Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 2515
< 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 >
Gao Xiang - - 2008
Recently, we have manipulated endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs) in situ in the adult mouse to undergo neurogenesis and anatomic circuit re-formation de novo in the neocortex, where it does not normally occur, by using a highly targeted brain injury model. However, how the NSCs respond to injury in the ...
Röckle Iris - - 2008
Understanding the mechanisms that regulate neurogenesis is a prerequisite for brain repair approaches based on neuronal precursor cells. One important regulator of postnatal neurogenesis is polysialic acid (polySia), a post-translational modification of the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM. In the present study, we investigated the role of polySia in differentiation ...
Larsen Karen Bonde - - 2008
Mental retardation is seen in all individuals with Down syndrome (DS) and different brain abnormalities are reported. The aim of this study was to investigate if mental retardation at least in part is a result of a lower cell number in the neocortical part of the human fetal forebrain. We ...
Glaser Tamara - - 2008
The derivation of autologous pluripotent cells has become a central goal in translational stem cell research. Although somatic cell nuclear transfer and transcription factor-based reprogramming enable the generation of pluripotent cells from adult tissue, both methodologies depend on complex epigenetic alterations. Recent data suggest that the adult germ line may ...
Nolte Marc W - - 2008
Neural transplantation has been investigated experimentally and clinically for the purpose of developing new treatment options for intractable epilepsy. In the present study we assessed the anticonvulsant efficacy and safety of bilateral allotransplantation of genetically engineered striatal GABAergic rat cell lines into the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr). Rats with ...
Ringel Florian - - 2008
Brain edema formation following brain injury is a serious but still poorly treatable medical condition. The understanding of volume regulation in astrocytes, the main cells involved in the formation of cytotoxic brain edema, is key for the development of novel treatment strategies. This study investigates the role of potassium-chloride cotransporters ...
Florian Christian - - 2008
Mammalian Müller cells have been reported to possess retinal progenitor cell properties and generate new neurons after injury. This study investigates murine Müller cells under in vitro conditions for their capability of dedifferentiation into retinal progenitor cells. Müller cells were isolated from mouse retina, and proliferating cells were expanded in ...
Zupanc Günther K H - - 2008
Whereas adult neurogenesis appears to be a universal phenomenon in the vertebrate brain, enormous differences exist in neurogenic potential between "lower" and "higher" vertebrates. Studies in the gymnotiform fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus and in zebrafish have indicated that the relative number of new cells, as well as the number of neurogenic ...
Sim Fraser J - - 2008
The statins have been proposed as possible therapeutic agents for a variety of autoimmune disorders, including multiple sclerosis. In a genomic screen, we found that glial progenitor cells (GPCs) of the adult human white matter expressed significant levels of the principal statin target, HMG-CoA reductase, as well as additional downstream ...
Mustafa Sarah - - 2008
Chemotherapy-associated memory deficits in adults are prevalent with systemic treatment utilizing 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu). 5-Fu disrupts cell proliferation and readily crosses the blood-brain barrier. Proliferating cells within the adult dentate gyrus of the hippocampus give rise to new neurons involved in memory and learning and require neurotrophic factors such as brain-derived ...
Kang Seong Su - - 2008
Recent studies have shown that neuroblasts migrate from the subventricular zone (SVZ) into the injured area after ischemic brain insults. However, it is not well understood which mechanism mediates this ectopic migration and which types of cells migrate into the damaged region from the SVZ. The present study was designed ...
Shi Huilin - - 2008
Sympathetic ganglia are primarily composed of noradrenergic neurons and satellite glial cells. Although both cell types originate from neural crest cells, the identities of the progenitor populations at intermediate stages of the differentiation process remain to be established. Here we report on the identification in vivo of glial and neuronal ...
Stopczynski Rachelle E RE University of Pittsburgh/Carnegie Mellon University Medical Scientist Training Program, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, - - 2008
Cortico-ventral basal ganglia circuitry is associated with a variety of mental health disorders including obsessive-compulsive disorder and drug addiction, disorders that emerge during childhood through young adulthood, a period in which the cortex and striatum continue to development. Moreover, cell proliferation, which is associated with development and plasticity, also continues ...
de Chevigny Antoine A Udall Parkinson Disease Research Center of Excellence, Center for Neuroregeneration Research, McLean Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Belmont, Massachusetts, - - 2008
Infusion of transforming growth factor alpha (TGFalpha) into the adult dopamine (DA)-depleted striatum generates a local population of nestin(+)/proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)(+) newborn cells. The precise origin and fate of these new striatal cells are unknown, making it difficult to direct them for neural repair in Parkinson's disease. Experiments ...
Ludwig Andreas - - 2008
The transmembrane chemokines CX3CL1 and CXCL16 mediate chemotaxis and cell to cell adhesion by interaction with their receptors CXCR6 and CX3CR1, respectively. We here summarize reports on the expression, regulation and proteolytic processing of transmembrane chemokines by glial cells, their activity on glial cells/glial precursor cells and their role in ...
Fico Annalisa - - 2008
Biotechnologies such as high-throughput screening (HTS) enable evaluation of large compound libraries for their biological activity and toxic properties. In the field of drug development, embryonic stem (ES) cells have been instrumental in HTS for testing the effect of new compounds. We report an innovative method in one step to ...
Murata Tomiyasu - - 2008
To understand the characteristics of tsAM5D cells immortalized with the temperature-sensitive simian virus 40 large T-antigen, we first examined the responsiveness of the cells to ligands of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family. tsAM5D cells proliferated at the permissive temperature of 33 degrees C in response to either ...
Friocourt Gaëlle - - 2008
The aristaless-related homeobox (ARX) gene has been implicated in a wide spectrum of disorders ranging from phenotypes with severe neuronal migration defects, such as lissencephaly, to mild forms of X-linked mental retardation without apparent brain abnormalities. To better understand its role in corticogenesis, we used in utero electroporation to knock ...
Asmus Stephen E - - 2008
Understanding the development of cortical interneuron phenotypic diversity is critical because interneuron dysfunction has been implicated in several neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive neurons in the developing and adult rat cortex were characterized in light of findings regarding interneuron neurochemistry and development. Cortical TH-immunoreactive neurons were first observed 2 ...
Pickering Mark - - 2008
Neuronal-glial interactions in the central nervous system are important for both normal function and response to pathological states. Differences in calcium processing between these cell types may be exploited to allow dynamic differentiation using calcium-imaging protocols without the need to fix and immunostain the study population. Mixed rat primary cortical ...
Wu Chunxiao - - 2008
Aiming at identification of novel peptides that can be employed for effective targeting of malignant gliomas, we used a 12-mer peptide phage display library and cultured human malignant glioma cells for phage selection. Several common phage clones emerged after 4 rounds of biopanning against the U87MG glioblastoma cell line. The ...
Beadle Christopher C Department of Neurology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, - - 2008
The ability of gliomas to invade the brain limits the efficacy of standard therapies. In this study, we have examined glioma migration in living brain tissue by using two novel in vivo model systems. Within the brain, glioma cells migrate like nontransformed, neural progenitor cells-extending a prominent leading cytoplasmic process ...
Kim Euiseok J EJ Department of Neuroscience, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, - - 2008
Ascl1 (previously Mash1) is a bHLH transcription factor essential for neuronal differentiation and specification in the nervous system. Although it has been studied for its role in several neural lineages, the full complement of lineages arising from Ascl1 progenitor cells remains unknown. Using an inducible Cre-flox genetic fate-mapping strategy, Ascl1 ...
Butts B D - - 2008
Apoptosis plays a crucial role in brain development by ensuring that only appropriately growing, migrating, and synapse-forming neurons and their associated glial cells survive. This process involves an intimate relationship between cell-cell interactions and developmental cues and is further impacted by environmental stress during neurogenesis and disease. Oligodendrocytes (OLs), the ...
Villanacci V - - 2008
Various studies have described abnormalities of the enteric nervous system (ENS) in tissue samples from patients with chronic idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The distribution of density of the different cell types of the ENS was however not studied in a systematic way. The aim of this study was to ...
McCombe P A - - 2008
Chaperonin 10 (cpn 10) is a small heat-shock protein that is usually intracellular. Early pregnancy factor (EPF), a biologically active protein that was first described in the serum of pregnant mammals, is homologous to cpn 10. EPF/cpn 10 has been reported to have effects on immunomodulation and cell survival and ...
Shanshiashvili, L.
Continuous (24 h) exposure of mixed oligodendrocyte/microglial cells to peptides 45–89 derived from citrullinated C8 isoforms of myelin basic protein (MBP) induces cell death. In contrast, MBP-C8 at the same molecular concentration is not toxic to oligodendrocyte/microglial cells as detected by the MTT test and trypan blue exclusion method. The ...
Kukley Maria - - 2008
In postnatal rodent brain, certain NG2-expressing oligodendroglial precursor cells (OPCs) are contacted by synaptic terminals from local neurons. However, it has remained elusive whether and when NG2(+) cells are integrated into neuronal circuits. Here we use patch-clamp recordings from mitotic cells in murine brain slices to show that, unlike any ...
Elliott Michael R MR Carter Immunology Center and the Department of Microbiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, - - 2008
During embryonic development, large numbers of apoptotic cells are rapidly cleared by phagocytes. In this issue, Kurant et al. (2008) describe a new phagocytic receptor, called six-microns-under (SIMU), that promotes engulfment of apoptotic neurons by glial cells in the developing nervous system of Drosophila.
Vossmerbaeumer Urs - - 2008
PURPOSE: Degenerative processes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) are known to play a pivotal role in the development of age-related maculopathy. Substitute RPE analogue cells could be used to preserve visual function. In this paper we investigate methods for the isolation, cultivation and RPE differentiation of undifferentiated cells from ...
Inoue Takashi - - 2008
The formation of the highly organized cortical structure depends on the production and correct placement of the appropriate number and types of neurons. The Zic family of zinc-finger transcription factors plays essential roles in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of neuronal progenitors in the medial forebrain and the cerebellum. Examination ...
Jensen Pia - - 2008
Ventral mesencephalic (VM) precursor cells are of interest in the search for transplantable dopaminergic neurons for cell therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD). In the present study we investigated the survival and functional capacity of in vitro expanded, primary VM precursor cells after intrastriatal grafting to a rat model of PD. ...
Rogelius Nina - - 2008
The subventricular zone (SVZ) lining the lateral walls of the lateral ventricles is one of the major neurogenic areas in the postnatal brain. Precursor cells in the SVZ migrate via the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb where they differentiate into neurons. Cell replacement strategies utilizing the recruitment of ...
Westra Jurjen W - - 2008
Neuroprogenitor cells (NPCs) in several telencephalic proliferative regions of the mammalian brain, including the embryonic cerebral cortex and postnatal subventricular zone (SVZ), display cell division "defects" in normal cells that result in aneuploid adult progeny. Here, we identify the developing cerebellum as a major, nontelencephalic proliferative region of the vertebrate ...
Quincozes-Santos André - - 2008
We investigated the effect of the atypical neuroleptic risperidone on morphology and S100B secretion in C6 glioma cells, considering the putative involvement of astroglial cells in neuropsychiatric disorders. In the presence of high experimental doses of risperidone, C6 cells become stellate, with process-bearing cells and partial retraction of the cell ...
Hattermann Kirsten - - 2008
Chemokines are implicated in developmental and inflammatory processes in the brain. The transmembrane chemokine CXCL16 is produced in brain endothelial and reactive astroglial cells and released by shedding. Its receptor CXCR6 is detected during brain development highest at postnatal day 6, found in glial precursor cells differentiated from neural stem ...
Steiner J - - 2008
S100B (member of a family of proteins that are 100% soluble in ammonium sulfate at neutral pH) has been widely used as astrocyte marker in animal models and in human brain diseases. Recent studies revealed S100B-immunopositivity in oligodendrocytes and O2A oligodendroglial progenitor cells. It is unknown, however, if oligodendrocytes produce ...
Wernig Marius M The Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02142, - - 2008
The long-term goal of nuclear transfer or alternative reprogramming approaches is to create patient-specific donor cells for transplantation therapy, avoiding immunorejection, a major complication in current transplantation medicine. It was recently shown that the four transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc induce pluripotency in mouse fibroblasts. However, the therapeutic ...
Hedlund Eva E Udall Parkinson's Disease Research Center for Excellence, McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, Massachusetts 02478, - - 2008
Both fetal ventral mesencephalic (VM) and embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived dopamine neurons have been used successfully to correct behavioral responses in animal models of Parkinson's disease. However, grafts derived from fetal VM cells or from ES cells contain multiple cell types, and the majority of these cells are not dopamine ...
Holtkamp Kristian - - 2008
S100B protein is mainly synthesized in glial cells and modulates the balance between cell proliferation and differentiation in neurons and glial cells. However, S100B is not CNS-specific since its production was detected in numerous non-cerebral tissues e.g. adipocytes. In this study we investigated the influence of chronic fasting and subsequent ...
Martinez-Monedero Rodrigo - - 2008
Inner ear stem cells can be isolated by neurosphere formation from the vestibular organs and the cochlea. The cells are pluripotent, with the potential to become hair cells and neurons, the cochlear cell types whose loss causes deafness. Here we describe the control of cell fate decisions that determine the ...
Choi D - - 2008
Olfactory ensheathing cells are unique glial cells which have the ability to encourage nerve fibres to grow, and may have potential for use as a therapy for spinal cord and brachial plexus injuries. These images show olfactory ensheathing cells in the olfactory mucosa of the nose, and provide insight into ...
Rodriguez-Pallares J - - 2008
Angiotensin II (AII) plays a major role in the progression of inflammation and NADPH-derived oxidative stress (OS) in several tissues. The brain possesses a local angiotensin system, and OS and inflammation are key factors in the progression of Parkinson's disease. In rat mesencephalic cultures, AII increased 6-OHDA-induced dopaminergic (DA) cell ...
Mokrý J - - 2008
The neurosphere assay has been used to maintain neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in the undifferentiated state. These cells are multipotent and gave rise to neurons and glial cells. Here we show that within 10 days of culture, neurospheres contained precursors and differentiated progeny of all three major central nervous system ...
Dráberová Eduarda - - 2008
Class III beta-tubulin isotype (betaIII-tubulin) is widely regarded as a neuronal marker in developmental neurobiology and stem cell research. To test the specificity of this marker protein, we determined its expression and distribution in primary cultures of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-expressing astrocytes isolated from the cerebral hemispheres of 2 ...
Talos Delia M DM Department of Neurology, Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2008
Genetic loss of TSC1/TSC2 function in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) results in overactivation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 pathway, leading to cellular dysplasia. We hypothesized that the dysplastic cells in TSC tubers are heterogeneous, including separable classes on a neuronal-glial spectrum, and that these dysplastic cells express ...
Russo Raúl E - - 2008
The cells lining the central canal (CC) of the spinal cord derive from the ventral part of the neural tube and, in some vertebrates, are responsible for the functional recovery after spinal cord injury. The region that surrounds the CC in the turtle contains proliferating cells that seem to generate ...
Niidome Tetsuhiro - - 2008
We have recently demonstrated that microglia as multipotential stem cells give rise to microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2)-positive and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells and that microglia-derived MAP2-positive cells possess properties of functional neurons. In this study, we investigated the molecular pathways involved in the generation of microglia-derived MAP2-positive and ...
Kusakari Shinya - - 2008
CD47 and SHPS-1 are transmembrane proteins that interact with each other through their extracellular regions and constitute a bidirectional cell-cell communication system (the CD47-SHPS-1 system). We have now shown that the trans-interaction of CD47 and SHPS-1 that occurred on contact of CD47-expressing CHO cells and SHPS-1-expressing CHO cells resulted in ...
Garg Sanjay K - - 2008
A well-controlled T cell response to CNS injury may result in increased neuronal survival. However, the precise mechanism of T cell-induced neuroprotection is unknown. In this study, we report the unexpected finding that during culture of T cells, high levels of glutamate accumulate, which are efficiently cleared if T cells ...
< 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 >