveolar type II epithelial cells, RLE-6TN, is mediated by high- and low-affinity transport systems. In this study, characteristics of the low-affinity transport system were evaluated. The uptake of FITC-albumin was time and temperature dependent and was inhibited by metabolic inhibitors and bafilomycin A1. Confocal laser scanning ...
Lecona Emilio - - 2008
Butyrate has antitumorigenic effects on colon cancer cells, inhibits cell growth and promotes differentiation and apoptosis. These effects depend on its intracellular concentration, which is regulated by its transport. We have analysed butyrate uptake kinetics in human colon adenocarcinoma cells sensitive to the apoptotic effects of butyrate (BCS-TC2, Caco-2 and ...
Minarowska Alina - - 2008
A literature survey was performed of human cathepsin D gene, cathepsin D biosynthesis, posttranslatory modifications, transport within the cell, substrate specificity and catalytic effect. Methods used to determine the activity and level of this proteinase as well as its role in the biochemistry and pathobiochemistry of cells, tissues and organs ...
Frampton John P - - 2008
Cell culture models can provide information pertaining to the effective dose, toxiciology, and kinetics, for a variety of neuroactive compounds. However, many in vitro models fail to adequately predict how such compounds will perform in a living organism. At the systems level, interactions between organs can dramatically affect the properties ...
Zhang Ke - - 2008
This paper reports the synthesis of shell crosslinked nanoparticles (SCKs) of spherical and cylindrical shapes, and their functionalization with folate using a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) construct that has folate and an amine group as the opposing chain termini. By use of confocal microscopy, we demonstrate the selective delivery of folate ...
Weerachayaphorn Jittima J Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0645, - - 2008
Citric acid cycle intermediates are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract through carrier-mediated mechanisms, although the transport pathways have not been clearly identified. This study examines the transport of citric acid cycle intermediates in the Caco-2 human colon carcinoma cell line, often used as a model of small intestine. Inulin was ...
Bianchi M G - - 2008
The transport of excitatory amino acids (EAA) in CNS is performed by a family of high affinity, sodium dependent carriers. One of these transporters, excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1), is known to be regulated by several mechanisms that modify carrier abundance on the plasma membrane. Much less is known ...
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