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Namba Takashi - - 2010
The schizophrenia-associated protein DISC1 regulates several steps in neurogenesis. In a recent study published in Neuron, Singh et al. showed how DISC1 and its interacting partner Dixdc1 regulate cell proliferation and cell migration in different manners during embryonic neurogenesis.
Lulevich Valentin V Department of Chemistry, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, - - 2010
By using a highly sensitive technique of atomic force microscopy-based single-cell compression, the rigidity of cultured N2a and HT22 neuronal cells was measured as a function of amyloid-beta42 (Abeta42) protein treatment. Abeta42 oligomers led to significant cellular stiffening; for example, 90-360% higher force was required to reach 80% deformation for ...
Czvitkovich Stefan - - 2011
Sequential cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretases and the formation of Aβ peptides are pivotal for Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, a large number of drugs has been developed targeting APP metabolism. However, many pharmacological compounds have been identified in vitro in immortalized APP overexpressing cell lines rather ...
Lo Vasco Vincenza Rita - - 2010
Phosphoinositide specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) enzymes interfere with the metabolism of inositol phospholipids (PI), molecules involved in signal transduction, a complex process depending on various components. Many evidences support the hypothesis that, in the glia, isoforms of PI-PLC family display different expression and/or sub cellular distribution under non-physiological conditions such ...
Salgado Antonio J - - 2010
It has been recently reported that mesenchymal progenitor/stem cells isolated from the Wharton's Jelly (WJ) of umbilical cords (UC) ameliorate the condition of animals suffering from central nervous system (CNS)-related conditions. However, little is known on the mechanisms that regulate these actions. Therefore, the objective of the present work was ...
Mrkusich Eli M - - 2010
Accessory cells, which include glia and other cell types that develop in close association with neurons, have been shown to play key roles in regulating neuron development. However, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. A particularly intimate association between accessory cells and neurons is found in insect ...
Cosgrave A Siobhan AS Department of Veterinary Preclinical Science, Veterinary Faculty, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, - - 2010
Treatment with the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, L-NAME prior to the induction of seizures with kainic acid (KA) [L-NAME+KA] increases the expression of activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) in cells in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the rat dentate gyrus 3-days after seizure induction (Cosgrave et al., 2009). Using the ...
Xu Yan - - 2010
Crustacean neurons, obtained from the cerebral ganglion of the mud crab Scylla paramamosain, were successfully cultured in vitro. They maintained typical morphological characteristics and showed better outgrowth in modified Medium 199 (M199) medium than that in Liebowitz's L-15 medium. Fetal bovine serum (FBS), muscle extracts, and hemolymph of the mud ...
Vansteenhouse Harper C - - 2010
The biological function of a cell-type-specific glycosylation of an adhesion molecule belonging to the L1CAM immunoglobulin superfamily was previously determined in the nervous system of the embryonic leech, Hirudo medicinalis. The Lan3-2 glycoepitope is a surface marker of sensory afferent neurons and is required for their appropriate developmental collateral branching ...
Razafimanjato Helisoa - - 2010
The food-associated mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) has been demonstrated to be deleterious to numerous cell types including brain cells. Although OTA has been proved to be toxic to astrocytes, no other investigation has been conducted on the impact of OTA on astrocytic functions. In the present study, we evaluated the ...
Karunasena Enusha - - 2010
Damage to human neurological system cells resulting from exposure to mycotoxins confirms a previously controversial public health threat for occupants of water-damaged buildings. Leading scientific organizations disagree about the ability of inhaled mycotoxins in the indoor environment to cause adverse human health effects. Damage to the neurological system can result ...
McPherson Christopher A - - 2011
The induction of neurogenesis in the adult subgranular zone (SGZ) by injury is often accompanied by changes in the extracellular environment that can have significant impacts on neural progenitor cells (NPCs). We examined the induction of neurogenesis in the SGZ at 72 h following an injection of the hippocampal toxicant, trimethyltin ...
Molina Jennifer R - - 2010
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most frequent and most aggressive brain tumor in adults. The dismal prognosis is due to postsurgery recurrences arising from escaped invasive tumor cells. The signaling pathways activated in invasive cells are under investigation, and models are currently designed in search for therapeutic targets. We developed ...
Gonzalez-Perez Oscar O Laboratory of Neuroscience, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad de Colima, Colima, Col. 28040, México. - - 2010
Adult neural stem cells (NSCs) are located in the subventricular zone (SVZ), a specialized brain niche located on the walls of the lateral ventricle. Under physiological conditions, NSCs generate a large number of young neurons and some oligodendrocytes, however the mechanisms controlling cell proliferation and migration are unclear. In vitro, ...
Xu Xiaoliang L - - 2010
Retinoblastomas consist of cone-like neoplastic cells and diverse non-neoplastic cells whose roles in tumorigenesis have not been defined. Here, we investigated the glial cells that constitute 2% to 3% of the cells in retinoblastoma tumors, including their origin, their relationship to a potential retinoblastoma stem cell population, and their effects ...
Otteson Deborah C - - 2010
Müller glia have multiple functions in the retina, including synthesis of neurotrophic factors, uptake and metabolism of neurotransmitters, spatial buffering of ions, maintenance of the blood-retinal barrier, and response to injury. A population of Müller glia has some stem cell-like characteristics both in vivo and in vitro. The purpose of ...
Walter J - - 2010
The capability of the adult brain to generate new hippocampal neurons after brain insults like stroke is decreasing during the aging process. Recent evidence further indicates that the proliferative properties of the precursor cells change in the aged brain. We therefore analyzed the early proliferative response of distinct precursor cell ...
Khurshid Nazia - - 2010
Besides modulating pain, stress, physiological functions, motivation, and reward, the opioid system has been implicated in developmental and adult mammalian neurogenesis and gliogenesis. In adult male songbirds including zebra finches, neurons generated from the ventricular zone (VZ) of the lateral ventricles are incorporated throughout the telencephalon, including the song control ...
Stancik Elizabeth K EK Center for Neuroscience Research, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010, - - 2010
The recent discovery of short neural precursors (SNPs) in the murine neocortical ventricular zone (VZ) challenges the widely held view that radial glial cells (RGCs) are the sole occupants of this germinal compartment and suggests that precursor variety is an important factor of brain development. Here, we use in utero ...
Duveau Venceslas - - 2011
Cajal-Retzius cells play a crucial role during ontogeny in regulating cortical lamination via release of reelin. In adult brain, they comprise small calretinin-positive interneurons located in the marginal zone of the cerebral cortex and in the hippocampal fissure. Alterations of reelin signaling or expression have been involved in major neurological ...
Prestegarden Lars - - 2010
Although CD133 has been proposed as a marker for brain tumor-initiating cells, studies show that a tumorigenic potential exists among CD133(-) glioma cells as well. However, it is not established whether the ability of CD133(-) cells to form tumors is a property confined to a small subpopulation, rather than a ...
Navarro Juan A - - 2010
Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is the most common form of autosomal recessive ataxia caused by a deficit in the mitochondrial protein frataxin. Although demyelination is a common symptom in FRDA patients, no multicellular model has yet been developed to study the involvement of glial cells in FRDA. Using the recently established ...
Brahmachari Saurav S Department of Neurological Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, - - 2010
Susceptibility to multiple sclerosis is higher in females than males. However, the underlying mechanism behind this gender difference is poorly understood. Because the presence of neuroantigen-primed T cells in the CNS is necessary to initiate the neuroinflammatory cascade of multiple sclerosis, we first investigated how these T cells interacted with ...
Spadafora Ruggero - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of neonatal stroke on progenitor cells lining the lateral ventricles. METHODS: Intraventricular injection of replication-incompetent green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing lentivirus was performed in postnatal day 1 (P1) rats to specifically label radial glia/type B neural stem cells and ependymal cells of the lateral ventricle. A ...
Thomas Meghan - - 2010
Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurological condition, behind dementia, for which there is currently no cure. A promising curative treatment approach is cell replacement therapy, which involves the introduction of new dopaminergic cells into a degenerative Parkinson's disease brain. The future progression of this field into a clinically ...
Quincozes-Santos André - - 2010
Glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency or glutaric acidemia type I (GA I) is an inherited neurometabolic disorder biochemically characterized by tissue accumulation of predominantly glutaric (GA) and 3-hydroxyglutaric (3OHGA) acids and clinically by severe neurological symptoms and structural brain abnormalities, manifested as progressive cerebral atrophy and acute striatum degeneration following encephalopathic crises, ...
Sandrock Robert W - - 2010
AIM: Glial-restricted progenitor cells (GRPs), a neural cell population that gives rise to astrocytes and oligodendrocytes both in vitro and in vivo, hold great promise as a cellular therapeutic for the treatment of demyelinating and neurodegenerative diseases of the CNS. The manufacturing and characterization protocols of human-derived GRPs (hGRPs; trade ...
Dutt Kamla - - 2010
Retinitis pigmentosa, age-related macular degeneration, and Parkinson's disease remain major problems in the field of medicine. Some of the strategies being explored for treatment include replacement of damaged tissue by transplantation of healthy tissues or progenitor cells and delivery of neurotrophins to rescue degenerating tissue. One of the neurotrophins with ...
Wei Yuanyan - - 2010
Glioma results from unregulated expansion of a self-renewing glioma-initiating cell population. The regulatory pathways which are essential for sustaining the self-renewal of glioma-initiating cells remain largely unknown. Cell surface N-linked oligosaccharides play functional roles in determining cell fate and are associated with glioma malignancy. Previously, we have reported that beta1,4-galactosyltransferase ...
Sand Sverre L - - 2010
Antimicrobial peptides produced by multicellular organisms protect against pathogenic microorganisms, whereas such peptides produced by bacteria provide an ecological advantage over competitors. Certain antimicrobial peptides of metazoan origin are also toxic to eukaryotic cells, with preference for a variety of cancerous cells. Plantaricin A (PlnA) is a peptide pheromone with ...
Choi Jung Hoon - - 2010
Neurogenesis occurs during the embryonic stage and throughout life. Brain injuries such as ischemic insults enhance cell proliferation in some areas of the brain. We examined proliferation of newly generated cells in each layer of the gerbil main olfactory bulb (MOB) after 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia using bromodeoxyuridine ...
White Robin E - - 2010
Astrocytes and their precursors respond to spinal cord injury (SCI) by proliferating, migrating, and altering phenotype. This contributes to glial scar formation at the lesion border and gliosis in spared gray and white matter. The present study was undertaken to evaluate astrocyte changes over time and determine when and where ...
Drouyer Elise E Institut Nationale de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), U846, Stem Cell and Brain Research Institute, Department of Chronobiology, F-69500, Bron, - - 2010
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus regulates daily rhythms in physiology and behavior. It is composed of a heterogeneous population of cells that together form the circuits underlying its master clock function. Numerous studies suggest the existence of two regions that have been termed core and shell. At a ...
von Krogh Kristine - - 2010
Comparative studies on neural plasticity in non-mammalian vertebrates are increasingly promoted as an important complement to mammalian models. In teleost fishes the number of brain cells increases with age, body weight, and body length throughout life. Neurogenesis persists to a large degree, and both neuron replacement and net brain growth ...
Fox Donald A DA University of Houston, College of Optometry, Department of Biology and Biochemistry, 4901 Calhoun Road, Houston, TX 77024-2020, USA. - - 2010
The orderly formation of the nervous system requires a multitude of complex, integrated and simultaneously occurring processes. Neural progenitor cells expand through proliferation, commit to different cell fates, exit the cell cycle, generate different neuronal and glial cell types, and new neurons migrate to specified areas and establish synaptic connections. ...
Parameswaran Sowmya - - 2010
The direct reprogramming of somatic cells to a pluripotent state holds significant implications for treating intractable degenerative diseases by ex vivo cell therapy. In addition, the reprogrammed cells can serve as a model for diseases and the discovery of drugs and genes. Here, we demonstrate that mouse fibroblast induced pluripotent ...
Redmond Donald Eugene DE - - 2010
Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that provides a useful model for testing cell replacement strategies to rejuvenate the affected dopaminergic neural systems, which have been destroyed by aging and the disease. We first showed that grafts of fetal dopaminergic neurons can reverse parkinsonian motor deficits induced by the ...
Cabras Stefano - - 2010
Several recent studies have expanded our conception of the role of astrocytes in neurogenesis, proposing that these cells may contribute to this phenomenon not only as a source of trophic substances, but also as stem cells themselves. We recently observed in vitro that human mature astrocytes can be induced to ...
Hansen David V - - 2010
Neurons in the developing rodent cortex are generated from radial glial cells that function as neural stem cells. These epithelial cells line the cerebral ventricles and generate intermediate progenitor cells that migrate into the subventricular zone (SVZ) and proliferate to increase neuronal number. The developing human SVZ has a massively ...
Ito Yoko - - 2010
In the adult teleost brain, proliferating cells are observed in a broad area, while these cells have a restricted distribution in adult mammalian brains. In the adult teleost optic tectum, most of the proliferating cells are distributed in the caudal margin of the periventricular gray zone (PGZ). We found that ...
Mann Amandeep - - 2010
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 is an enzyme that is expressed in liver and brain. It can inactivate neurotoxins such as 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline and beta-carbolines. Genetically slow CYP2D6 metabolizers are at higher risk for developing Parkinson's disease, a risk that increases with exposure to pesticides. The goal of this study was ...
Battista Daniela - - 2010
Cells generated in the subventricular zone give rise to neuroblasts that migrate to the olfactory bulb (OB) along the rostral migratory stream (RMS). The polysialylated form of neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) is expressed by these cells, and has been shown to both promote their migration and suppress differentiation induced ...
Lee Choong Hyun - - 2010
In the present study, we investigated the regulating effects of rosiglitazone (RSG), a synthetic agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, treatment for 28days on the cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation in the mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX) immunohistochemistry. These markers were detected in the ...
Montgomery Jacob E JE Department of Biological Sciences and the Center for Zebrafish Research, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556, - - 2010
The adult zebrafish retina continuously produces rod photoreceptors from infrequent Müller glial cell division, yielding neuronal progenitor cells that migrate to the outer nuclear layer and become rod precursor cells that are committed to differentiate into rods. Retinal damage models suggested that rod cell death induces regeneration from rod precursor ...
von Hilchen Christian M - - 2010
Development of the nervous system and establishment of complex neuronal networks require the concerted activity of different signalling events and guidance cues, which include Netrins and their receptors. In Drosophila, two Netrins are expressed during embryogenesis by cells of the ventral midline and serve as attractant or repellent cues for ...
Kawai Hiromi - - 2010
Stroke is a major neurologic disorder. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be produced from basically any part of patients, with high reproduction ability and pluripotency to differentiate into various types of cells, suggesting that iPS cells can provide a hopeful therapy for cell transplantation. However, transplantation of iPS cells ...
De Biase Lindsay M LM The Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, - - 2010
The mammalian CNS contains an abundant, widely distributed population of glial cells that serve as oligodendrocyte progenitors. It has been reported that these NG2-immunoreactive cells (NG2(+) cells) form synapses and generate action potentials, suggesting that neural-evoked excitation of these progenitors may regulate oligodendrogenesis. However, recent studies also suggest that NG2(+) ...
Hermann Andreas - - 2010
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) were first described more than two decades ago. Novel labeling techniques have shown them to be cells with more than just progenitor functions, with their classification as a fourth glial cell type in addition to astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglial cells. Another term used for this cell ...
Backholer Kathryn - - 2010
Kisspeptin stimulates reproduction, and kisspeptin cells in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) express Ob-Rb in the mouse. Herein we report studies in ewes to determine whether kisspeptin cells express Ob-Rb and respond to leptin and whether reciprocal connections exist between kisspeptin cells and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) or neuropeptide Y (NPY) cells to ...
Lettau Imke - - 2010
Glial tumors exhibit a high morbidity and mortality because of their invasive nature. Matrix metalloproteinase 19 (MMP19) is a secreted protease that together with epilysin (MMP28) forms a structural subgroup of MMPs. We analyzed their expression by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry in tumor and ...
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