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Duan ShuMin - - 2010
Glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS) consist of a heterogeneous population of cell types, each characterized by distinct morphological features, physiological properties, and specific markers. In contrast to the previous view that glial cells were passive elements in the brain, accumulating evidence suggests that glial cells are active ...
Wu Junfang - - 2010
Spinal cord contusion produces a central lesion surrounded by a peripheral rim of residual white matter. Despite stimulation of NG2(+) progenitor cell proliferation, the lesion remains devoid of normal glia chronically after spinal cord injury (SCI). To investigate potential cell-cell interactions of the predominant cells in the lesion at 3 ...
Swiss Victoria A - - 2010
Development of the central nervous system (CNS) requires the generation of neuronal and glial cell subtypes in appropriate numbers, and this demands the careful coordination of cell-cycle exit, survival, and differentiation. The E2F/Rb pathway is critical for cell-cycle regulation and also modulates survival and differentiation of distinct cell types in ...
Wood John P M - - 2010
PURPOSE. Although the RGC-5 cell line is widely used in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) research, recent data have raised questions about the nature of these cells. The authors performed a systematic analysis of RGC-5 cells to determine which RGC or neuronal markers are expressed after treatment with known differentiating agents, ...
Nobre André - - 2010
Neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs) possess high potential for use in regenerative medicine. To overcome their limited mitotic competence, various immortalization strategies have been applied that allow their prolonged maintenance and expansion in vitro. Such immortalized cells can be used for the design and discovery of new cell-based therapies for neurodegenerative ...
Lees Jason R - - 2010
This study utilized an adoptive transfer model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induction in mice to characterize the mechanisms involved in CNS accumulation of transferred and host T-cells. Using a flow cytometric technique, we examined phenotypic characteristics of CNS T-cells following disease initiation and the role of T-cell activation in ...
Horschitz Sandra - - 2010
We have examined the potency of two methods for the neuronal differentiation of embryonic stem cells on the generation of neuronal cells from human blood cells. A mixture of mononuclear cells from peripheral blood cells expressing monocytic, hematopoietic, and mesenchymal cell surface markers were exposed to all-trans retinoic acid, epidermal ...
Choi Yong-Soo - - 2010
Neural stem cells (NSCs) have mainly been applied to neurodegeneration in some medically intractable neurologic diseases. In this study, we established a novel NSC line and investigated the cytotoxic responses of NSCs to exogenous neurotoxicants, glutamates and reactive oxygen species (ROS). A multipotent NSC line, B2A1 cells, was established from ...
Wen Chiu-Ming - - 2010
Ependymal radial glial cells, also called tanycytes, are the predominant glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)- and vimentin (VIM)-expressing cells in fish ependyma. Radial glial cells have been proposed to be neural stem cells but their molecular expression is not well understood. Previous studies revealed that fish neural progenitor and neural ...
Wang Yu - - 2010
Transforming growth factor-beta signaling through Smad3 inhibits cell proliferation in many cell types. As cell proliferation in the brain is an integral part of neurogenesis, we sought to determine the role of Smad3 in adult neurogenesis through examining processes and structures important to neurogenesis in adult Smad3 null mice. We ...
Thummel Ryan - - 2010
The light-damaged zebrafish retina results in the death of photoreceptor cells and the subsequent regeneration of the missing rod and cone cells. Photoreceptor regeneration initiates with asymmetric Müller glial cell division to produce neuronal progenitor cells, which amplify, migrate to the outer nuclear layer (ONL), and differentiate into both classes ...
Williams E L - - 2010
The phenotypic expression of autism, according to the Triple Hit Hypothesis, is determined by three factors: a developmental time window of vulnerability, genetic susceptibility, and environmental stressors. In utero exposure to thalidomide, valproic acid, and maternal infections are examples of some of the teratogenic agents which increase the risk of ...
Chong S Y Christin - - 2010
The development and maturation of the oligodendrocyte requires a series of highly orchestrated events that coordinate the proliferation and differentiation of the oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) as well as the spatiotemporal regulation of myelination. In recent years, widespread interest has been devoted to the therapeutic potential of adult OPCs scattered ...
Liu Yi-Jun - - 2010
The mechanism of circulating T cells entry into the brain in Alzheimer's diseases (AD) remains unclear. Here, we showed that peripheral T cells derived from AD patients overexpress CXCR2 to enhance its transendothelial migration. T cells migration through in vitro blood-brain barrier model was effectively blocked by anti-CXCR2 antibody or ...
Walker P A - - 2010
Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents a major burden on healthcare worldwide. In the United States, TBI accounts for 435000 Emergency Department visits, 37000 hospital admissions, and approximately 2500 deaths each year. While aggressive early rehabilitation has shown some functional improvement, the acute care of TBI with focus on controlling ...
Shen Chiung-Chyi - - 2010
Neural progenitors cells are capable of promoting neurogenesis after ischemic stroke in the adult mammalian brain; however the function of these cells and their fate is still not clear. Therefore the purpose of this study investigated the relationship between neural progenitors and reactive astrocytes after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). ...
Osredkar Damjan - - 2010
The hippocampus is often injured in neonatal stroke. We have investigated the effect of erythropoietin (EPO) on oxygen-glucose deprived hippocampal slices and hypoxic progenitor cells. EPO improved survival of the organotypic hippocampal slices with significantly less cell death in the dentate gyrus and an increased number of proliferating cells 4-5 ...
Casta?eda Mauricio M - - 2010
Endothelin (ET) is a small peptide that activates astrocyte proliferation, regulates proliferation and migration of embryonic neural precursor cells and stimulates glioblastoma growth. We found that in mouse brain, ET and its receptor B (ETRB) were highly expressed in the subependymal zone (SEZ), an adult neurogenic niche. Cells with ET ...
Ceci María Laura - - 2010
During cerebral cortex development, different cell populations migrate tangentially through the preplate, traveling from their site of origin toward their final positions. One of the earliest populations formed, the Cajal-Retzius (C-R) cells, is mainly generated in different cortical hem (CH) domains, and they migrate along established and parallel routes to ...
García-González Diego - - 2010
FGF-2 and Anosmin-1 are diffusible proteins which act in cell proliferation and/or migration during CNS development. We describe their developmental expression patterns in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the forebrain and the neuronal precursors (NPs) that migrate from this neurogenic site towards the olfactory bulb, forming the rostral migratory stream ...
Sevc Juraj - - 2011
Despite extensive investigations of gliogenesis, the time of origin of ependymal cells in the spinal cord has not yet been fully elucidated. Using a single dose of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine combined with various survival times we monitored: mitotic activity (short survival time), the presence of newly formed cells in the ventricular zone ...
Lindsay Susan L SL Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 - - 2010
Damage to the brain and spinal cord leads to permanent functional disability because of the very limited capacity of the central nervous system (CNS) for repair. Transplantation of cells into regions of CNS damage represents one approach to enhancing this repair. At present, the ideal cell type for transplant-mediated repair ...
Pusch Annette - - 2010
Hyaluronan and its receptor CD44 are known to contribute to the invasive growth of different tumors of the central nervous system. It is not known, however, if CD44 is sufficient to activate invasive growth into the brain tissue. This study examines how CD44 regulates the motility and invasive growth of ...
Vukojevic Katarina - - 2010
Expression of the neural crest marker nestin was studied in glial and neuronal progenitors of developing human spinal ganglia using immunohistochemistry in 10 conceptuses, 5-10 weeks old. Quantification was performed by counting the ratio of positive cells in the total cell number, expressed as mean + or - SD and ...
Shi Bao-Xian - - 2010
A method for monitoring the biological exocytotic phenomena on a microfluidic system was proposed. A microfluidic device coupled with functionalities of fluorescence imaging and amperometric detection has been developed to enable the real-time monitoring of the exocytotic events. Exocytotic release of single SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells was studied. By staining the ...
Agholme Lotta - - 2010
Neuroscience, including research on Alzheimer's disease, is hampered by the lack of suitable in vitro models to study the human nervous system. To counteract this, many attempts to differentiate cell lines into more neuron-like cells have been performed, resulting in partial expression of neuronal features. Furthermore, it has been reported ...
Adler Elizabeth M - - 2010
This Focus Issue of Science Signaling complements the Science Special Issue and highlights glial cell function, development, and disease. This issue draws attention to the molecular mechanisms of drug resistance of a cancer of glial origin, and to signaling between glia and neurons. Although glia may not be excitable, they ...
Bernardini C - - 2010
S100B is a Ca2+ binding protein mainly secreted by astrocytes in the vertebrate brain that is considered a multifunctional cytokine and/or a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) protein and a marker of brain injury and neurodegeneration when measured in different body fluids. It has been widely shown that this protein can ...
Zhao Tong Tao - - 2010
Müller cells can be activated and included in different functions under many kinds of pathological conditions, however, the status of Müller cells in retinitis pigmentosa are still unknown. Using immunohistochemisty, Western blots and co-culture, we found that Müller cells RCS rats, a classic model of RP, could be activated during ...
Kurkowska-Jastrzebska Iwona - - 2010
In our previous investigations, we demonstrated that CD4(+) antimyelin basic protein (MBP) T cells protect hippocampal neurons against trimethyltin-induced damage. We hypothesized involvement of T cells, interacting with the various glial populations activated during the neurodegeneration process. In this study, we employ immunocytochemical methods to investigate the influence of administration ...
WolaƄczyk Magdalena - - 2010
Previously, we have reported that glioblastoma (GBM) cells can be differentiated into cells showing neuronal, glial and non-neural (mesenchymal) phenotypes. Before the differentiation the GBM cells co-expressed GFAP, CD44, Beta III tubulin, MAP2, Vimentin, Nestin and SOX-2, whereas during the exposure to a neural differentiation medium the differentiation process was ...
Mott Natasha N - - 2010
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) mediate a vast range of CNS developmental processes including neural induction, proliferation, migration, and cell survival. Despite the critical role of FGF signaling for normal CNS development, few reports describe the mechanisms that regulate FGF receptor gene expression in the brain. We tested whether FGF8 could ...
Erol Adnan - - 2010
The progression and outcome of neurological diseases are determined by the balance between neurodegeneration, neuroprotection, and neuroregeneration. In this context, astroglial cells are invariably involved in every kind of neuropathology. Mitotically, active glial cells provide metabolic support to active neurons, contribute to coupling between synaptic activity and local blood flow, ...
Chang Eun-Ah - - 2010
Previous reports have shown that antidepressants increase neuronal cell proliferation and enhance neuroplasticity both in vivo and in vitro. This study investigated the direct effects of one such antidepressant, fluoxetine , on cell proliferation and on the production of neurotrophic factors in neuronal precursors derived from human embryonic stem cells ...
Downer Eric J - - 2010
ISSUES: Marijuana and hashish consist of at least 66 distinctive plant-derived (phyto-) cannabinoid compounds, with tetrahydrocannabinoids proving the most effective phytocannabinoid psychotropically. Despite the known pharmacological effects of phytocannabinoids, their role in controlling the cell survival/death decision in cells of the CNS continues to be unravelled. APPROACH: In this review, ...
Kawataki Tomoyuki - - 2010
A 34-year-old man presented with a case of anaplastic ganglioglioma with malignant features in both neuronal and glial components manifesting as seizure episodes over 11 months. The tumor was subtotally removed, followed by irradiation and chemotherapy. The histological diagnosis was anaplastic ganglioglioma. Atypical cells were morphologically estimated as glial and ...
Strobl-Mazzulla Pablo H - - 2010
The central nervous system of adult teleost fish is peculiar because of the following features: (1) the persistence of radial glial cells, (2) an important neurogenic activity and (3) a high aromatase expression by radial cells. In this study, the proliferative zones of the forebrain were described using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) ...
Usvald Dusan - - 2010
In recent studies using a rat aortic balloon occlusion model, we have demonstrated that spinal grafting of rat or human neuronal precursors or human postmitotic hNT neurons leads to progressive amelioration of spasticity and rigidity and corresponding improvement in ambulatory function. In the present study, we characterized the optimal dosing ...
Hovakimyan M - - 2010
In vitro expanded neural precursor cells could provide a renewable source of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons for cell replacement therapy. In the present study immortalized cell line CSM14.1 was investigated in vitro. Cells were derived from the ventral mesencephalic area of a 14-day-old rat embryo and immortalized retrovirally with the temperature-sensitive ...
Takemoto Andrea S - - 2010
INTRODUCTION: Selenoprotein P (SelP) plays a critical role in neuronal survival and is associated with Alzheimer's pathology. We sought to determine a potential neuroprotective role for SelP in Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: We utilized RNAi to reduce SelP expression in neuronal N2A cells, and determined cell viability with flow cytometry. We ...
Garavaglia Alessia - - 2010
There is an urgent need of neuronal cell models to be applied to high-throughput screening settings while recapitulating physiological and/or pathological events occurring in the Central Nervous System (CNS). Stem cells offer a great opportunity in this direction since their self renewal capacity allows for large scale expansion. Protocols for ...
Sarig Rachel - - 2010
The question of whether intact somatic cells committed to a specific differentiation fate, can be reprogrammed in vivo by exposing them to a different host microenvironment is a matter of controversy. Many reports on transdifferentiation could be explained by fusion with host cells or reflect intrinsic heterogeneity of the donor ...
Tizon Belen - - 2010
Multiple studies suggest that cystatin C (CysC) has a role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and a decrease in CysC secretion is linked to the disease in patients with a polymorphism in the CysC gene. CysC binds amyloid-beta (Abeta) and inhibits formation of Abeta fibrils and oligomers both in vitro and ...
Hattiangady Bharathi - - 2010
Hippocampal neurogenesis declines substantially in chronic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). However, it is unclear whether this decline is linked to altered production of new cells and/or diminished survival and neuronal fate-choice decision of newly born cells. We quantified different components of hippocampal neurogenesis in rats exhibiting chronic TLE. Through intraperitoneal ...
Zhang Can - - 2010
Mounting evidence suggests that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is caused by the accumulation of the small peptide, amyloid-β (Aβ), a proteolytic cleavage product of amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP). Aβ is generated through a serial cleavage of AβPP by β- and γ-secretase. Aβ40 and Aβ42 are the two main components of amyloid ...
Lacar Benjamin - - 2010
The subventricular zone (SVZ) is one of two regions where neurogenesis persists in the postnatal brain. The SVZ, located along the lateral ventricle, is the largest neurogenic zone in the brain that contains multiple cell populations including astrocyte-like cells and neuroblasts. Neuroblasts migrate in chains to the olfactory bulb where ...
Hasan Shazeen M SM Department of Cell Biology, UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, London, - - 2010
Human fetal retinal cells have been widely advocated for the development of cellular replacement therapies in patients with retinal dystrophies and age-related macular degeneration. A major limitation, however, is the lack of an abundant and renewable source of cells to meet therapeutic demand, although theoretically this may be addressed through ...
Quinn Jane C JC Centre for Integrative Physiology, University of Edinburgh, Hugh Robson Building, George Square, Edinburgh, EH8 9XD, UK. - - 2010
Embryonic stem (ES) cells can differentiate into all cell types and have been used extensively to study factors affecting neuronal differentiation. ES cells containing mutations in known genes have the potential to provide useful in vitro models for the study of gene function during neuronal differentiation. Recently, mouse ES cell ...
Ou Xiao-Ming XM Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi 39216, USA. - - 2010
Alcoholism is a major psychiatric condition at least partly associated with ethanol (EtOH)-induced cell damage. Although brain cell loss has been reported in subjects with alcoholism, the molecular mechanism is unclear. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO B) reportedly play a role in cellular dysfunction under stressful conditions ...
Del Bigio Marc R - - 2010
The literature was reviewed to summarize the current understanding of the role of ciliated ependymal cells in the mammalian brain. Previous reviews were summarized. Publications from the past 10 years highlight interactions between ependymal cells and the subventricular zone and the possible role of restricted ependymal populations in neurogenesis. Ependymal ...
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