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Burgoyne Adam M AM Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-4960, - - 2009
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common malignant primary brain tumor, represents a significant disease burden. GBM tumor cells disperse extensively throughout the brain parenchyma, and the need for tumor-specific drug targets and pharmacologic agents to inhibit cell migration and dispersal is great. The receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase mu (PTPmu) is ...
Hu Ling - - 2010
To study the expression of VEGF, MMP-9, EGFR, and S100B in a highly brain metastases sub-clone cell line, PC14/B. The in vitro metastases-related behaviors of PC14 /B cells, such as adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM), migration, and invasion were determined and compared with primary PC14 cells and A549 cells that ...
He Yangtao - - 2009
The platelet-derived growth factor-alpha receptor (PDGFalphaR) has been found specifically expressed in oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), whereas another membrane protein, NG2, has been widely applied to characterize developing and matured OPCs. In order to investigate whether PDGFalphaR expression is consistent to NG2 in identifying OPCs, we utilized techniques of immunohistochemistry ...
Cizkova D - - 2009
The embryonic, neonatal, as well as adult rat spinal cords harbor a pool of neural stem cells (NSCs), which may be easily isolated and used to replace neuronal cell loss or remyelinate damaged axons following various neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study we have used magnetic cell sorting (MACs) technology ...
Bringmann Andreas - - 2009
M??ller cells are active players in normal retinal function and in virtually all forms of retinal injury and disease. Reactive M??ller cells protect the tissue from further damage and preserve tissue function by the release of antioxidants and neurotrophic factors, and may contribute to retinal regeneration by the generation of ...
Siegert Sandra - - 2009
The mammalian brain is assembled from thousands of neuronal cell types that are organized in distinct circuits to perform behaviorally relevant computations. Transgenic mouse lines with selectively marked cell types would facilitate our ability to dissect functional components of complex circuits. We carried out a screen for cell type-specific green ...
Lum Maggie - - 2009
Fibroblast growth factor-9 (FGF9) is expressed in the CNS and is reported to be a mitogen for glial cells, to promote neuronal survival, and to retard oligodendrocyte differentiation. Here we examined the effects of FGF9 on the differentiation, survival, and proliferation of adult neural progenitor cells derived from the adult ...
Chadi Gerson - - 2009
Neuron-glia interaction is involved in physiological function of neurons, however recent evidences have suggested glial cells as participants in neurotoxic and neurotrophic mechanisms of neurodegenerative/neuroregenerative processes. Histological techniques employing immunolabeling, historadiography and in situ hybridization have been useful to localize at cell levels molecules in normal and pathological situations. The ...
Hassenkl??ver Thomas - - 2009
In the olfactory epithelium (OE) continuous neurogenesis is maintained throughout life. The OE is in direct contact with the external environment, and its cells are constantly exposed to pathogens and noxious substances. To maintain a functional sense of smell the OE has evolved the ability to permanently replenish olfactory receptor ...
Gonzalez-Perez Oscar - - 2009
New neurons and oligodendrocytes are continuously produced in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of adult mammalian brains. Under normal conditions, the SVZ primary precursors (type B1 cells) generate type C cells, most of which differentiate into neurons, with a small subpopulation giving rise to oligodendrocytes. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling induces ...
Schmidt Anna Laura - - 2010
Medulloblastoma is the most common brain tumor of childhood. Emerging molecular targets in medulloblastoma include neurotrophin and neuropeptide receptors. In the present study, we have examined the influence of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/TrkB receptor- and gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR)-mediated signaling on the viability of human medulloblastoma cells. The expression of ...
Tanvig Mette - - 2009
The rostral migratory stream (RMS) is the main pathway by which newly born subventricular zone (SVZ) cells reach the olfactory bulb (OB) in rodents. This migration has been well studied in vivo, but an organotypic in vitro model would facilitate more experimental investigations. Here we introduce a slice culture preparation ...
Kranich Sandra - - 2009
Neuronal and vascular cells share common chemical signals. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C and -D and their receptor VEGFR-3/Flt-4 mediate lymphangiogenesis, but they occur also in the brain. Quantitative RT-PCR of mouse brain tissues and cultivated cells showed that the VEGFR-3 gene is highest transcribed in postnatal brain and in ...
Wright K E - - 2009
The effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) on neural cells is important when tumours are within or adjacent to the nervous system. The purpose of this study was to investigate PDT using the photosensitiser, meta-tetrahydroxyphenyl chlorin (mTHPC), on rat neurons and satellite glia, compared with human adenocarcinoma cells (MCF-7). Fluorescence microscopy ...
Hagihara Kazuki K Burnham Institute for Medical Research, La Jolla, CA 92037, - - 2009
Shp2 is a non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase containing two Src homology 2 (SH2) domains that is implicated in intracellular signaling events controlling cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. To examine the role of Shp2 in brain development, we created mice with Shp2 selectively deleted in neural stem/progenitor cells. Homozygous mutant mice ...
Lee Moonhee - - 2009
Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is an essential physiological product in brain. We investigated the expression of cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-gamma-lyase (CGL), the two H(2)S synthesizing enzymes, in human cell lines and in human brain. Only astrocytes were strongly immunostained for CBS. Cultured astrocytes synthesized H(2)S at the rate of 15.06 micromol/g ...
Tegenge Million Adane - - 2009
Developmental studies in both vertebrates and invertebrates implicate an involvement of nitric oxide (NO) signaling in cell proliferation, neuronal motility, and synaptic maturation. However, it is unknown whether NO plays a role in the development of the human nervous system. We used a model of human neuronal precursor cells from ...
Ko Ji-Yun - - 2009
We have previously demonstrated derivation of neural precursor (NP) cells of a midbrain-type from human embryonic stem (hES) cells to yield an enriched population of dopamine (DA) neurons. These hES-derived NPs can be expanded in vitro through multiple passages without altering their DA neurogenic potential. Here, we studied two aspects ...
Yawno T - - 2009
The neurosteroid allopregnanolone (AP) is a GABAergic agonist that suppresses central nervous system (CNS) activity in the adult brain, and by reducing excitotoxicity is considered to be neuroprotective. A role for neurosteroids in the developing brain, particularly in late gestation, is still debated. The aim of this study was to ...
Saito Takae - - 2009
PURPOSE: To determine how brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protects photoreceptors against phototoxicity. METHODS: Iris pigment epithelial cells (IPE) that were transduced with different concentrations of adeno-associated virus (AAV) mediated BDNF (AAV-BDNF-IPE) were transplanted into the subretinal space of rats. We also injected small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) for TrkB, a BDNF ...
Hamanoue Makoto - - 2009
The isolation of neural stem cells (NSCs) from the brain has been hampered by the lack of valid cell surface markers and the requirement for long-term in vitro cultivation that may lead to phenotype deterioration. However, few suitable specific cell surface antigens are available on NSCs that could be used ...
Murakami Matsuka - - 2009
Functional changes of the enteric nervous system have been observed under inflammatory states of inflammatory bowel disease increasing the endotoxin level. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on myenteric neuron-glia interaction in vitro. We examined the increase of the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ...
Kunze Albrecht - - 2009
In the adult dentate gyrus, radial glia-like cells represent putative stem cells generating neurons and glial cells. Here, we combined patch-clamp recordings, biocytin filling, immunohistochemistry, single-cell transcript analysis, and mouse transgenics to test for connexin expression and gap junctional coupling of radial glia-like cells and its impact on neurogenesis. Radial ...
Meyer Néva P - - 2009
Intertaxonomic comparisons are important for understanding neurogenesis and evolution of nervous systems, but high-resolution, cellular studies of early central nervous system development and the molecular mechanisms controlling this process in lophotrochozoans are still lacking. We provide a detailed cellular and molecular description of early brain neurogenesis in a lophotrochozoan annelid, ...
Iguchi Yohei - - 2009
The 43-kDa TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) is known to be a major component of the ubiquitinated inclusions characteristic of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions. Although TDP-43 is a nuclear protein, it disappears from the nucleus of affected neurons and glial cells, implicating TDP-43 loss of ...
Wang Xiaomei - - 2009
The Notch1 signaling pathway is regarded as one of the main regulators of neural stem cell behavior during development, but its role in the adult brain is less well understood. We found that Notch1 was mainly expressed in doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells corresponding to newborn neurons, whereas the Notch1 ligand, Jagged1, ...
Wu Chuanshen - - 2009
We have identified a novel population of cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the mammalian brain that expresses beta4 tubulin (betaT4) and has properties of primitive neuroectodermal cells. betaT4 cells are scattered throughout the SVZ of the lateral ventricles in adult human brain and are significantly increased in the ...
Cerri Silvia - - 2009
'Binomial' cell proliferation and cell death have been studied in only a few non-mammalian vertebrates, such as fish. We thought it of interest to map cell proliferation/apoptosis in the brain of the frog (Rana esculenta L.) as this animal species undergoes, during the annual cycle, physiological events that could be ...
Yoon Jung-Sook - - 2009
Previous observations suggest that Bis, a Bcl-2-binding protein, may play a role the neuronal and glial differentiation in vivo. To examine this further, we investigated Bis expression during the in vitro differentiation of P19 embryonic carcinoma cells induced by retinoic acid (RA). Western blotting and RT-PCR assays showed that Bis ...
Geha Sameh - - 2010
A persistent cycling cell population in the normal adult human brain is well established. Neural stem cells or neural progenitors have been identified in the subventricular zone and the dentate gyrus subgranular layer (SGL), two areas of persistent neurogenesis. Cycling cells in other human normal brain areas, however, remains to ...
Niederkinkhaus Vanessa - - 2009
We have previously shown that treatment with the thyroid hormone T(3) increases the voltage-gated Na(+)current density (Nav-D) in hippocampal neurons from postnatal rats, leading to accelerated action potential upstrokes and increased firing frequencies. Here we show that the Na(+) current regulation depends on the presence of glial cells, which secrete ...
Chung Youn Wook - - 2009
It has been reported that selenoprotein W (SelW) mRNA is highly expressed in the developing central nerve system of rats, and its expression is maintained until the early postnatal stage. We here found that SelW protein significantly increased in mouse brains of postnatal day 8 and 20 relative to embryonic ...
Van Bergen Nicole J - - 2009
PURPOSE: The transformed RGC-5 retinal ganglion cell line is used widely in glaucoma research. Increased resistance to glutamate was noted in published literature and led to the recharacterization of the RGC-5 cell line. METHODS: Characterization of the RGC-5 cell line was performed by sequencing of a region of the nuclear ...
Yoon Somy - - 2009
Mycotoxins are commonly encountered natural products, and are capable of poisoning animals or humans that inhale mold particles from mycotoxin-contaminated foods. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is produced by Aspergillu ochracus and Penicillium verrucosum, and is often found in cereals and agricultural products. Although previous studies have focused on the potent nephrotoxicity ...
Chen Jong-Hang - - 2009
This study was to clarify whether acrylamide (ACR) will induce apoptosis and astrogliosis in an astrocytic cell line in vitro. Different time- and dose-dependent cytotoxic studies were conducted upon neuronal (SH-SY5Y) and glial cell lines (U-1240 MG) under exposure to ACR up to 72h. We showed that SH-SY5Y cells were ...
Bringmann Andreas - - 2009
Proliferative retinopathies are considered to represent maladapted retinal wound repair processes driven by growth factor- and cytokine-induced overstimulation of proliferation, migration, extracellular matrix production and contraction of retinal cells. The formation of neovascular membranes represents an attempt to reoxygenize non-perfused retinal areas. Müller glial cells play a crucial role in ...
Buron G - - 2009
Most studies on toxic inhalation focus on solvent effects and few have dealt with gases on olfactory functioning. Among gases, the effects of carbon dioxide on general physiology have been well investigated contrary to the impact on olfactory neuroepithelium. Thus, this work was designed to evaluate in mice the possible ...
Michibata Hideo - - 2009
Glycoprotein M6A (GPM6A) is known as a transmembrane protein and an abundant cell surface protein on neurons in the central nervous system (CNS). However, the function of GPM6A in the differentiation of neurons derived from human embryonic stem (ES) cells is unknown. To investigate the function of GPM6A in neural ...
Du Zhanhui - - 2009
There is increasing evidence that self-renewal capacity of cancer cells is critical for carcinogenesis; hence, it is vital to examine the expression and involvement of self-renewal regulatory genes in these cells. Here, we reported that Oct4, a well-known regulator of self-renewal in embryonic stem cells, was highly expressed in human ...
Zhao Jing-Wei JW Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge Centre for Brain Repair, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, - - 2009
Brain injury induces gliosis and scar formation; its principal cell types are mainly astrocytes and some oligodendrocytes. The origin of the astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in the scar remains unclear together with the underlying mechanism of their fate choice. We examined the response of oligodendrocyte transcription factor (Olig)2(+) glial progenitors to ...
Doeppner Thorsten R - - 2009
Cerebral ischemia stimulates endogenous neurogenesis within the subventricular zone and the hippocampal dentate gyrus of the adult rodent brain. However, such newly generated cells soon die after cerebral ischemia. To enhance postischemic survival of neural precursor cells (NPC) and long-lasting neural regeneration, we applied the antiapoptotic chaperone heat shock protein ...
Sul Jai-Yoon - - 2009
Cellular phenotype is the conglomerate of multiple cellular processes involving gene and protein expression that result in the elaboration of a cell's particular morphology and function. It has been thought that differentiated postmitotic cells have their genomes hard wired, with little ability for phenotypic plasticity. Here we show that transfer ...
Lipp Stephan - - 2009
Prevention of osmotic swelling of retinal glial (Müller) cells is required to avoid detrimental decreases in the extracellular space volume during intense neuronal activity. Here, we show that glial cells in slices of the wildtype mouse retina maintain the volume of their somata constant up to approximately 4 min of ...
Chatzi Christina - - 2009
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) promise an unlimited source of defined cells for cell transplantation therapy, while protocols for derivation of homogeneous populations of desirable cell types are yet to be developed and/or refined. Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and disturbed GABAergic ...
Király Marianna - - 2009
The plasticity of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) has been demonstrated by several studies showing that they appear to self-maintain through several passages, giving rise to a variety of cells. The aim of the present study was to differentiate DPSCs to mature neuronal cells showing functional evidence of voltage gated ...
Cicero Samantha A - - 2009
It was previously reported that the ciliary epithelium (CE) of the mammalian eye contains a rare population of cells that could produce clonogenic self-renewing pigmented spheres in culture. Based on their ability to up-regulate genes found in retinal neurons, it was concluded that these sphere-forming cells were retinal stem cells. ...
Roskom Joshua - - 2009
Transplantation of neural cells for the treatment of neurologic disorders has garnered much attention and considerable enthusiasm from patients and physicians alike. Cell-based therapies have been proposed for a wide range of central nervous system pathologies ranging from stroke and trauma to demyelinating disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Notably, cell transplantation ...
Hermann Andreas - - 2009
Neurogenesis occurs constitutively within the periventricular region (PVR) of the lateral ventricles (LV) of the adult mammalian brain. The occurrence of adult neurogenesis within the PVR outside the neurogenic niche of the LV remains controversial, but neural stem cells can be isolated from PVR of the whole ventricular system. The ...
Kosodo Yoichi - - 2009
The basal process is an extension of certain types of neural progenitors during brain development; that is, the neuroepithelial and radial glial cells, which show radial orientation, emanating from their cell body. Originally, the basal process was considered to serve as a scaffold for the migration of newborn neurons, but ...
Kriegstein Arnold R - - 2009
About 30% of patient with epilepsy do not respond to available antiepileptic drugs. In addition to seizure suppression, novel approaches are needed to prevent or alleviate epileptogenic process after various types of brain injuries. The use of cell transplants as factories to produce endogeneous anticonvulsants or as bricks to repair ...
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