Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 2515
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Crane Jonathan M - - 2009
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) can assemble into supramolecular aggregates called orthogonal arrays of particles (OAPs). In cells expressing single AQP4 isoforms, we found previously that OAP formation by AQP4-M23 requires N terminus interactions just downstream of Met-23 and that the inability of AQP4-M1 to form OAPs involves blocking by residues upstream of ...
Markakis Eleni A - - 2010
Vectors derived from adeno-associated virus (AAV) are promising candidates for neural cell transduction in vivo because they are nonpathogenic and achieve long-term transduction in the central nervous system. AAV serotype 2 (AAV2) is the most widely used AAV vector in clinical trials based largely on its ability to transduce neural ...
Kaoru T - - 2010
The intercalated cell masses of the amygdala consist of cell clusters located between the basolateral complex of the amygdala and its surrounding structures including the central nucleus of the amygdala and the external capsule. Although recent studies have revealed that the intercalated cell masses may play an important role in ...
Wakabayashi Taketoshi - - 2010
C38 antigen is specifically expressed in neuronal cells of the retina. The purpose of this study was to isolate C38 cDNA and determine its molecular functions. Sequence analysis of C38 cDNA revealed that C38 is equivalent to rat BM88, which has been reported to induce cell-cycle arrest and neuronal differentiation ...
De La Rosa-Prieto C - - 2009
Chemical stimuli are sensed through the olfactory and vomeronasal epithelia, and the sensory cells of both systems undergo neuronal turnover during adulthood. In the vomeronasal epithelium, stem cells adjacent to the basal lamina divide and migrate to replace two classes of sensory neurons: apical neurons that express G(i2alpha)-linked V1R vomeronasal ...
Jung Yoon Hee - - 2010
This study evaluated the essentiality of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) for in vitro culture of established mouse multipotent adult germline stem (maGS) cell lines by culturing them in the presence of GDNF, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) or both. We show that, in the absence of LIF, GDNF slows ...
Cid Cristina - - 2010
Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) become myelin-forming after their differentiation into post-mitotic oligodendrocytes. OPCs are extremely efficient at myelin repair and contribute to remyelination. However, remyelination fails in multiple sclerosis (MS), which suggest that the OPCs are ineffective in this disorder. We have studied previously the expression of heat shock protein ...
Demir Ozlem - - 2009
Neurogenesis in the embryo involves many signaling pathways and transcriptional programs and an elaborate orchestration of cell cycle exit in differentiating precursors. However, while the neurons differentiate into a plethora of different subtypes and different identities, they also presume a highly polar structure with a particular morphology of the cytoskeleton, ...
Takeda Hiroyuki - - 2009
Planarians change in body size depending upon whether they are in feeding or starving conditions. To investigate how planarians regulate this flexible system, the numbers of total cells and specific cell types were counted and compared among worms 2 mm to 9 mm in body length. The total cell number ...
Yiin Jia-Jean - - 2009
Acquisition of insidious invasiveness by malignant glioma cells involves multiple genetic alterations in signaling pathways. Slit2, a chemorepulsive factor, controls cell migration of neuronal and glial cells during development and inhibits chemotaxic migration of various types of cells in vitro. However, the role of Slit2 in vitro remains controversial, and ...
Burgoyne Adam M - - 2009
The cell-surface receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase mu (PTPmu) is a homophilic cell adhesion molecule expressed in CNS neurons and glia. Glioblastomas (GBMs) are the highest grade of primary brain tumors with astrocytic similarity and are characterized by marked dispersal of tumor cells. PTPmu expression was examined in human GBM, low-grade ...
Conrad Sabine - - 2010
The proliferation, migration and differentiation of dentate gyrus stem and precursor cells have aroused keen interest. Neogenin and RGMb are expressed in non-overlapping compartments of the developing dentate gyrus. While Neogenin is expressed in migrating and proliferating dentate precursors, RGMb is localized in structures bordering the developing dentate, such as ...
Regensburger Martin - - 2009
Hereditary dystonias in humans are frequently related to a specific mutation of the DYT1 gene that encodes torsinA. This mutation has been shown to disrupt neuronal cell migration during development. We compared adult neurogenesis, occurring in the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb, in transgenic mice overexpressing either the wild-type or ...
Decembrini Sarah - - 2009
Cell identity is acquired in different brain structures according to a stereotyped timing schedule, by accommodating the proliferation of multipotent progenitor cells and the generation of distinct types of mature nerve cells at precise times. However, the molecular mechanisms coupling the identity of a specific neuron and its birth date ...
Jansen Anna M - - 2009
The protein interacting with C kinase 1 (PICK1) protein was first identified as a novel binding partner for protein kinase C. PICK1 contains a membrane-binding BAR domain and a PDZ domain interacting with many synaptic proteins, including the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit GluR2 and the dopamine transporter. PICK1 is ...
Tizon Belen - - 2009
Multiple studies suggest that cystatin C (CysC) has a role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and a decrease in CysC secretion is linked to the disease in patients with a polymorphism in the CysC gene. CysC binds amyloid-beta (Abeta) and inhibits formation of Abeta fibrils and oligomers both in vitro and ...
Lin Grace - - 2009
Oligodendrocytes are the myelinating cells of the central nervous system. Although the CNS possesses the ability to repair demyelinating insults, in certain cases, such as the chronic lesions found in multiple sclerosis, remyelination fails. Cycling cells capable of becoming oligodendrocytes have been identified in both the developing and the adult ...
Tsai Hui-Hsin - - 2009
Establishment of the cytoarchitecture of the central nervous system reflects the stereotyped cell migration and proliferation of precursor cells during development. In vitro analyses have provided extensive information on the control of proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursors (OPCs), but less is known about the migratory behavior of these cells ...
Ide Tetsuya - - 2010
A mass lesion in the subependymal region of the lateral ventricle in a 13-year-old neutered male mongrel cat with a complaint of somnolence, right circling movement and posture abnormality was examined. The magnetic resonance image examination revealed a relatively large T1-hypointense and T2-hyperintense mass lesion in the left interventricular foramen ...
Fukaya Raita - - 2010
Accumulating evidence suggests that in several types of brain tumors, including glioma, only a phenotypic subset of tumor cells called brain cancer stem cells (BCSCs) may be capable of initiating tumor growth. Recently, the isolation of side population (SP) cells using Hoechst dye has become a useful method for obtaining ...
Berger Christian - - 2010
During development, neural progenitor cells or neuroblasts generate a great intra- and inter-segmental diversity of neuronal and glial cell types in the nervous system. In thoracic segments of the embryonic central nervous system of Drosophila, the neuroblast NB6-4t undergoes an asymmetric first division to generate a neuronal and a glial ...
Stanke Jennifer J - - 2010
Purpose. There is a paucity of neuron replacement studies for retinal ganglion cells. Given the complex phenotype of these neurons, replacement of ganglion cells may be impossible. However, transplanted embryonic cells could provide factors that promote the survival of these neurons. The authors sought to determine whether transplanted embryonic retinal ...
Cid Elena - - 2010
The transcription factor Prox1 acts in rodent retinogenesis, at least in promoting cell cycle withdrawal and horizontal cell production. In the mature retina, this protein is detected at the inner nuclear layer of all vertebrate groups. We have made a neurochemical characterisation of Prox1(+) cell types in two different vertebrate ...
Yang Hao - - 2010
Our previous study definitely demonstrated that the mature astrocytes could undergo a de-differentiation process and further transform into pluripotential neural stem cells (NSCs), which might well arise from the effect of diffusible factors released from scratch-insulted astrocytes. However, these neurospheres passaged from one neurosphere-derived from de-differentiated astrocytes possessed a completely ...
Lin Chin-Chung - - 2009
In this study, we investigated the effect of danthron on the cell migration and invasion of human brain glioblastoma multiforme GBM 8401 cells in vitro. The changes of migration and invasion of GBM 8401 cells after treatment with danthron were detected by cell migration assay and cell invasion assay. The ...
Psachoulia Konstantina K Wolfson Institute for Biomedical Research and Research, Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, - - 2009
Oligodendrocyte precursors (OLPs or 'NG2 cells') are abundant in the adult mouse brain, where they continue to proliferate and generate new myelinating oligodendrocytes. By cumulative BrdU labelling, we estimated the cell cycle time TC and the proportion of NG2 cells that is actively cycling (the growth fraction) at approximately postnatal ...
Braissant Olivier - - 2010
AGAT and GAMT, the two enzymes of the creatine synthesis pathway, are well expressed within CNS, suggesting autonomous brain creatine synthesis. This contradicts SLC6A8 deficiency, which causes creatine deficiency despite CNS expression of AGAT and GAMT. We hypothesized that AGAT and GAMT were not co-expressed by brain cells, and that ...
Skinner S J M - - 2009
In neurodegenerative disease and in acute brain injury, there is often local up-regulation of neurotrophin production close to the site of the lesion. Treatment by direct injection of neurotrophins and growth factors close to these lesion sites has repeatedly been demonstrated to improve recovery. It has therefore been proposed that ...
Boström Marja - - 2010
Adult spiral ganglion cells were cultured in chorus to assess the influence of the neurotrophins brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin 3 and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on neurite growth and Schwann cell alignment. Over 1500 measurements were collected using each factor at 10 ng/ml and all three in combination. ...
Ivanova E - - 2010
The mammalian retina consists of five major classes of neuronal cells, as well as glial cells, and it contains more than 50 cell types. The ability to manipulate gene expression in specific cell type(s) in the retina is important for understanding the molecular mechanisms of retinal function and diseases. The ...
Keohane Aoife - - 2010
Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine, which influences neuronal survival and function yet there is limited information available on its effects on hippocampal neural precursor cells (NPCs). We show that TNFalpha treatment during proliferation had no effect on the percentage of proliferating cells prepared from embryonic rat hippocampal ...
Arevalo María-Angeles - - 2010
Glial cells are directly or indirectly affected by estradiol and by different estrogenic compounds, such as selective estrogen receptor modulators. Acting on oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and microglia, estrogens regulate remyelination, edema formation, extracellular glutamate levels and the inflammatory response after brain injury. In addition, estradiol induces the expression and release of ...
Barlind Anna - - 2010
Radiation therapy (RT) to the brain is often used in the treatment of children with different types of malignant diseases affecting the brain. However, RT in childhood may also have severe side effects including impaired brain maturation and intellectual development. For childhood cancer survivors these adverse effects of RT can ...
Lepore G - - 2009
A lot of evidence testifies that aromatase is expressed in the central nervous system where it has been detected not only in hypothalamic and limbic regions but also in the cerebral cortex and spinal cord. In physiological conditions, aromatase is expressed exclusively by neurons, where it has been mainly found ...
Buzanska Leonora - - 2009
The aim of our study was to investigate whether a human neural stem cell line derived from umbilical cord blood (HUCB-NSC) can serve as a reliable test model for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). We assessed the sensitivity of HUCB-NSCs at different developmental stages to a panel of neurotoxic (sodium tellurite, methylmercury ...
Doncel-Pérez Ernesto - - 2009
Cells from central nervous system with morphology similar to radial glia and properties intermediate between astrocytes and Schwann cells were called growth-promoting glia or aldynoglia. These cells are present in adult brain olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, hypophysis, pineal gland and in the developing brain, and spinal cord (Cameron and Rakic (1991) ...
Papadeas Sophia T - - 2009
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized primarily by motor neuron loss in the motor cortex and spinal cord leading to progressive disability and death. Despite the relative selectivity of motor neuron loss, recent studies have implicated other cell types including astrocytes and microglia as contributors to this ...
Kang Mi-Young - - 2009
We previously reported that glial cell line-derived neurotropic factor (GDNF) receptor alpha1 (GFRalpha1) is a direct target of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (Ape1/Ref-1). In the present study, we further analyzed the physiological roles of Ape1/Ref-1-induced GFRalpha1 expression in Neuro2a mouse neuroblastoma cells. Ape1/Ref-1 expression caused the clustering of GFRalpha1 immunoreactivity in ...
Langley Robert R - - 2009
Astrocytes play a critical role in maintaining cerebral homeostasis and their dysregulation is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of several diseases, including brain cancer and metastasis. Similar to the human disease, we found that lung and melanoma metastases in the mouse brain are accompanied by a reactive gliosis. To ...
Arai Ken - - 2009
Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability in developed countries. Since protecting neurons alone is not sufficient for stroke therapy, research has shifted to the rescue of multiple cell types in the brain. In particular, attention has focused on the study of how cerebral blood vessels ...
Chen Jin - - 2009
Certain antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) that are commonly used to treat seizures in children also affect cognition, and these effects can persist into adulthood, long after drug withdrawal. Widespread enhancement of apoptosis may be one mechanism underlying these lasting cognitive changes. Whether AEDs affect other processes in brain development during early ...
Boutin Camille - - 2009
Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) plays an important role during neural development and in the adult brain, whereby most functions of NCAM have been ascribed to its unique polysialic acid (PSA) modification. Recently we presented evidence suggesting that expression of NCAM in vivo interferes with the maintenance of forebrain neuronal ...
Audisio Chiara - - 2009
Cell transplantation therapy has raised a great interest in the perspective of its employment for nerve tissue repair. Among the various cell populations proposed, olfactory ensheathing glial cells have raised great interest over recent years, especially in the perspective of their employment for neural repair because of their homing capacity ...
S??rbulescu Ruxandra F - - 2009
In contrast to mammals, adult teleost fish exhibit a vast potential for central nervous system regeneration after injury. Among other mechanisms, this capacity is mediated by replacement of cells lost to injury by new neurons and glia. Here, we examined the spatio-temporal dynamics of apoptosis, and its relationship to the ...
Klämbt Christian - - 2009
Neurons and glial cells show mutual interdependence in many developmental and functional aspects of their biology. To establish their intricate relationships with neurons, glial cells must migrate over what are often long distances. In the CNS glial cells generally migrate as single cells, whereas PNS glial cells tend to migrate ...
Nakatani Yoshihiko - - 2010
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are undifferentiated neural cells characterized by their high proliferative potential and the capacity for self-renewal with retention of multipotency. Over the past two decades, there has been a huge effort to identify NSCs morphologically, genetically, and molecular biologically. It is still controversial, however, what bona fide ...
Fishman-Jacob Tali - - 2009
The aim of this study was to develop a new model of sporadic Parkinson disease (PD) based on silencing of the SKP1A gene, a component of the ubiquitin-proteasome/E3 ligase complex, Skp1, Cullin 1, F-box protein, which was found to be highly decreased in the substantia nigra of sporadic PD patients. ...
Ohgomori Tomohiro - - 2009
Intercellular adhesion molecule-5 (ICAM-5, telencephalin) is a dendritically polarized membrane glycoprotein expressed in tissues distinct from those expressing other ICAMs. Here, we determined the N-glycan structure of ICAM-5 purified from adult rat brain and compared it with that of other ICAMs. N-glycans were released by N-glycosidase F digestion and labeled ...
Constable Paul A - - 2009
The retinal pigment epithelium is an important barrier to drug transport as well as contributing to the normal functioning of the photoreceptors. The contributions of glial cells in the retina to the maintenance and development of this barrier is important. There is evidence that retinal secreted factors play a role ...
Kunii Yasuto - - 2009
To elucidate the cellular distribution of osteopontin (OPN) in normal human tissues, we undertook immunohistochemistry using two site-specific OPN antibodies. The 10A16 monoclonal antibody was raised against the amino acid sequence just downstream of the thrombin cleavage site, while the O-17 polyclonal antibody was raised against the N-terminal peptide. Each ...
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >