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Kitamura Yoshihisa - - 2010
Neuron/glial 2 (NG2)-expressing cells are often referred to as oligodendrocyte precursor cells. NG2-expressing cells have also been identified as multipotent progenitor cells. However, microglia-like NG2 glial cells have not been fully examined in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). In the present study, we chose two rat models of ...
Ferrari Daniela - - 2010
This unit describes protocols for the derivation, characterization, and expansion of neural stem cell (NSC) lines from the adult mouse subventricular zone (mNSCs), embryonic mouse brain and from the human fetal brain (hNSCs). NSCs can be isolated by enzymatic digestion of specific regions (NSCs niches) of the central nervous system ...
Wyatt Tanya J - - 2010
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by specific degeneration of α-motor neurons in the spinal cord. The use of cell transplantation to restore lost function through cell replacement or prevent further degeneration of motor neurons and synapses through neurotrophic support heralds tremendous hope in the SMA field. ...
Barzilai Ari - - 2010
The DNA damage response (DDR) is a key factor in the maintenance of genome stability. As such, it is a central axis in sustaining cellular homeostasis in a variety of contexts: development, growth, differentiation, and maintenance of the normal life cycle of the cell. It is now clear that diverse ...
Liu Baohui - - 2010
The role of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) in gliomas is not clear. We hypothesized that BMP4 inhibits proliferation in the brain glioma cell line U251 through a signaling pathway involving BMP4 and the mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4 (SMAD4) protein. We exposed U251 cells to Adriamycin (1 g) for 48 h; ...
Oliveira Débora L - - 2010
The cellular events required for unconventional protein secretion in eukaryotic pathogens are beginning to be revealed. In fungi, extracellular release of proteins involves passage through the cell wall by mechanisms that are poorly understood. In recent years, several studies demonstrated that yeast cells produce vesicles that traverse the cell wall ...
Figueiredo M M School of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TD, - - 2011
We briefly review the current literature where optogenetics has been used to study various aspects of astrocyte physiology in vitro and in vivo. This includes both genetically engineered Ca(2+) sensors and effector proteins, such as channelrhodopsin. We demonstrate how the ability to target astrocytes with cell-specific viral vectors to express ...
Uchida Shinsuke - - 2011
The constitution of ependyma derived from the ventricular zone is different from that derived from other regions of the central nervous system. In the mammalian cerebrum, the ependyma is varied by the regions to cortex or basal ganglia (BG). In the avian telencephalon (Tc), previous studies about the constitution of ...
Wachter Britta - - 2010
Reactive astrogliosis is the universal response to any brain insult. It is characterized by cellular hypertrophy, up-regulation of the astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and proliferation. The source of these proliferating cells is under intense debate. Progenitor cells derived from the subventricular zone (SVZ), cells positive for chondroitin ...
Hsuchou Hung - - 2010
Astrocytic leptin receptors (ObR) can be up-regulated in conditions such as adult-onset obesity. To determine whether the levels and subtypes of astrocytic ObR modulate leptin transport, we co-cultured hCMEC/D3 human brain endothelial cells and C6 astrocytoma cells in the Transwell system, and tested leptin permeation from apical to basolateral chambers. ...
Lu Yun-Bi - - 2011
Increased stiffness of reactive glial cells may impede neurite growth and contribute to the poor regenerative capabilities of the mammalian central nervous system. We induced reactive gliosis in rodent retina by ischemia-reperfusion and assessed intermediate filament (IF) expression and the viscoelastic properties of dissociated single glial cells in wild-type mice, ...
Lin Daowei - - 2011
In vitro experiments and in vivo animal studies suggest detrimental effects of volatile anesthetics including isoflurane on brain cells. It is not clear whether volatile anesthetics can cause human brain cell injury. The SH-SY5Y cells, a human neuroblastoma cell line, were induced to differentiate into terminal neuron-like cells. These differentiated ...
Hegg Colleen C - - 2010
Microvillous cells of the main olfactory epithelium have been described variously as primary olfactory neurons, secondary chemosensory cells or non-sensory cells. Here we generated an IP3R3(tm1(tauGFP)) mouse in which the coding region for a fusion protein of tau and green fluorescent protein replaces the first exon of the Itpr3 gene. ...
Lau Benson Wui-Man - - 2011
Corticosterone inhibits male rodent sexual behavior while the mechanism remains obscured. Recent studies have disclosed that neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) can be increased by pheromone exposure from the opposite sex, and neurogenesis is essential for normal mating behavior of female mice. Together with the neurogenesis-inhibiting effect of corticosterone, ...
Barnabé-Heider Fanie - - 2010
Several distinct cell types in the adult central nervous system have been suggested to act as stem or progenitor cells generating new cells under physiological or pathological conditions. We have assessed the origin of new cells in the adult mouse spinal cord by genetic fate mapping. Oligodendrocyte progenitors self-renew, give ...
Salgado António J - - 2010
The applicability of CMCht/PAMAM dendrimer nanoparticles for CNS applications was investigated. AFM and TEM observations revealed that the nanoparticles possessed a nanosphere-like shape with a size from 22.0 to 30.7 nm. The nanoparticles could be bound to fluorescent-probe FITC for tracing purposes. Post-natal hippocampal neurons and cortical glial cells were both ...
Sierra Amanda A Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA. - - 2010
In the adult hippocampus, neuroprogenitor cells in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus give rise to newborn neuroblasts. However, only a small subset of these cells integrates into the hippocampal circuitry as mature neurons at the end of a 4 week period. Here, we show that the majority ...
Braun Sebastian - - 2010
Ketamine has been demonstrated to be neurotoxic in animals as well as in patients. Preservatives added to ketamine have been accused to induce this neurotoxicity. Therefore, we investigated whether the most widely used preservative of ketamine-benzethonium chloride-enhances the toxicity of S(+)-ketamine in vitro in lymphoma, neuroblastoma cells and primary astrocytes. ...
Brandt Moritz D - - 2010
In adult hippocampal neurogenesis of mice, the proliferation of precursor cells can be stimulated by voluntary exercise (wheel-running). Physical activity has an additional effect on late progenitor cells (type-3) by promoting cell survival and further maturation. Notch1 is a key regulator of various steps in neuronal development, including the inhibition ...
de Almeida-Leite Camila Megale - - 2010
Central nervous system glial cells as astrocytes and microglia have been investigated in vitro and many intracellular pathways have been clarified upon various stimuli. Peripheral glial cells, however, are not as deeply investigated in vitro despite its importance role in inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Based on our previous experience of ...
Mashanov Vladimir S - - 2010
The nervous system of echinoderms has long been considered too unique to be directly comparable to the nervous system of other Deuterostomia. Using two novel monoclonal antibodies in combination with epifluorescence, confocal, and electron microscopy, we demonstrate here that the central nervous system of the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima possesses ...
Asadi S - - 2010
HgCl2 is a known environemental neurotoxin, but is also used as preservative in vaccines as thimerosal containing ethyl mercury covalently linked to thiosalicylate. We recently reported that mercury choloride (HgCl2) can stimulate human mast cells to release vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is also vasoactive and pro-inflammatory. Here we ...
Meyer Gundela - - 2010
Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells are the most significant source of reelin, an extracellular matrix glycoprotein essential for cortical development. Strategically located in the marginal zone, CR cells control radial migration and laminar positioning of pyramidal neurons of the cortical plate. They degenerate and undergo cell death when cortical migration is completed. ...
Cohen-Kupiec Rachel - - 2010
A splicing mutation in the IKBKAP gene encoding the IKAP/hELP1 (IKAP) protein was found to be the major cause of Familial Dysautonomia (FD). This mutation affects both the normal development and survival of sensory and sympathetic neurons of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). To understand the FD phenotype it is ...
Otsuka Hiroki - - 2010
Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) causes chemotaxis of CXCR4-expressing bone marrow-derived cells. SDF-1 is involved in the pathogenesis of various vascular diseases, including those of the eye. However, the role of SDF-1 in neuronal diseases is not completely understood. Here, we show higher SDF-1 levels in the vitreous humor of patients ...
Teixeira Luis - - 2010
Patients with Kallmann syndrome (KS) have hypogonadotropic hypogonadism caused by a deficiency of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and a defective sense of smell related to olfactory bulb aplasia. Based on the findings in a fetus affected by the X chromosome–linked form of the disease, it has been suggested that hypogonadism in ...
Anderova Miroslava - - 2011
To understand the structural alterations that underlie early and late changes in hippocampal diffusivity after hypoxia/ischemia (H/I), the changes in apparent diffusion coefficient of water (ADC(W)) were studied in 8-week-old rats after H/I using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI). In the hippocampal CA1 region, ADC(W) analyses were performed during 6 ...
Jiang Susan X - - 2010
Brain microglia are resident macrophage-like cells representing the first and main form of active immune response during brain injury. Microglia-mediated inflammatory events in the brain are known to be associated with chronic degenerative diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis, Parkinson's, or Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, identification of mechanisms activating microglia is not ...
Lin Wea-Lung - - 2010
The previous data showed that caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a component of propolis, possesses inducing cell cycle arrest and antiproliferation effect on C6 glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, C6 glioma cells treated with CAPE resulted in morphological changes to an astrocytic phenotype and ...
Higginson Jennifer R - - 2011
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) have become a popular candidate for the transplant-mediated repair of the damaged CNS. In this review a description is made of the origins of these cells and a historical development of their purification and maintenance in culture. In addition, we illustrate the cellular and molecular characteristics ...
Chauhan Neelima B NB Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, University of Illinois, Chicago, USA. - - 2010
Simvastatin and recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEpo) are implicated as potential therapeutic candidates for traumatic brain injury (TBI). Prominent effects of simvastatin include its anti-inflammatory, neurotrophic and neuroregenerative actions studied in various models of neuronal injury. On the other hand, rhEpo has been shown to promote cell survival mechanisms by producing ...
Giddabasappa Anand - - 2011
Gestational lead exposure (GLE) produces novel and persistent rod-mediated electroretinographic (ERG) supernormality in children and adult animals. We used our murine GLE model to test the hypothesis that GLE increases the number of neurons in the rod signaling pathway and to determine the cellular mechanisms underlying the phenotype. Blood lead ...
Malyshev Aleksey Y - - 2011
Bilaterally symmetrical pair of serotonergic cells, named C1 in Clione, has been described in the cerebral ganglia of all gastropod species. Here we describe a new role of C1 cells in gastropod mollusks: control of activity of ciliated epithelium in the foregut. Detailed morphological investigation of C1 neurons in the ...
Motomura Kazuya - - 2010
It has been elucidated that cognitive dysfunction following cranial radiotherapy might be linked to the oxidative stress-induced impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis that is mediated by proliferating neural stem or progenitor cells. The novel free-radical scavenger edaravone (3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one) has been clinically used to reduce neuronal damage following ischemic stroke. Previously, we ...
Pugliese Marco - - 2010
In the adult brain, progenitor cells remaining in the subventricular zone (SVZ) are frequently identified as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells that retain attributes reminiscent of radial glia. Because the very high expression of monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) in the subventricular area has been related to epithelial and astroglial ...
Miyazawa Kohtaro - - 2010
Host prion protein (PrP) is most abundant in neurons where its functions are unclear. PrP mRNA transcripts accumulate at key developmental times linked to cell division arrest and terminal differentiation. We sought to find if proliferative arrest was sufficient to cause an increase in PrP in developing neurons. Rat neuronal ...
Ferrando Sara - - 2010
To date, no study has been published on cell renewal in the olfactory epithelium of Chondrichthyes. Our work aimed at detecting proliferating cells (by Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen - PCNA immunohistochemistry) and apoptotic cells (by terminal uridine deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling method) in the olfactory epithelium of the shark ...
Alexanian Arshak R - - 2011
Abstract Background aims. Traumatic injuries of the central nervous system cause damage and degeneration of specific cell populations with subsequent functional loss. Cell transplantation is a strategy to treat such injuries by replacing lost or damaged cell populations. Many kinds of cells are considered candidates for intraspinal transplantation. Human neural ...
Camdessanché J-P - - 2011
Background and purpose:  Anti-N-methyl-d-asparate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is thought to be antibody-mediated. To perform an immunohistopathological study of the inflammatory reaction in a brain biopsy performed before immunomodulatory treatments in a patient with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. Methods:  An immunohistochemical study was performed using CD3, CD68, CD20, CD138 and CD1a antibodies. ...
Chuah Meng Inn - - 2011
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) have been investigated extensively as a therapy to promote repair in the injured CNS, with variable efficacy in numerous studies over the previous decade. In many studies that report anatomical and functional recovery, the beneficial effects have been attributed to the ability of OECs to cross ...
Matigian Nicholas - - 2010
There is a pressing need for patient-derived cell models of brain diseases that are relevant and robust enough to produce the large quantities of cells required for molecular and functional analyses. We describe here a new cell model based on patient-derived cells from the human olfactory mucosa, the organ of ...
Parkhurst Christopher N CN Molecular Neurobiology Program, Skirball Institute, Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, New York University School of Medicine, 540 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, - - 2010
Microglial cells constitute the resident immune cell population of the mammalian central nervous system. One striking feature of these cells is their highly dynamic nature under both normal and pathological brain conditions. The highly branched processes of resting microglia display a constitutive mobility and undergo rapid directional movement towards sites ...
Miquelajáuregui Amaya - - 2010
Cajal-Retzius (C-R) cells play important roles in the lamination of the mammalian cortex via reelin secretion. The genetic mechanisms underlying the development of these neurons have just begun to be unraveled. Here, we show that two closely related LIM-homeobox genes Lhx1 and Lhx5 are expressed in reelin+ cells in various ...
Thein Daniela C - - 2010
Development of the mouse CNS was reported to be normal in the absence of either Sox4 or its close relative Sox11 despite strong and widespread expression of both transcription factors. In this study, we show that combined absence of both Sox proteins in the mouse leads to severe hypoplasia of ...
Akchiche Nassila - - 2010
In the context of their potential implication in regenerative strategies, we characterized cell mechanisms underlying the fate of embryonic rat hippocampal H19-7 progenitors in culture upon induction of their differentiation, and tested their capacities to integrate into a neuronal network in vitro. Without addition of growth factors, nearly 100% of ...
Leone Dino P - - 2010
Progenitor cells in the ventricular zone (VZ) and subventricular zone (SVZ) of the developing forebrain give rise to neurons and glial cells, and are characterized by distinct morphologies and proliferative behaviors. The mechanisms that distinguish VZ and SVZ progenitors are not well understood, although the homeodomain transcription factor Cux2 and ...
Zhang Yan - - 2010
Radial glial cells are stem cells that play an important role in neuronal migration and proliferation in the developing brain. However, how radial glial cells contribute to the lamination of the cerebellar cortex is not well understood. We therefore used immunohistochemistry and BrdU labeling to follow radial glial cell differentiation, ...
Yang Hyun Jung - - 2010
Amyloid precursor protein binding protein-1 (APP-BP1) binds to the carboxyl terminus of amyloid precursor protein and serves as a bipartite activation enzyme for the ubiquitin-like protein, NEDD8. Previously, it has been reported that APP-BP1 rescues the cell cycle S-M checkpoint defect in Ts41 hamster cells, that this rescue is dependent ...
Wakita Seiko - - 2010
Repairing the nigrostriatal pathway is expected to become a future treatment strategy for Parkinson disease. Our aim is to establish an in vitro model for the quantitative analysis of the nigrostriatal projections of dopaminergic neurons using primary dissociated neruons. To form the mesencephalic cell region, mesencephalic cells derived from rat ...
Burel-Vandenbos Fanny F Department of Pathology, University Hospital of Nice, Nice, France. - - 2011
Overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is common in gliomas. Gliomas are infiltrating tumors in which neoplastic glial cells can be intermingled with reactive glial cells, particularly in diffuse low-grade gliomas. As overexpression of EGFR has also been described in gliosis, it can be difficult to evaluate EGFR immunolabeling ...
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