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Henn Anja - - 2009
The role of microglia in neurodegeneration, toxicology and immunity is an expanding area of biomedical research requiring large numbers of animals. Use of a microglia-like cell line would accelerate many research programmes and reduce the necessity of continuous cell preparations and animal experimentation, provided that the cell line reproduces the ...
Iyer Shilpa - - 2009
Multiple neurodegenerative disorders typically result from irrevocable damage and improper functioning of specialized neuronal cells or populations of neuronal cells. These disorders have the potential to contribute to an already overburdened health care system unless the progression of neurodegeneration can be altered. Progress in understanding neurodegenerative cell biology has been ...
Ming Ming - - 2009
BACKGROUND: New strategies for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) are shifted from dopamine (DA) replacement to regeneration or restoration of the nigro-striatal system. A cell therapy using human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells as substitution for degenerated dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons has been developed and showed promising prospect in clinical ...
Okuno Tsuyoshi - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Neurons and glial cells can be efficiently induced from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells in a conditioned medium collected from rat primary-cultured astrocytes (P-ACM). However, the use of rodent primary cells for clinical applications may be hampered by limited supply and risk of contamination with xeno-proteins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We ...
Tackenberg Mark A - - 2009
PURPOSE: Müller cells are well known for their critical role in normal retinal structure and function, but their reaction to retinal injury and subsequent role in retinal remodeling is less well characterized. In this study we used a mouse model of retinal laser photocoagulation to examine injury-induced Müller glial reaction, ...
Smalheiser Neil R - - 2009
Neurons, glial, cells, and brain tumor cells tissues release small vesicles (secretory exosomes and microvesicles), which may represent a novel mechanism by which neuronal activity could influence angiogenesis within the embryonic and mature brain. If CNS-derived vesicles can enter the bloodstream as well, they may communicate with endothelial cells in ...
Markakis Eleni A - - 2009
Progenitor cells isolated from adult brain tissue are important tools for experimental studies of remyelination. Cells harvested from neurogenic regions in the adult brain such as the subependymal zone have demonstrated remyelination potential. Multipotent cells from the progenitor fraction have been isolated from the adult olfactory bulb (OB) but their ...
von Trotha Jakob W JW The Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge, CB2 1QN, UK. - - 2009
The production of new neurons during adulthood and their subsequent integration into a mature central nervous system have been shown to occur in all vertebrate species examined to date. However, the situation in insects is less clear and, in particular, it has been reported that there is no proliferation in ...
Díaz D - - 2009
One of the sexual dimorphic differences in adult rodents is neural proliferation. Here we demonstrate that physiological hormone stages can modulate this proliferation in the adult forebrain. Female mice, both pregnant and synchronized in oestrus, exhibited higher proliferating cell percentages than males in both the rostral migratory stream (RMS) and ...
Klumpp Susanne - - 2009
We recently found protein histidine phosphatase (PHP) in eukaryotes and identified ATP-citrate lyase (ACL) and the beta-subunit of G-proteins as its substrates. The aim of the present study was to get information on the significance of PHP for cellular function and viability. PHP was overexpressed by a viral vector in ...
Ge Woo-Ping - - 2009
It is generally believed that dividing cells gain complex features of differentiation only after exiting the cell cycle because cell division and differentiation are both under such tight regulation that their coexistence is deemed unlikely. As the major proliferating cell type in the mammalian CNS, NG2 glial cells (NG2 cells) ...
Chopp Michael - - 2009
We discuss the mechanisms of action underlying the beneficial effects of treating ischemic stroke in the rodent with exogenously administered cells. The essential hypothesis proposed is that the administered cells enhance recovery of neurological function by stimulating the production of restorative factors by parenchymal cells. These activated endogenous brain cells ...
Williams Jon P - - 2008
Defining growth factor requirements for progenitors facilitates their characterization and amplification. We characterize a peripheral nervous system embryonic dorsal root ganglion progenitor population using in vitro clonal sphere-formation assays. Cells differentiate into glial cells, smooth muscle/fibroblast (SM/Fb)-like cells, and neurons. Genetic and pharmacologic tools revealed that sphere formation requires signaling ...
Neuhaus Winfried - - 2008
Up to now no standard cell culture model of the blood-brain barrier is available. However, several models based on primary cells or continuous cell lines have been characterized and described in respect of different applications. One of the most important characteristics of the blood-brain barrier is the restriction of paracellular ...
Abrahams John M - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: The adult brain is capable of neurogenesis after cerebral ischemia. We investigated the presence of new neural precursors after transient middle cerebral artery ischemia adult rats. METHODS: Transient middle cerebral artery ischemia was induced in adult Wistar rats (n=13) using the monofilament method. In the experimental group (n=8), animals ...
Vrotsos Emmanuel George - - 2009
Neuroprogenitor cells are an important resource because of their great potential to replace damaged cells in the brain caused by trauma and disease. Studies have shown that when neuroprogenitor cells are transplanted into the brain they migrate towards damaged areas, suggesting that these areas express factors that recruit migrating cells. ...
Burgess Alison - - 2008
Newborn cells of the adult dentate gyrus in the hippocampus are characterized by their abundant expression of polysialic acid (PSA), a carbohydrate attached to the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). PSA+ newborn cells of the dentate gyrus form clusters with proliferating neural progenitor cells, migrate away from these clusters, and ...
Küppers Eva - - 2008
Proliferation of astrocytes plays an essential role during ontogeny and in the adult brain, where it occurs following trauma and in inflammation and neurodegenerative diseases as well as in normal, healthy mammals. The cellular mechanisms underlying glial proliferation remain poorly understood. As dopamine is known to modulate proliferation in different ...
Tatsumi Kouko - - 2008
Olig2 is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor essential for development of motoneurons and oligodendrocytes. It is known that Olig2(+) cells persist in the central nervous system (CNS) from embryonic to adult stages and that the number of Olig2(+) progenitors increases in the injured adult CNS. Recent studies have demonstrated ...
Orlando E A - - 2008
AIMS: Canine distemper virus (CDV)-induced demyelinating leukoencephalomyelitis is a naturally occurring model for multiple sclerosis. The aim of this study was to establish primary glial cell cultures from adult canine brain for the analysis of CDV spread and cell tropism. METHODS: Cultures were inoculated with the CDV-R252 and a CDV-Onderstepoort ...
Pinto, Luisa
Radial glial cells are a widespread non-neuronal cell type in the developing central nervous system (CNS) of all vertebrates. In the cortex, distinct subsets of radial glial cells coexist that are either multipotent or specified towards the generation of neurons or glial cells (Malatesta et al., 2000). Radial glial cells ...
Sallinen V - - 2009
Larval zebrafish offers a good model to approach brain disease mechanisms, as structural abnormalities of their small brains can be correlated to quantifiable behavior. In this study, the structural alterations in one diencephalic dopaminergic nucleus induced by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), a toxin inducing Parkinson's disease in humans, and those found in ...
Lindh Claes - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain damage is dependent on energy transfer to the brain at impact. Different injury mechanisms may cause different types of brain injury. It is, however, unknown if the relative distribution between apoptotic cell-death and necrotic cell- death in different populations of brain cells varies depending on energy transfer. ...
Emery Ben - - 2008
A major challenge to understanding how cells work together in the central nervous system (CNS) is the heterogeneous cellular composition of the brain. In this issue, Heiman et al. (2008) and Doyle et al. (2008) introduce a new strategy (TRAP) that enables the profiling of translated mRNAs in specific CNS ...
Oh-hashi Kentaro - - 2009
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is synthesized as a precursor, proGDNF. However, the molecular mechanisms for the processing and secretion of GDNF are not fully characterized, since the amount of its biosynthesis and secretion in glial cells are below the detection limit of western blotting. We established stably GDNF-overexpressing ...
Takenouchi Takato - - 2009
Immortalized bovine brain cell lines provide ideal in vitro cellular infection models for bovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSEs) caused by prions without enduring species barrier. We have established an immortalized brain cell line (FBBC-1 cells) from primary cultures of cryopreserved fetal bovine brain tissues after transfection with SV40 large T antigen. ...
Boisseau Sylvie - - 2009
The present study was initiated to gain some information about the tissue distribution of transient receptor potential proteins of C-type (TRPC), a family of voltage-independent cation channels, at the beginning of neurogenesis in the telencephalon of embryonic mice. The mRNAs of all known TRPCs (TRPC1-TRPC7) could be found in the ...
Aigouy Benoît - - 2008
The migration of glial chains along the nerve entails directional and coordinated movement. Despite its importance in the formation of the nervous system, this process remains poorly understood, because of the difficulty of manipulating identified cells. Using confocal time-lapse and cell ablation in the whole animal, we provide direct evidence ...
Leisewitz Andrea V - - 2008
Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs, alpha, beta/delta, gamma) control lipid homeostasis and differentiation in various tissues and tumor cells. PPARbeta and PPARgamma increase oligodendrocyte maturation in glial mixed populations and spinal cord oligodendrocytes, respectively, and PPARbeta is known to modulate the activity of other PPARs. To assess a possible interaction ...
Kim Ho - - 2008
In the developing central nervous system, nerve fascicles are surrounded by a protective sheath known as the perineurium. Perineurium is composed of perineurial cells that have both epithelial and myofibroblastoid properties, including tight and gap junctions and contractility. However, the molecular mechanism that governs perineurial development remains unclear. Here we ...
Tahtouh Muriel - - 2009
In vertebrates, central nervous system (CNS) protection is dependent on many immune cells including microglial cells. Indeed, activated microglial cells are involved in neuroinflammation mechanisms by interacting with numerous immune factors. Unlike vertebrates, some lophotrochozoan invertebrates can fully repair their CNS following injury. In the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis, the ...
Nishimura Takuya - - 2008
Cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is expressed not only in neuronal cells but also in non-neuronal cells such as astroglial cells. In the present study, the prion protein (PrP) gene (Prnp)-deficient astroglial cell line GpL1 from hippocampal cells of ZrchI Prnp(-/-) mice were established. Transfection of Prnp suppressed cell death in ...
Song Tianran - - 2008
During the past few years several differentiation protocols to derive midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons from human embryonic stem (hES) cells have been developed, but the production of sufficient amounts of the 'right' therapeutic DA cells has not yet been accomplished. The aim of this study was to efficiently generate tyrosine ...
Arnhold S - - 2008
Efficient transformation of primary human amniocytes by E1 gene functions of human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) yield in stable cell lines, which exhibit morphological features of epithelial like cells. A thorough investigation using immunocytochemistry confirmed the expression of epithelial cell markers. The analysis also revealed the expression of neuronal and ...
Korzhevskii D E - - 2008
The aim of the present work was to perform immunocytochemical studies of cells synthesizing the intermediate filament protein vimentin in the telencephalon of intact rats and rats subjected to unilateral permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, which models ischemic stroke. In the intact rat brain, vimentin-containing cells were seen ...
Costa Carme - - 2009
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy characterised by accumulation of resistant prion protein (PrP(BSE)), neuronal loss, spongiosus and glial cell proliferation. In this study, properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM) were investigated in boTg110 transgenic mice over-expressing the bovine cellular prion protein (PrP(c)) and infected with BSE. ...
Goffredo D - - 2008
Although new culture conditions enable homogeneous and long-term propagation of radial glia-like neural stem (NS) cells in monolayer and serum-free conditions, the efficiency of the conversion of NS cells into terminally differentiated, functionally mature neurons is relatively limited and poorly characterized. We demonstrate that NS cells derived from adult mouse ...
Rajendran R Samuel - - 2008
Aneuploidy, caused by segregation defects during mitosis, has previously been identified in adult-born cells of mammals and teleosts. In the present study, we have examined the fate of these cells in the brain of the teleost fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus. By immunostaining against active caspase-3, we have shown that both cells ...
Sargeant Tim J - - 2008
The antiproliferative effects of opiate exposure on neurogenesis in vitro have been well documented, but the effects of opiates on brain development in vivo are less well understood. We have recently shown that mu opioid receptors are expressed on radial glia of the lateral ventricle, the neuronal and glial progenitor ...
Seth Pankaj - - 2008
Until recently, the neuroscience community held the belief that glial cells such as astrocytes and oligodendrocytes functioned solely as "support" cells of the brain. In this role, glial cells simply provide physical support and housekeeping functions for the more important cells of the brain, the neurons. However, this view has ...
Ahmed Eman I - - 2008
New cells, including neurons, arise in several brain regions during puberty in rats. Sex differences in pubertal addition of cells coincide with adult sexual dimorphisms: for each region, the sex that gains more cells during puberty has a larger volume in adulthood. Removing gonadal hormones before puberty eliminates these sex ...
Pedraza Carlos E CE Department of Neurosciences, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, - - 2008
Much current knowledge of oligodendrocyte biology, the myelin-forming cells in the central nervous system, comes from cell culture studies mainly from postnatal rat tissue but mouse cells have been much more difficult to produce in large quantities. We have developed a high yield protocol for production of oligodendrocyte precursor cells ...
Marek Ryan - - 2008
Pathologically altered functions of astrocytes and microglia play a pivotal role in diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). The complexity of the CNS makes it difficult to determine the function of individual glial cells in vivo. Insight into the role of individual glial cell function lies in their successful ...
Nowicki Michal O - - 2008
Therapies targeting glioma cells that diffusely infiltrate normal brain are highly sought after. Our aim was to identify novel approaches to this problem using glioma spheroid migration assays. Lithium, a currently approved drug for the treatment of bipolar illnesses, has not been previously examined in the context of glioma migration. ...
Cearley Cassia N - - 2008
A wide diversity of adeno-associated virus (AAV) structural proteins uncovered from latent genomes in primate tissue has expanded the number of AAV vector serotypes, which can potentially confer unique cell tropism to the vector. We evaluated 17 of these vectors in the mouse brain using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as ...
Ahmed Eman I - - 2008
New cells, including neurons, arise in several brain regions during puberty in rats. Sex differences in pubertal addition of cells coincide with adult sexual dimorphisms: for each region, the sex that gains more cells during puberty has a larger volume in adulthood. Removing gonadal hormones before puberty eliminates these sex ...
Magnusson Anna K - - 2008
The ability to differentiate and give rise to neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes is an inherent feature of neural stem cells, which raises hopes for cell-based therapies of neurodegenerative diseases. However, there are many hurdles to cross before such regimens can be applied clinically. A considerable challenge is to elucidate the ...
Lo Wen-Cheng - - 2008
This aim of our study was to evaluate a novel cell-based therapy for contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) using embryonic-derived NIH3T3 cells, which endogenously express glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). METHODS: Proliferation and differentiation of transplanted NIH3T3 cells and their anti-apoptotic effects were examined after their engraftment into the ...
Banerjee Ruma - - 2008
Metabolic interdependence between specialized cells in an organ represents a strategy for energy economy by requiring expression of only a subset of pathway genes in a given cell type. In brain, sulfur metabolism exemplifies this principle of metabolic cooperation between glial and neuronal cells and furnishes three key reagents: S-adenosylmethionine, ...
Benítez J A - - 2008
Glioblastoma is the most frequent primary brain tumor, and for which standard therapies have not significantly increased the survival of patients. Recently, chromatin alterations have been linked to the pathogenesis of cancer, and drugs that modify chromatin structure, such as inhibitors of histone deacetylases (iHDAC), are now considered as a ...
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