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Paratcha Gustavo - - 2006
Olfactory bulb (OB) interneurons are generated from neuroblast cells derived from the anterior subventricular zone (SVZa) of the forebrain. The mechanisms guiding the rostral migration of these neuronal precursors are not well understood. Here, we show that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is produced in the olfactory bulb but ...
Hermann Andreas - - 2006
Neurogenesis in the adult brain occurs within the two principal neurogenic regions: the hippocampus and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. The occurrence of adult neurogenesis in non-neurogenic regions, including the midbrain, remains controversial, but isolation of neural stem cells (NSCs) from several parts of the adult brain, including ...
Ernst C - - 2006
Nestin is a putative neural stem cell marker that is expressed in different areas of the adult mammalian brain that are known to support mitotic activity. Recently the neocortex has been proposed to support neurogenesis, however little is known of the expression pattern of nestin in neocortex. In the present ...
Yang In Hong - - 2005
The ability to create and maintain neuron and glial cell co-cultures is important for neuronal regeneration as well as for fundamental studies on neuron and glial cell interactions. We demonstrate here a method for spatially controlling the arrangement of neurons and glial cells. Line patterns of cell resistant, poly(oligoethyleneglycol methacrylate-co-methacrylic ...
Horiuchi Makoto M Department of Biological Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda City, Chiba 278-8510, - - 2005
We previously established cell lines from brains of p53-deficient embryos, and have now characterized one of these lines, FBD-103a, in detail. Recloning FBD-103a yielded 3 types of subclones: 5 generated the neuronal lineage (Type 1), 3 generated the glial lineage (Type 2), and 10 gave rise to both lineages as ...
Geenen Kristin - - 2006
Trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons are important target cells for many alphaherpesviruses and constitute a major site of virus latency and reactivation. Earlier we showed that porcine TG neurons are remarkably more resistant towards (apoptotic) cell death resulting from infection by the swine alphaherpesvirus pseudorabies virus (PRV) compared to a broad ...
Tateno Masaru - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have described the possible relevance of impaired neural stem cell (NSC) functions to the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, including alcoholism. However, relatively little is known about ethanol's effects on the determination of cell fate in NSCs. In this study, we investigated the effect of ethanol on neuronal ...
Karram Khalad - - 2005
The NG2 glycoprotein is a type I membrane protein expressed in the developing and adult central nervous system (CNS) by subpopulations of glia including oligodendroglial precursor cells (OPCs), and in the developing CNS additionally by pericytes. In the mouse CNS, expression of NG2 protein is already observed at embryonic day ...
Ernst Carl - - 2005
Nestin is a protein that is thought to be expressed in neural stem cells; however, there is a paucity of data on nestin expression in vivo, and little is known of the relationship between nestin and mitotically active cell populations in the subventricular zones (SVZ). In this study, the subventricular ...
Cayre Myriam - - 2005
From invertebrates to humans, it has been demonstrated that new neurons are added to specific brain structures throughout adult life. In the house cricket, adult neurogenesis occurs in the mushroom bodies, the main sensory integrative center of the brain, often considered an analogue of vertebrate hippocampus. We have previously shown ...
Moreels Marjan - - 2005
Radial glial cells are transiently bipolar cells in the developing central nervous system, best known for their role in guiding migrating neurons. The aim of the present study was to investigate phenotypic characteristics of these bipolar precursor cells in a mixed glial cell culture system derived from the rat neonatal ...
Kronenberg Golo - - 2005
The intermediate filament nestin is upregulated in response to cerebral ischemia; the significance of this, however, is incompletely understood. Here, we used transgenic mice that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) under control of the nestin promotor to characterize the fate of nestin-expressing cells up to 8 weeks after 30 mins ...
Ferguson Kerry L - - 2005
Precise cell cycle regulation is critical for nervous system development. To assess the role of the cell cycle regulator, retinoblastoma (Rb) protein, in forebrain development, we studied mice with telencephalon-specific Rb deletions. We examined the role of Rb in neuronal specification and migration of diverse neuronal populations. Although layer specification ...
Shamekh R R Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, - - 2006
Neural transplantation is developing as a successful treatment for neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease. The human Ntera-2/D1 (NT2) cell line is an attractive alternative to the use of human fetal neurons as a cell source for transplantation. We have explored combining NT2 cells, as a neuronal source, and Sertoli ...
Miao Hai - - 2005
D-Aspartate (D-Asp) is an especially intriguing molecule found within neurons of the central nervous system of animals ranging from mollusks to vertebrates. It has a large variety of roles ascribed to it, including an involvement in cell-to-cell signaling. To determine the D-Asp content in cells and in subcellular domains, a ...
Dememes D - - 2006
Glutamate is the main neurotransmitter at the synapses between sensory cells and primary afferents in the peripheral vestibular system. Evidence has recently been obtained demonstrating that the atypical amino acid D-serine is the main endogenous co-agonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the CNS. We studied the distribution of D-serine and ...
Stoleru Dan - - 2005
The biochemical machinery that underlies circadian rhythms is conserved among animal species and drives self-sustained molecular oscillations and functions, even within individual asynchronous tissue-culture cells. Yet the rhythm-generating neural centres of higher eukaryotes are usually composed of interconnected cellular networks, which contribute to robustness and synchrony as well as other ...
Messmer Kirsten - - 2005
Inflammation has been implicated in a variety of acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases in which the inflammatory processes are considered not only to result from neurodegenerative effects, but also to contribute to these effects. To investigate the primary effect of inflammation on neuronal survival, a co-culture system of neuronal cells ...
Rauch Ulrich - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The human enteric nervous system (ENS) descends from migrating neural crest cells (NCC) and is structured into different plexuses embedded in the gastrointestinal tract wall. The development of this entity strongly depends on the supply of an appropriate support with trophic factors during organogenesis. The lack of important factors, ...
Ying Zhong - - 2005
PURPOSE: Focal cortical dysplasia (CD) is characterized by the presence of dysmorphic neurons, laminar and columnar disorganization. A few patients with CD have balloon cells intermixed with dysmorphic neurons. The cellular characteristics of balloon cells remain unknown. This study was intended to determine further the cellular characteristics of balloon cells. ...
Kruglyakova E P - - 2005
Nestin, a protein of the intermediate filament family, is typical of undifferentiated neural stem and progenitor cells. The present report describes studies of nestin expression in the hippocampus of patients with epilepsy and identifies five types of nestin-immunopositive cells differing in terms of their morphological phenotype and immunological characteristics. These ...
Smeyne Michelle - - 2005
Free radical damage has been shown to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of a number of neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease. One model of experimental parkinsonism is the loss of substantia nigra cells following administration of MPTP. Previously, it has been shown that a number of inbred strains ...
Jung Cha-Gyun - - 2005
The present study aimed to elucidate the function of AT motif-binding factor 1 (ATBF1) during neurogenesis in the developing brain and in primary cultures of neuroepithelial cells and cell lines (Neuro 2A and P19 cells). Here, we show that ATBF1 is expressed in the differentiating field in association with the ...
Zhang Peng-bo - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the migration and differentiation of ependymal/subventricular zone cells after focal cerebral ischemia in rats, and reveal the origin of the newly generated neural cells in the peri-infarct region. METHODS: Normal adult male Sprague Dawley rats weighing 250-350 g were used in this study. Before middle cerebral artery ...
Zhang Rui Lan - - 2005
This article reviews current data on the induction of neurogenesis after stroke in the adult brain. The discussion of neurogenesis is divided into production, migration, and survival of these newly formed cells. For production, the subpopulations and the types of cell division are presented. Discussion of cell migration entails presenting ...
Riccio Massimo - - 2005
Cystatin B (cystB) is an anti-protease implicated in EPM1, a degenerative disease of the central nervous system. This work analyzes the pattern of expression of cystB in developing and adult cerebellum, identifying the cystB positive cells by double immune-fluorescence microscopy using specific cell markers. In primary glial cells, cystB is ...
Knabe Wolfgang - - 2005
Recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) is neuroprotective in animal models of adult spinal cord injury, and reduces apoptosis in adult dorsal root ganglia after spinal nerve crush. The present work demonstrates that spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia share dynamic expression patterns of EPO and its receptor (EPOR) during development. C57Bl ...
Kuhn H Georg - - 2005
Programmed cell death is an important mechanism during brain development in order to control neuronal cell numbers and to correctly form neuronal circuitries. Programmed cell death is also present in neurogenic regions of the adult brain, and a significant portion of the adult-born cells is eliminated during the first months ...
Song Dae Yong - - 2005
The ventriculus terminalis (VT) is a dilated cavity within the conus medullaris of the spinal cord. Although the VT was discovered in the mid-nineteenth century, little is known about its characteristics during development in human fetuses. Ependymal cells lining the cavities within the CNS retain high differentiation potential, and are ...
Bouslama-Oueghlani Lamia - - 2005
The function and origin of NG2+ cells in the adult brain are still controversial. A large amount of data is available which strongly indicates that adult NG2-expressing cells form a heterogeneous population, constituted by oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) and a fourth novel type of glial cells named the synantocytes. Whether ...
Strappe Padraig M PM Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge, UK. - - 2005
Lentiviral vectors have been demonstrated as efficient tools for gene delivery to the CNS. We describe a novel approach for vector delivery using the thermoresponsive Gel, Pluronic F127 as a carrier. A HIV-1 lentiviral vector expressing GFP was contained in various concentrations of gel (15, 30 and 40%) and applied ...
Tsai Jin-Wu - - 2005
Mutations in the human LIS1 gene cause the smooth brain disease classical lissencephaly. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we conducted in situ live cell imaging analysis of LIS1 function throughout the entire radial migration pathway. In utero electroporation of LIS1 small interference RNA and short hairpin dominant negative LIS1 and ...
Matarredona Esperanza R - - 2005
A possible role of nitric oxide (NO) in adult neurogenesis has been suggested based on anatomical findings showing that subventricular zone (SVZ) neuroblasts are located close to NO-producing cells, and on the known antiproliferative actions of NO in many cell types. Experiments have been performed in rodents with systemic and ...
Raedt Robrecht - - 2005
Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the irreversible loss of neurons involved in networks, important for specific physiological functions. At present, several renewable cell sources stand in line to replace fetal brain cells as potential cell source for transplantation in the damaged brain. Recent developments raise the hope that selective populations ...
Bassotti G - - 2005
Colonic diverticular disease (diverticulosis) is a common disorder in Western countries. Although its pathogenesis is probably multifactorial, motor abnormalities of the large bowel are thought to play an important role. However, little is known about the basic mechanism that may underlie abnormal colon motility in diverticulosis. To investigate the interstitial ...
Seki Masaaki - - 2005
Müller cells, the predominant glial cells in the retina, are thought to play important roles in the survival of retinal neurons. Previous studies have demonstrated that Müller cells express brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which has a pronounced neurotrophic effect on retinal ganglion cells. In this study, we investigated whether Müller ...
Cernak Ibolja - - 2005
Upregulation of cell cycle proteins occurs in both mitotic and post-mitotic neural cells after central nervous system (CNS) injury in adult animals. In mitotic cells, such as astroglia and microglia, they induce proliferation, whereas in post-mitotic cells such as neurons they initiate caspase-related apoptosis. We recently reported that early central ...
Böhm Christine - - 2005
The complexity of the brain makes the investigation of anatomically defined regions using manual dissection techniques problematic. With these manual dissection techniques, only a mixture of many different cell types can be obtained. This leads to averaging the contents of all the different cell types, making it nearly impossible to ...
McDermott Kieran W - - 2005
Radial glial fibres provide a transient scaffold and impose constraints in the developing central nervous system (CNS) that facilitate cell migration and axon growth. Recent reports have raised doubts about the distinction between radial glia and precursor cells by demonstrating that radial glia are themselves neuronal progenitor cells in the ...
Glaser Tamara - - 2005
Neuronal induction by retinoic acid (RA) is commonly used in embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation. Two recent papers show that this paradigm induces a population of neurogenic precursors with properties of radial glia. Upon differentiation, RA-treated cells give rise to a defined and developmentally restricted neuronal lineage. This role of ...
Stefanova Nadia - - 2005
alpha-Synuclein represents the major constituent of oligodendroglial cytoplasmic inclusions, the hallmark lesion of multiple system atrophy (MSA), a progressive disorder that is associated with selective degenerative cell loss in basal ganglia, cerebellum, brainstem, and spinal cord. The role of abnormal alpha-synuclein aggregation in oligodendroglial cells is still obscure, in particular, ...
Götz Magdalena - - 2005
The fascinating question of how the enormous diversity of neuronal and glial cells in the cerebral cortex is generated during development was recently discussed at a meeting on cortical development and stem cells in Greece. What emerged from this meeting is an equally fascinating answer, namely that precursor diversity at ...
Ahn Young-Hwan - - 2005
We investigated whether a continuous supply of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) via encapsulated genetically modified cells can promote survival and fiber outgrowth from xenotransplanted human dopaminergic neurons. Cells genetically engineered to continuously secrete GDNF were confined in hollow fiber-based macrocapsules. Each hemiparkinsonian rat received either a single C2C12-hGDNF ...
Hu Zhengqing - - 2005
Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells were transplanted into the cochlea of adult guinea pigs in order to explore their survival, differentiation, and possible integration with the host tissue. With the purpose of investigating the possible effect of manipulating the local embryonic microenvironment, ES cells were transplanted into the cochlea with ...
Gotts Jeffrey E - - 2005
The rodent subventricular zone (SVZ) contains neural precursor cells that divide and then die in place or migrate to the olfactory bulb through the rostral migratory stream (RMS) to become new neurons. Despite the normally tight control in cell numbers in this region in adults, previous work from our laboratory ...
Bassotti G - - 2006
Idiopathic slow transit constipation is one of the most severe and often intractable forms of constipation. As motor abnormalities are thought to play an important pathogenetic role, studies have been performed on the colonic neuroenteric system, which rules the motor aspects of the viscus. We hypothesised that important neuropathological abnormalities ...
Barresi Michael J F - - 2005
Three major axon pathways cross the midline of the vertebrate forebrain early in embryonic development: the postoptic commissure (POC), the anterior commissure (AC) and the optic nerve. We show that a small population of Gfap+ astroglia spans the midline of the zebrafish forebrain in the position of, and prior to, ...
Spalding Kirsty L - - 2005
The generation of cells in the human body has been difficult to study, and our understanding of cell turnover is limited. Testing of nuclear weapons resulted in a dramatic global increase in the levels of the isotope 14C in the atmosphere, followed by an exponential decrease after 1963. We show ...
Peretto Paolo - - 2005
The subventricular zone (SVZ) is regarded as an embryonic germinal layer persisting at the end of cerebral cortex neurogenesis and capable of generating neuronal precursors throughout life. The two distinct compartments of the adult rodent forebrain SVZ, astrocytic glial tubes and chains of migrating cells, are not distinguishable in the ...
Murashov Alexander K - - 2005
Recent studies suggest that there are strong parallels between development and patterning of the vertebrate vascular system and the nervous system. While previous observations reported generation of vascular and neuronal progenitors from embryonic stem (ES) cells, the question of parallel development of vascular and neuronal cells in the same culture ...
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