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Osuchowski Marcin F - - 2005
Fumonisin B1 (FB1), a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides, causes equine leukoencephalomalacia, impairs myelination, and inhibits neuronal growth in vitro. Intact mice do not show brain damage after systemic administration of FB1. We recently reported that intracerebroventricular administration of FB1 in mice caused neurodegeneration in the cortex and activation of ...
Uckermann Ortrud - - 2005
PURPOSE: To characterize the activation of macroglial (Müller) and microglial cells, as well as neuronal cell degeneration, during ischemia-reperfusion in rabbit retina and to test the possible effect of triamcinolone acetonide on gliosis. METHODS: Transient retinal ischemia was produced by increasing intraocular pressure for 60 minutes. Triamcinolone (8 mg) was ...
Li Yongling - - 2005
The CNS-derived cell line, CAD cell line, when grown in a protein free medium (PFM), differentiates to neuron-like cells with very long processes. It was previously studied biochemically and found to express TH activity, some neurospecific proteins, but no glial proteins. We have now further studied the CAD cells and ...
Tian Hai-Bin - - 2005
Embryonic stem (ES) cells can differentiate into neurons in vitro, which provides hope for the treatment of some neurodegenerative diseases through cell transplantation. However, it remains a challenge to efficiently induce ES cells to differentiate into neurons. Here, we show that murine ES cells can efficiently differentiate into neurons when ...
Lovell Mark A - - 2006
Recent studies demonstrate that isolated neural precursor cells are capable of generating neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes from neurogenic regions of adult brain. Because these studies use surgically resected or fresh postmortem specimens from young subjects, it is not clear whether neural precursor cells remain in the brain of normal aged ...
Medrano Silvia - - 2005
In the adult mammalian brain, neuronal turnover continues to replenish cells in existing neuronal circuits, such as those involved either in odor discrimination or in learning and memory, throughout life. With age, however, the capacity for neurogenesis diminishes and these functions become impaired. Neuronal turnover is a two-step process, which ...
Calvo Charles-Félix - - 2005
Albumin, a blood protein absent from the adult brain in physiological situations, can be brought into contact with brain cells during development or, in adult, following breakdown of the blood-brain barrier occurring as a result of local inflammation. In the present study, we show that ovalbumin and albumin induce the ...
Nedergaard Maiken - - 2005
Despite intense efforts at the bench and at the bedside, few therapeutic strategies exist to combat the consequences of cerebral ischemia. Traditionally, a "neurocentric" view has dominated research in this field. Evidence is now accumulating that glial cells, in particular astrocytes, play an active and important role in the pathophysiology ...
Hasegawa Koichi - - 2005
Radial glial cells are neural stem cells (NSC) that are transiently found in the developing CNS. To study radial glia, we isolated clones following immortalization of E13.5 GFP rat neurospheres with v-myc. Clone RG3.6 exhibits polarized morphology and expresses the radial glial markers nestin and brain lipid binding protein. Both ...
Leone Dino P - - 2005
Neural stem cells give rise to undifferentiated nestin-positive progenitors that undergo extensive cell division before differentiating into neuronal and glial cells. The precise control of this process is likely to be, at least in part, controlled by instructive cues originating from the extracellular environment. Some of these cues are interpreted ...
Di Giovanni Simone - - 2005
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes neuronal apoptosis, inflammation, and reactive astrogliosis, which contribute to secondary tissue loss, impaired regeneration, and associated functional disabilities. Here, we show that up-regulation of cell cycle components is associated with caspase-mediated neuronal apoptosis and glial proliferation after TBI in rats. In primary neuronal and astrocyte ...
Kitajima Hideomi - - 2005
Embryonic stem (ES) cells proliferate and maintain their pluripotency for over 1 year in vitro and may therefore provide a sufficient source for cell therapies. However, most of the previously reported methods for obtaining a source for cell therapies have not been simple. We describe here a novel method for ...
Soriano Eduardo - - 2005
Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells are an enigmatic class of neurons located at the surface of the cerebral cortex, playing a major role in cortical development. In this review, we discuss several distinct features of these neurons and the mechanisms by which they regulate cortical development. Many CR cells likely have extracortical ...
Komitova Mila - - 2005
Experimental stroke increases cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and in the dentate gyrus subgranular zone (SGZ) in the adult mammalian brain. This study examined the effects of postischemic voluntary exercise (running wheel) and environmental enrichment on the SVZ and SGZ 1 week after focal cortical ischemia ...
Elsaesser Rebecca - - 2005
Ciliated sensory neurons, supporting cells and basal stem cells represent major cellular components of the main olfactory epithelium in mammals. Here we describe a novel class of sensory cells in the olfactory neuroepithelium. The cells express phospholipase C beta-2 (PLC beta2), transient receptor potential channels 6 (TRPC6) and inositol 3, ...
Barry Denis - - 2005
Radial glial cell origins and functions have been studied extensively in the brain; however, questions remain relating to their origin and fate in the spinal cord. In the present study, radial glia are investigated in vivo using the neuroepithelial markers nestin and vimentin and the gliogenic markers GLAST, BLBP, 3CB2, ...
Bicker Gerd - - 2005
During the formation of the brain, neuronal cell migration and neurite extension are controlled by extracellular guidance cues. Here, I discuss experiments showing that the messenger nitric oxide (NO) is an additional regulator of cell motility. NO is a membrane permeant molecule, which activates soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) and leads ...
Schichor Christian - - 2005
Glioma cell invasion occurs in a complex micromilieu consisting of neural and glial cells, myelinated fiber tracts, blood vessels and extracellular matrix proteins. The present work describes the brain slice chamber (BSC) as a novel experimental model for assessing invasion of glioma cells into adult mammalian white and gray matter ...
Gamm David M - - 2005
The spatiotemporal birth order of the seven major classes of retinal cells is highly conserved among vertebrates. During retinal development, long projection neurons (ganglion cells) are produced first from resident progenitors, followed by the appearance of retinal interneurons, photoreceptors, and Muller glia. This sequence is maintained through the complex orchestration ...
Geenen Kristin - - 2005
Trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons are important target cells for many alphaherpesviruses, constituting major sites for latency/reactivation events. Here, the in vitro kinetics of productive infection of the swine alphaherpesvirus pseudorabies virus (PRV) and resulting cell death in primary porcine TG neurons were determined, and these were compared with similar kinetics ...
Schwab Jan M - - 2005
Following spinal cord injury (SCI), neuropathic, chronic pain is a major cause of disability. Recently, glial P2X4 receptor (P2X4R) has been identified as a major contributor to the development of neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury. Here we report analysis of P2X4R expression following rat SCI. Significant lesional accumulation of ...
Wharton Stephen B - - 2005
Cell-cycle mechanisms may be aberrantly reactivated in the ageing brain and associated with the development of pathology, including Alzheimer's disease. Activation of cell-cycle mechanisms in glia has, however, been little studied. Our aim was to determine whether expression of a marker for chromosomal replication licensing, Mcm2, occurs in glia of ...
Gotts Jeffrey E - - 2005
Neural cell migration and differentiation may participate in neural repair after adult brain injury; however, the survival and differentiation of newly born cells after different brain lesions are poorly understood. We have examined the migration and fate of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled cells after a highly reproducible focal ischemic lesion restricted to ...
Antle Michael C MC Department of Psychology, Columbia University, NY 10027, USA. - - 2005
The hamster suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is anatomically and functionally heterogeneous. A group of cells in the SCN shell, delineated by vasopressin-ergic neurons, are rhythmic with respect to Period gene expression and electrical activity but do not receive direct retinal input. In contrast, some cells in the SCN core, marked by ...
Ko Ji-Yun - - 2005
Neural precursor cells isolated from early embryonic mesencephalon are in-vitro expanded and differentiated toward dopamine neurons. However, conditions for controlled conversion of the precursors into dopamine neurons largely remained to be determined. We here examined the effects of plating cell density and duration of in-vitro cell expansion on the precursors-derived ...
Michalczyk K - - 2005
Nestin is an intermediate filament protein expressed in dividing cells during the early stages of development in the CNS, PNS and in myogenic and other tissues. Upon differentiation, nestin becomes downregulated and is replaced by tissue-specific intermediate filament proteins. Interestingly, nestin expression is reinduced in the adult during pathological situations, ...
Iczkiewicz Joanna J Neurodegenerative Diseases Research Centre, Guy's, King's and St Thomas School of Biomedical Sciences, King's College, London SE1 1UL, - - 2005
Nigral cell death in Parkinson's disease is characterized by glial cell activation leading to inflammatory changes. Osteopontin (OPN) is a glycosylated phosphoprotein that is induced by inflammatory mediators and which we have previously shown to be present in the substantia nigra. However, the role of OPN in the nigral inflammation ...
Fairless Richard - - 2005
The olfactory system is an unusual tissue in that it can support neurogenesis throughout life; permitting the in-growth and synapse formation of olfactory receptor axons into the central nervous system (CNS) environment of the olfactory bulb. It is thought that this unusual property is in part due to the olfactory ...
Katsuragi Shinji - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: It has been reported that an infarcted area is reduced by the injection of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor into brain parenchyma after hypoxic/ischemic insult in neonatal rats. For use of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in humans, we have developed a system for the delivery of a constant ...
Katsuragi Shinji - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Implantation of encapsulated glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-secreting cells into brain parenchyma reduces histological brain damage following hypoxic-ischemic stress in neonatal rats. We examined the effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factors on long-term learning and memory impairment and morphological changes up to 18 weeks after hypoxic-ischemic stress in ...
Röhl Claudia - - 2005
Microglia participates in most acute and chronic neuropathologies and its activation appears to involve interactions with neurons and other glial cells. Trimethyltin (TMT)-induced brain damage is a well-characterized model of neurodegeneration, in which microglial activation occurs before neuronal degeneration. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the ...
Fukushima Takao - - 2005
Gangliogliomas are characterized by their different phenotypic composition of ganglion cells and glial cells. In contrast to the glial cells that are capable of mitotic activity, the ganglion cells are generally considered to lack a neoplastic nature. The authors report here the first unequivocal case of a ganglioglioma harboring aberrant ...
Lu Wenge W Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, University of South Florida College of Medicine/All Childrens Hospital, St. Petersburg, FL 33701, - - 2005
Neutrophils have a central role in the inflammatory conditions of the central nervous system (CNS). ELR chemokines direct neutrophil migration, but the source of chemokines in the CNS is unclear. We quantified chemokine production using cell-line models of astrocytic and neuronal cells, specifically NT2.N cells, a human line with characteristics ...
Rogelius Nina - - 2005
The studies of neural stem cell fate, as well as the possibility to genetically manipulate them, represent important tools for modern neuroscience research. Furthermore, the potential use of these cells in treatment of neurological disorders makes these methods valuable for the development of new treatment paradigms. Here we report a ...
Hayashi Takeshi - - 2005
Ischemia/hypoxia (I/H) causes severe perinatal brain disorders such as cerebral palsy. The neonatal brain possesses much plasticity, and to enhance new cell production would be an innovative means of therapy for such disorders. In order to elucidate the dynamic changes of neural progenitor cells in the neonatal brain after ischemia, ...
Hahn Chang-Gyu - - 2005
The birth and differentiation of neurons have been extensively studied in the olfactory epithelium (OE) of rodents but not in humans. The goal of this study was to characterize cellular composition and molecular expression of human OE in vivo and in vitro. In rodent OE, there are horizontal basal cells ...
Studer Michèle M Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine (TIGEM), Naples, Italy. - - 2005
The cellular diversity of neurons located in the marginal zone (MZ) of the cortex has a crucial role in cortical development. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in how these different neuronal cell types are specified. Here, we show that in the MZ, the nuclear receptor COUP-TFI ...
Heine Vivi M - - 2005
Recent evidence has shown that cell proliferation in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus occurs in tight clusters located near the vasculature. Also, changes in neurogenesis often appear parallel to changes in angiogenesis. Moreover, both these processes share similar modulating factors, like vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor Flk-1. ...
Vernon Patty S - - 2005
Terminally differentiated, mature neurons are essential cells that are not easily regenerated. Neurotropic viruses, such as Sindbis virus (SV), cause encephalomyelitis through their ability to replicate in neurons. SV causes the death of immature neurons, while mature neurons can often survive infection. The lack of a reproducible and convenient neuronal ...
Zahir Tasneem - - 2005
Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has been shown to be a potent regulator of retinal cell differentiation. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of CNTF on in vitro differentiation of expanded late retinal progenitor cells. Retinal progenitor cells used in these studies were isolated from the neural retina ...
Hurelbrink Carrie B - - 2005
Primary neural cells derived from human xenografts migrate extensively following transplantation into the adult rat CNS. However, it is unknown whether cells from allografts have the same capability to migrate within the adult rat brain. Moreover, it is unclear whether human-derived cells migrate to this extent as an inherent property ...
Nieoullon Vincent - - 2005
We previously showed that deletion of the cell surface molecule mCD24 resulted in an increased proliferation in adult subventricular zone (SVZ). Here, we report an increased PSA-NCAM+/TuJ1- population in the mCD24-/- in vivo SVZ as well as in vitro neurospheres. Isolated in vitro, these cells were able to generate neurospheres. ...
McCaig David - - 2005
GADD34, a stress response protein associated with cell rescue, DNA repair and apoptosis, is expressed in the ischaemic brain. The C-terminal region of GADD34 has homology with the Herpes Simplex Virus protein, ICP34.5, which overcomes the protein synthesis block after viral infection by actively dephosphorylating eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2alpha ...
Ever Leah - - 2005
Cells with radial morphology in the developing brain were first identified more than 100 years ago. These cells, later termed radial glia, have been studied primarily as migratory scaffolds and glial progenitors. However, it has become increasingly clear, on the basis of in vitro studies and more recent in vivo ...
Newman Mary B - - 2005
Cell therapy is a rapidly moving field with new cells, cell lines, and tissue-engineered constructs being developed globally. As these novel cells are further developed for transplantation studies, it is important to understand their safety profiles both prior to and posttransplantation in animals and humans. Embryonic carcinoma-derived cells are considered ...
Brown Maile R - - 2005
Impaired tau catabolism may contribute to tau accumulation and aggregation in Alzheimer's disease and neurofibrillary tangle formation. This study examined the effects of proteasome and calpain inhibition on tau levels and turnover in primary rat hippocampal neurons and differentiated SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Administration of proteasome (MG-115, lactacystin) or calpain ...
Schmetsdorf Stefanie - - 2005
Developmental structuring of brain is the result of a strictly coordinated process that involves controlled cell division, neuronal migration and terminal differentiation. Neurogenesis occurs generally during embryonic and early postnatal stages and will be finished in the mature brain. Once differentiated, neurons are incapable of further division but retain the ...
Suh Sang Won - - 2005
Neurogenesis after brain injury not only leads to the replacement of damaged cells but might also contribute to functional recovery, suggesting the possibility of endogenous neural repair. We investigated the extent of hippocampal neural regeneration in a rat model of hypoglycemia. Two weeks after 30 min of insulin-induced isoelectric electroencephalogram, ...
Li Peiying - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Replacement of neurons and glia by transplantation has been proposed as a therapy for neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This strategy requires using human motor neuronal progenitor cells or xenografts of animal cells, but there is little evidence that xenografted neuronal cells can survive in spinal cord despite ...
Yamamoto Kazuhiro - - 2005
We analyzed motile behavior of neuronal precursor cells in the intact olfactory bulbs (OBs) using transgenic mice expressing GFP under the control of T alpha 1 tubulin promoter. In the olfactory bulbs at the embryonic days 12.5-14.5, a large number of immature neurons expressed GFP in this transgenic line. Embryonic ...
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