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Results 301 - 350 of 2515
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Mo Zhicheng Z Department of Neuroscience, University of Connecticut Health Center, 263 Farmington Avenue, Farmington, CT 06030-3401, - - 2009
Limited knowledge about human oligodendrogenesis prompted us to explore the lineage relationship between cortical radial glia (RG) cells and oligodendrocytes (OLs) in the human fetal forebrain. RG cells were isolated from cortical ventricular/subventricular zone and their progeny was followed in vitro. One portion of RG cells differentiated into cells of ...
Hermann Andreas - - 2009
Neurogenesis occurs constitutively within the periventricular region (PVR) of the lateral ventricles (LV) of the adult mammalian brain. The occurrence of adult neurogenesis within the PVR outside the neurogenic niche of the LV remains controversial, but neural stem cells can be isolated from PVR of the whole ventricular system. The ...
Minobe Sayaka - - 2009
The small GTPase Rac regulates neuronal behavior, but whether it also functions in neural progenitor cells has not yet been explored. Here we report that Rac contributes to the regulation of nuclear migration in neocortical progenitor cells. Rac1 is expressed by progenitor cells in a unique spatiotemporal pattern. Cross-sectional immunohistochemical ...
Motohashi Tsutomu - - 2009
Melanoblasts, precursor of melanocytes, are generated from the neural crest and differentiate into melanocytes during their migration throughout the entire body. The melanoblasts are thought to be progenitor cells that differentiate only into melanocyte. Here, we show that melanoblasts, even after they have already migrated throughout the skin, are multipotent, ...
Yiin Jia-Jean - - 2009
Acquisition of the insidious invasiveness by malignant glioma cells involves multiple genetic alterations in signaling pathways. Slit2, a chemorepulsive factor, controls cell migration of neuronal and glial cells during development and inhibits chemotaxic migration of various types of cells in vitro. However, the role of Slit2 in vitro remains controversial ...
Mayer Christopher M - - 2009
The hypothalamus is the control center for most physiological processes; yet has been difficult to study due to the inherent heterogeneity of this brain region. For this reason, researchers have turned towards cell models. Primary hypothalamic cultures are difficult to maintain, are heterogeneous neuronal and glial cell populations and often ...
Juliet Packiasamy A R - - 2009
The germinal matrix of human brain gives rise to oligodendrocytes and astrocytes after mid-gestation. Hemorrhage in the germinal matrix of premature infants is associated with suppressed cell proliferation. We hypothesize that soluble blood constituents have an adverse effect on the proliferation of cultured rat subventricular zone (SVZ) cells and the ...
Danielyan Lusine - - 2009
The safety and efficacy of cell-based therapies for neurodegenerative diseases depends on the mode of cell administration. We hypothesized that intranasally administered cells could bypass the blood-brain barrier by migrating from the nasal mucosa through the cribriform plate along the olfactory neural pathway into the brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ...
Takamori Yasuharu - - 2009
Nestin is a class VI intermediate filament protein, which was first identified in the early developmental stages of the nervous system. It is widely used as a stem or progenitor cell marker. In the adult mammalian brain, nestin is expressed not only in germinal cells in the neurogenic regions but ...
Yoo Chan-Jong - - 2009
After spinal cord injury (SCI), a loss of myelinating oligodendrocytes and neurons occurs. The functional recovery of injured spinal cords is the principal objective of SCI repair. Cell transplantation may prove beneficial to help replace lost myelin and spinal cord circuitry. In this study, we demonstrated that neural precursor cells ...
Villanueva Ruth - - 2009
The potential effects of the removal of olfactory input on adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb were examined. Olfactory organs of adult zebrafish were permanently and completely ablated by cautery and animals were exposed to bromodeoxyuridine then examined following short (4-hour) or long (3-week) survival periods. Short survival times allowed ...
Ohmomo H - - 2009
Olfactory information is initially processed through intricate synaptic interactions between glutamatergic projection neurons and GABAergic interneurons in the olfactory bulb. Although bulbar neurons and networks have been reported to develop even postnatally, much is yet unknown about the glutamatergic neuron development. To address this issue, we studied the postnatal ontogeny ...
Tobet S S Department of Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. - - 2009
Sex differences in the nervous system come in many forms. Although a majority of sexually dimorphic characteristics in the brain have been described in older animals, mechanisms that determine sexually differentiated brain characteristics often operate during critical perinatal periods. Both genetic and hormonal factors likely contribute to physiological mechanisms in ...
Qiao S - - 2009
Intestinal ganglioneuromatosis (GN) is an uncommon disease of the enteric nervous system (ENS) and its pathogenesis remains unclear. Here we describe a unique case of diffuse GN of the intestinal wall associated with colon adenocarcinoma occurring in a 38-year-old female. Because it is well-known that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor ...
Wang Anni - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: This review is focused on the current understanding of the roles of the fifth class of non-neuronal cells, NG2 cells, in the central nervous system (CNS). METHODS: We have reviewed some literature on properties of NG2 cells, including cell morphology, expression of receptors and possible functions. RESULTS: Chondroitin sulfate ...
Gao Xue - - 2009
In this study, we describe the presence of CRP2 (cysteine- and glycine-rich protein 2) and CRIP2 (cysteine-rich intestinal protein 2), which are members of group 2 LIM proteins, in rat olfactory precursor cells by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We have developed polyclonal antibodies against CRP2 and CRIP2 individually. Specificity ...
Miljan Erik A - - 2009
Human neural stem cells offer the hope that a cell therapy treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD) could be made widely available. In this study, we describe two clonal human neural cell lines, derived from two different 10-week-old fetal mesencephalic tissues and immortalized with the c-mycER(TAM) transgene. Under the growth control ...
Barone Frank C - - 2009
The failure of many acute stroke intervention clinical trials has raised significant concerns regarding neuroprotection alone as a strategy for therapeutic intervention in the treatment of stroke. 'Neuroprotection' strategies typically have focused on neurons and the neurotoxic environment observed under ischemic conditions; however, the complex processes that occur post-stroke require ...
Li Yingmin - - 2009
The nerve growth factor-induced gene B-beta (NGFI-Bbeta, Nurr1) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that is expressed predominantly in the central nervous system. We used an antibody against the human NGFI-Bbeta to observe the protein expression in neuronal cells in the retina, cerebral neocortex, and midbrain of humans ...
Levanti M B - - 2009
The embryonic development of the enteric nervous system (ENS) from neural crest precursor cells requires neurotrophic signaling. Neurotrophins (NTs) are a family of growth factors that bind Trk receptors to signal diverse functions, including development and maintenance of different cell populations in the peripheral nervous system. In this study we ...
Meunier A - - 2009
Activated glial cells in the dorsal spinal cord participate in the development and maintenance of pain after peripheral nerve injury. Our understanding of mechanisms involved in functional changes of spinal glia remains incomplete. Excepting drugs that completely disrupt glial function, pharmacological studies fail to target glia and to modify locally ...
Striedter Georg F - - 2009
Some mammals and birds independently evolved an enlarged telencephalon. They appear to have done so, at least in part, by developing a thick telencephalic subventricular zone (SVZ). We suggest that this correlation between telencephalic enlargement and SVZ expansion is due to a mechanical constraint acting on the proliferative ventricular zone ...
Song Cha-Kyong - - 2009
Neurogenesis in the central olfactory pathway of decapod crustaceans persists throughout life. Here we describe the structural basis of neurogenesis within the olfactory deutocerebrum of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii from hatchlings to adults. Using a proliferation marker and immunostaining, we found that throughout development each hemibrain contains a neurogenic complex ...
Mori Tetsuji - - 2009
In intact adult mammalian brains, there are two neurogenic regions: the subependymal zone and the subgranular layer of the hippocampus. Even outside these regions, small numbers of proliferating precursors do exist. Many studies suggest that the majority of these are oligodendrocyte precursors that express NG2, a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, and ...
Qiang Lei - - 2009
To identify and compare the features of stem like cells in human glioblastoma cell lines U251, U87MG, A172 with primary cultured glioblastoma stem cells, the ratio of CD133+ cells, the ability of tumor sphere formation, and self-renewing capacity of U251, U87MG, A172 cells in serum free medium plus EGF, bFGF ...
Barenco Maria Grazia - - 2009
The cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is a highly conserved glycoprotein of unknown biological function. To gain insight into the physiological role of PrP(C), we generated a novel PrP knockout cell line, named PrP(o/o) ML, by immortalization of neuroepithelial precursor cells derived from the cerebellum of PrP-knockout mice using the temperature-sensitive ...
Zupanc G K H - - 2009
Zebrafish, like other teleosts, continuously produce new cells in numerous regions of the adult brain. Immunolabeling employing antisera against phosphorylated histone-H3 and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine revealed that approximately 6%-7% of such cells exhibited nuclear aberrations. These aberrations, presumably the result of mitotic segregation defects, included single and multiple laggards (both during metaphase ...
Komitova Mila M Department of Physiology and Neurobiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-3156, - - 2009
NG2 cells express the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan NG2 and are a fourth type of glia distinct from astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia. NG2 cells generate oligodendrocytes but have also been reported to represent neuronal progenitor cells in the postnatal mouse subventricular zone (SVZ). We performed a detailed immunohistochemical analysis of NG2 ...
Nimmerjahn Axel - - 2009
Astrocytes are one of the most numerous cell types in the CNS. They have emerged as sophisticated cells participating in a large and diverse variety of functions vital for normal brain development, adult physiology and pathology. Recent in vivo studies have provided exciting new insight into astrocyte physiology in the ...
Orre Karin - - 2009
An increasing number of investigations suggest volumetric changes and glial pathology in several brain regions of patients with bipolar disorder. Lithium, used in the treatment of this disorder, has been reported to be neuroprotective and increase brain volume. Here we investigate the effect of lithium on the proliferation and survival ...
Kelly Claire M CM Brain Repair Group, School of Biosciences, Museum Avenue, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AX, Wales, UK. - - 2009
Cell-replacement therapy for Huntington's disease is one of very few therapies that has reported positive outcomes in clinical trials. However, for cell transplantation to be made more readily available, logistical, standardization and ethical issues associated with the current methodology need to be resolved. To achieve these goals, it is imperative ...
Yamamoto Masahiro - - 2009
Recent studies of adult neurogenesis of the mammalian central nervous system have suggested unexpected plasticity and complexity of neural cell ontogenesis. Redefinition and reconstitution of cell classification and lineage relationships, especially between glial and neural precursors, are an urgent and crucial concern. In the present study, we describe a new ...
Lytle Judith M JM Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia, - - 2009
NG2(+) cells in the adult CNS are a heterogeneous population. The extent to which the subpopulation of NG2(+) cells that function as oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) respond to spinal cord injury (SCI) and recapitulate their normal developmental progression remains unclear. We used the CNP-EGFP mouse, in which oligodendrocyte lineage cells ...
Aizawa Shu - - 2009
The DNA-demethylating agent 5-azacytidine (5-azaC) causes extensive genomic demethylation of 5-methyl-cytosine residues and reduces DNA methyltransferase activity in cells. This study evaluated the effect of 5-azaC on neuronal differentiation in proliferating NG108-15 neuronal cells, which exhibit cholinergic traits. The expression of choline acetyltransferase, an enzyme responsible for acetylcholine synthesis, was ...
Pusch Larissa - - 2009
Glial tumor cells are known to be sensitive to glucocorticoids (GC) in vivo and in vitro. Here we studied the expression of corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) in the low-grade malignant human astrocytoma cell line 1321N1. CBG was observed in cytoplasm of most of these cells with immunocytochemistry. RT-PCR revealed the presence ...
Wang Chun-Xia - - 2009
Polybutylcyanoacrylate (PBCA) nanoparticles coated with polysorbate-80 have been extensively studied for delivery of drugs into the animal models; however, 1% polysorbate-80 coated gemcitabine PBCA nanoparticles (GCTB-PBCA-NPs) remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of brain targeted 1% polysorbate-80 coated GCTB-PBCA-NPs on C6 glioma cells in vitro and ...
Sharp Jason - - 2009
During human development, cells of the blastocyst inner cell mass proliferate and give rise to each cell in the human body. It is that potential which focuses intense interest on these stem cells as a substrate for cell-based regenerative medicine. An increased understanding of the interrelation of processes that govern ...
Danilov Alexandre I - - 2009
Neural stem cells (NSCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) continuously generate olfactory bulb interneurons in the adult rodent brain. Based on their ultrastructural and antigenic properties, NSCs, transient amplifying precursor cells, and neuroblasts (B, C, and A cells, respectively) have been distinguished in mouse SVZ. Here, we aimed to identify ...
Tanaka Yuichi - - 2009
Adult neocortex contains dividing satellite glia population even though their characteristics and functions have still remained unknown. Nestin(+)/NG2(+) cells as major fraction of dividing glial cells express bicuculline-sensitive gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA(A)) receptors and receive GABAergic inputs. Due to their high [Cl(-)](i), GABAergic activation depolarized the cells and then induced ...
Oshima Kenichi - - 2009
A 58-year-old Japanese man developed psychomotor excitement and hallucinatory paranoia at age 53, which gradually developed to residual schizophrenia. He was administered various common tranquilizers until death. Myelodysplastic syndrome was noted 10 months before death. A routine autopsy was performed. The brain weighed 1365 g, and macroscopic observation revealed no ...
Ming Ming - - 2009
BACKGROUND: New strategies for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) are shifted from dopamine (DA) replacement to regeneration or restoration of the nigro-striatal system. A cell therapy using human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells as substitution for degenerated dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons has been developed and showed promising prospect in clinical ...
Pennartz Sandra - - 2009
Within the nervous system, hundreds of neuronal and glial cell types have been described. Each specific cell type in the brain or spinal cord has a repertoire of cell surface molecules, or molecular determinants, through which it can be identified and characterized. Currently, robust cell identification and separation technologies require ...
Okuno Tsuyoshi - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Neurons and glial cells can be efficiently induced from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells in a conditioned medium collected from rat primary-cultured astrocytes (P-ACM). However, the use of rodent primary cells for clinical applications may be hampered by limited supply and risk of contamination with xeno-proteins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We ...
Tackenberg Mark A - - 2009
PURPOSE: Müller cells are well known for their critical role in normal retinal structure and function, but their reaction to retinal injury and subsequent role in retinal remodeling is less well characterized. In this study we used a mouse model of retinal laser photocoagulation to examine injury-induced Müller glial reaction, ...
Deleyrolle Loic P - - 2009
During development and continuing into adulthood, stem cells function as a reservoir of undifferentiated cell types, whose role is to support cell genesis in several tissues and organs. In the adult, they play an essential homeostatic role by replacing differentiated cells that are lost due to physiological turnover, injury, or ...
Gonz?lez-Hern?ndez Tom?s - - 2009
The degeneration of nigral dopaminergic (DA-) neurons is the histopathologic hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD), but not all nigral DA-cells show the same susceptibility to degeneration. This starts in DA-cells in the ventrolateral and caudal regions of the susbtantia nigra (SN) and progresses to DA-cells in the dorsomedial and rostral ...
Henn Anja - - 2009
The role of microglia in neurodegeneration, toxicology and immunity is an expanding area of biomedical research requiring large numbers of animals. Use of a microglia-like cell line would accelerate many research programmes and reduce the necessity of continuous cell preparations and animal experimentation, provided that the cell line reproduces the ...
Uebing-Czipura A U - - 2009
Recently, we established and phenotypically characterized an immortalized porcine olfactory bulb neuroblast cell line, OBGF400 (1). To facilitate the future application of these cells in studies of neurological dysfunctions and neuronal pathogen interactions, a comprehensive knowledge of their genomic variability and overall gene expression capacity was pursued. Accordingly, the OBGF400 ...
Yurek David M DM Department of Neurosurgery, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536-0305, USA. - - 2009
Previously it was established that infusion of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) protein into grafts of embryonic dopamine cells has a neurotrophic effect on the grafted cells. In this study we used a nonviral technique to transfer the gene encoding for GDNF to striatal cells. Plasmid DNA encoding for ...
Liu Haiyan - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) was originally characterized as a HIV-1-inducible gene in primary human fetal astrocyte. Recent studies highlight a potential role of AEG-1 in promoting tumor progression and metastasis. The aim of this study was to investigate if AEG-1 serves as a potential therapeutic target of human neuroblastoma. ...
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