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Diamond Jeffrey S - - 2006
In this issue of Cell, Panatier et al. (2006) show that D-serine released by astrocytes, a type of glial cell in the brain, promotes NMDA receptor activity at synapses in the hypothalamus. These results confirm that glial cells participate in synaptic signaling and show that they can dictate the tenor ...
McLaughlin David - - 2006
Cells from human amniotic fluid derived from the fetus are considered a source of multipotent cells. Their properties have not been fully exploited, partially because unlike other embryonic sources such as embryonic stem (ES) cells, cell lines from amniocentesis samples have not been generated. We have established and characterized the ...
Braun Holger - - 2006
To address the scientific quest for unravelling signalling pathways crucial in CNS development and function, cell culture systems have to be developed that are mimicking the physiological state of brain cells more efficiently. Here, we describe a method for cultivation of a virtual three-dimensional structure consisting of neural stem cell-derived ...
Kapoor Nidhi - - 2006
The expression of the cytochrome P450s (CYPs) may vary in the different brain cells depending on their specialization and the presence of different endogenous factors. The present study was initiated to investigate the expression and catalytic activity of the constitutive and inducible forms of CYP2E1, the major ethanol inducible CYP, ...
Pourié G - - 2006
Although neonatal hypoxia can lead to brain damage, mild hypoxic episodes may be beneficial, as illustrated by tolerance induction by preconditioning, a process that might involve neurogenesis. To examine if brief hypoxia in newborn rats could stimulate the generation of neurons, pups were exposed for 5 min to 100% N2. ...
Ma Liping - - 2006
In the adult brain, the subventricular zone (SVZ) is one of the regions where active neurogenesis occurs. Relatively few specific markers are available to distinguish different types of cells in the SVZ and rostral migratory stream (RMS) of adult brain. Here, we showed that trophinin and bystin, both of which ...
Biran Valérie - - 2006
This study examines cell death and proliferation in the white matter after neonatal stroke. In postnatal day 7 injured rat, there was a marked reduction in myelin basic protein (MBP) immunostaining mainly corresponding to numerous pyknotic immature oligodendrocytes and TUNEL-positive astrocytes in the ipsilateral external capsule. In contrast, a substantial ...
Dore-Duffy Paula - - 2006
It has been suggested that a vascular-like cell has multipotent regenerative and mesenchymal lineage relationships. The identity of this stem/progenitor cell has remained elusive. We report here that adult central nervous system (CNS) capillaries contain a distinct population of microvascular cells, the pericyte that are nestin/NG2 positive and in response ...
Grimaldi Piercesare - - 2006
Although constitutive neurogenesis exclusively occurs in restricted regions of the adult mammalian brain, resident progenitors can be isolated from many different CNS sites, and neuronal neogeneration can be stimulated in vivo by injury or infusion of growth factors. To ask whether latent compensatory mechanisms, which may be exploited to promote ...
Rhodes K E KE Cambridge University Centre for Brain Repair, University of Cambridge, Forvie Site, Robinson Way, Cambridge CB2 2PY, - - 2006
Oligodendrocyte precursor cells recognized with the NG2 antibody respond rapidly to CNS injuries with hypertrophy and upregulation of the NG2 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan within 24 h. These cells participate in glial scar formation, remaining around the injury site for several weeks. After injury, reactive oligodendrocyte precursor cells increase their production ...
Recknor Jennifer B - - 2006
Directional growth and differentiation of adult rat hippocampal progenitor cells (AHPCs) were investigated on micropatterned polymer substrates in vitro. Astrocytes or AHPCs cultured on micropatterned polystyrene substrates chemically modified with laminin exhibited over 75% alignment in the groove direction. AHPCs co-cultured with astrocytes preferentially acquired neuronal morphology, with nearly double ...
Yang Zhongshu - - 2006
NG2 cells (polydendrocytes) comprise an abundant glial population that is widely and uniformly distributed throughout the developing and mature CNS and are identified by the expression of the NG2 proteoglycan at the cell surface. Although recent electrophysiological studies suggest that they are capable of receiving signals from axon terminals, other ...
Grandel Heiner - - 2006
Lifelong neurogenesis in vertebrates relies on stem cells producing proliferation zones that contain neuronal precursors with distinct fates. Proliferation zones in the adult zebrafish brain are located in distinct regions along its entire anterior-posterior axis. We show a previously unappreciated degree of conservation of brain proliferation patterns among teleosts, suggestive ...
Mun Ga Hee - - 2006
Sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters (SVCTs) is known to transport the reduced form of ascorbic acid into the cell, whereas the oxidized form of vitamin C (VC) is moved through a facilitative sugar transporter, such as glucose transporter (GLUT). With regard to the distribution of SVCT1 and -2 within the various ...
Abematsu Masahiko - - 2006
Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is commonly used to enrich and maintain neural stem cells in vitro. Olig2 is an essential transcription factor for oligodendrocyte lineage specification and is expressed predominantly in ventral neuroepithelial cells in the medial and lateral ganglionic eminence (GE), where oligodendrocyte progenitors originate. Here we report ...
Colin C - - 2006
Human gliomas including astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas are defined as being composed of neoplastic astrocytes and oligodendrocytes respectively. Here, on the basis of in vitro functional assays, we show that gliomas contain a mixture of glial progenitor cells and their progeny. We have set up explant cultures from pilocytic astrocytomas, glioblastomas ...
Li Rui - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To observe whether the dopaminergic neuroprotective effect of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is associated with its inhibition of microglial cell activation in vivo. METHODS: The effects of EGCG at different doses on dopaminergic neuronal survival were tested in a methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium (MPP+)-induced dopaminergic neuronal injury model in the primary mesencephalic cell ...
Bordey Angélique - - 2006
Findings over the past decades demonstrating persistent neurogenesis in the adult brain have challenged the view of a fixed circuitry in normally functioning brain and raised hopes for self-renewal following brain injury. In addition to providing insights for repair, studying adult neurogenesis may improve our understanding of embryonic development assuming ...
Gibbons Hannah M - - 2006
Microglial cells play a major role in the pathogenesis of many neurological diseases by exacerbating neuronal and non-neuronal cell death, but the mechanisms involved are unclear. To investigate the microglial-neuronal interactions, we used the murine BV-2 microglial cell line and the human neuronal-like SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cell line in a co-culture ...
Jakobsson J - - 2006
Lentiviral vectors are promising tools for CNS gene transfer since they efficiently transduce the cells of the nervous system in vivo. In this study, we have investigated the transduction efficiency of lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with Ross River virus glycoprotein (RRV-G) (RRV-G-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors (RRV-LV)). The RRV is an alphavirus with ...
Saud Katherine - - 2006
Down syndrome (DS) in humans, or trisomy of autosome 21, represents the hyperdiploidy that most frequently survives gestation, reaching an incidence of 1 in 700 live births. The condition is associated with multisystemic anomalies, including those affecting the central nervous system (CNS), determining a characteristic mental retardation. At a neuronal ...
Seifert Gerald - - 2006
Recent work on glial cell physiology has revealed that glial cells, and astrocytes in particular, are much more actively involved in brain information processing than previously thought. This finding has stimulated the view that the active brain should no longer be regarded solely as a network of neuronal contacts, but ...
Khozhai L I - - 2006
The dynamics of the appearance of astrocytes in the mouse neocortex after prenatal blockade of serotonin synthesis was studied. Experiments were performed on F1(CBA/C57Bl) hybrid mice. Serotonin release was suppressed with parachlorophenylalanine, given as single doses to mothers during the early postimplantation stage of pregnancy. Astrocytes differentiating in the brain ...
Chan-Ling Tailoi - - 2006
Vascular repair by adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is well-appreciated because these cells are known for their plasticity. We have shown that adult HSCs differentiate into endothelial cells and participate in both retinal and choroidal neovascularization. We asked whether HSCs participated in the wounding response by forming astrocytes, retinal pigment ...
Lee Kuem-Ju - - 2006
New-born cells continue to proliferate and survive to become mature granule cells in adult rat hippocampus. Although this process, known as neurogenesis, is inhibited by acute stress, it is not clear whether chronic stress affects neurogenesis. To determine whether chronic mild stress (CMS) influences neurogenesis in the adult rat hippocampus, ...
Yang Z Z Department of Neurology and Neurosciences, UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ 07101, - - 2006
Neurons and oligodendrocyte progenitors are highly sensitive to perinatal hypoxic-ischemic injury. As accumulating evidence suggests that many insults to the human infant occur in utero, and preventing brain damage to infants in utero will prove difficult, there is strong rationale to pursue regenerative strategies to reduce the morbidity associated with ...
Freundlieb Nils - - 2006
The subventricular zone of the adult primate brain contains neural stem cells that can produce new neurons. Endogenous neurogenesis might therefore be used to replace lost neurons in neurodegenerative diseases. This would require, however, a precise understanding of the molecular regulation of stem cell proliferation and differentiation in vivo. Several ...
Pinaud Raphael - - 2006
The oscine song system, a set of interconnected brain nuclei involved in song production and learning, is one of the first and clearest examples of brain sexual dimorphism in a vertebrate, being typically well-developed in males, but not females. Here we present evidence for a sexual dimorphism in the caudomedial ...
Donofrio Gaetano - - 2006
A recombinant bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4EGFPDeltaTK), obtained by the insertion of an EGFP gene into the TK locus of DN 599 BoHV-4 strain, was injected into the lateral ventricle of the brain of mice and a clinical score was evaluated for 90 days. Although BoHV-4 was not neuro-pathogenic, BoHV-4EGFPDeltaTK transduction ...
Park Hwan Ki - - 2006
D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) is a flavoenzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of D-amino acids. In the brain, gene expression of DAO is detected in astrocytes. Among the possible substrates of DAO in vivo, D-serine is proposed to be a neuromodulator of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. In a search for the ...
Virard Isabelle - - 2006
In the vertebrate brain, much remains to be understood concerning the origin of glial cell diversity and the potential lineage relationships between the various types of glia. Besides astrocytes and myelin-forming oligodendrocytes, other macroglial cell populations are found in discrete areas of the central nervous system (CNS). They share functional ...
Andersson Elisabet - - 2006
The prospect of using cell replacement therapies has raised the key issue of whether elucidation of developmental pathways can facilitate the generation of therapeutically important cell types from stem cells. Here we show that the homeodomain proteins Lmx1a and Msx1 function as determinants of midbrain dopamine neurons, cells that degenerate ...
Komitova Mila - - 2006
Environmental enrichment (EE) alleviates sensorimotor deficits after brain infarcts but the cellular correlates are not well-known. This study aimed to test the effects of postischemic EE on neocortical cell genesis. A neocortical infarct was caused by distal ligation of the middle cerebral artery in adult spontaneously hypertensive rats, subsequently housed ...
Moenig Benedikt - - 2006
Dissociated primary cell cultures of the nervous system are usually composed of many different cell types, which makes it difficult to investigate a specific cell type and to describe its development in vitro without direct or indirect influence of other cell types. Although various methods have been published to specifically ...
Gal Jonathan S JS Center for Neuroscience Research, Children's Research Institute, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010, - - 2006
The proliferative ventricular zone (VZ) is the main source of projection neurons for the overlying cerebral neocortex. The number and diversity of neocortical neurons is determined, in part, by factors controlling the proliferation and specification of VZ cells during embryonic development. We used a variety of methods, including in utero ...
Xu Yi - - 2006
The number of neural progenitor cells, especially nestin+ cells or BrdU-uptake cells is sparse in the normal adult rodent spinal cord. However, in the present study, we show that after spinal cord injury (SCI), many ordinarily quiescent cells were activated to become nestin+ and undergo mitosis (BrdU+) in the ependymal ...
Su Hong-Lin - - 2006
Here, we report in vitro generation of Math1+ cerebellar granule cell precursors and Purkinje cells from ES cells by using soluble patterning signals. When neural progenitors induced from ES cells in a serum-free suspension culture are subsequently treated with BMP4 and Wnt3a, a significant proportion of these neural cells become ...
Zahir Tasneem - - 2006
PURPOSE: The replacement of glucose by sorbitol in growth medium causes selection of astroglial cells from heterogeneous primary cultures derived from the brains of newborn mice. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of sorbitol on in vitro selection of Müller glial precursors from expanded late retinal progenitor ...
Itokazu Yutaka - - 2006
We previously demonstrated that choroid plexus epithelial (modified ependymal) cells (CPECs) differentiated into astrocytes after grafting into the spinal cord. In the present study, we examined whether CPECs from rats at postnatal 1 day (P1), 7 day (P7), and 8 weeks (P8W) can function as neural progenitor cells that give ...
Frassetto Laura J - - 2006
PURPOSE: Cell lines are frequently used to elucidate mechanisms of disease pathophysiology. Yet extrapolation of results with cell lines to neurodegenerative disorders is difficult because they are mitotic and usually have other non-neuronal properties. The RGC-5 cell line has many features of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Despite its expression of ...
Simonová Z - - 2006
Cell migration in the adult brain is discussed. We compared our studies on cell densities after cortical injury with our study on hippocampal proliferation and neurogenesis. We have shown that postnatal hypoxia increases cell density in cortical layer II of the somatosensory, motor and auditory cortices and in layer V ...
van Noort Johannes M - - 2006
Research into human central nervous system (CNS) disorders has traditionally focused on interconnecting neurons, thought to be the most important functional elements in the CNS. Consequently, animal models have developed as the central paradigm in CNS drug development. However, evidence is accumulating that suggests glial cells play a much more ...
Leker Ronen R - - 2006
The use of cell-based therapy is a valid therapeutic approach to ischemic brain injury. Endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) have been identified in the central nervous system where they reside largely in the subventricular zone and in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus. Endogenous NSCs are capable of self-renewal and ...
Lamprianou Smaragda - - 2006
The cornerstone of cell signaling is largely based on the phosphorylation state that is defined by the equilibrium of the activity of protein kinases and protein phosphatases. The role of protein tyrosine kinases in brain development, brain tumors, and neurodegenerative diseases was studied extensively, yet, the importance of protein tyrosine ...
Cardona Astrid E - - 2006
There is increasing interest in the isolation of adult microglia to study their functions at a morphological and molecular level during normal and neuroinflammatory conditions. Microglia have important roles in brain homeostasis, and in disease states they exert neuroprotective or neurodegenerative functions. To assay expression profiles or functions of microglia, ...
Chen Shanyi - - 2006
PURPOSE: We reported earlier that fenretinide can induce neuronal differentiation of ARPE-19 human retinal pigment epithelial cells in culture. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential involvement of key proteins involved in gene transcription, signal transduction, cell cycle check point, differentiation, neuronal cell survival, and stress response ...
Jain M - - 2006
Parkinson's disease (PD), while primarily associated with degeneration of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons, is now increasingly recognized to have more widespread cell loss and so the most effective cell replacement therapy should target all these neuronal losses. Neural precursor cells might be ideal in this regard as in certain circumstances they ...
Danilov Alexandre I - - 2006
Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system characterized by inflammation, demyelination, axonal degeneration and accumulation of neurological disability. Previously, we demonstrated that stem cells constitute a possible endogenous source for remyelination. We now addressed the question of whether neurogenesis can occur in neuroinflammatory lesions. We demonstrated ...
Kishino T - - 2006
Although most imprinted genes display parent-origin-specific gene expression in tissues where they are transcribed, some genes are imprinted in a tissue-specific manner. Genes that show brain-specific imprinting or brain-specific lack of imprinting present a unique opportunity to study the process of imprinting during tissue differentiation. In this review, I introduce ...
Rick C E - - 2006
The cell line MN9D, a fusion of embryonic ventral mesencephalic and neuroblastoma cells, is extensively used as a model of dopamine (DA) neurons because it expresses tyrosine hydroxylase and synthesizes and releases DA. These cells are also used to test mechanisms and potential therapeutics relevant to the loss of DA ...
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