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Horky Laura L - - 2006
The adult mammalian spinal cord contains neural stem and/or progenitor cells that slowly multiply throughout life and differentiate exclusively into glia. The contribution of adult progenitors to repair has been highlighted in recent studies, demonstrating extensive cell proliferation and gliogenesis following central nervous system (CNS) trauma. The present experiments aimed ...
Kruse Charli - - 2006
Nestin+ hair follicle-associated cells of murine skin can be isolated and differentiated in vitro into neuronal and glial cells. Therefore, we have asked whether human skin also contains nestin+ cells, and whether these can be differentiated in vitro into neuronal and/or glial cell populations. In this methodological pilot study, we ...
Kreutz Susanne - - 2007
Cannabinoids (CBs) are attributed neuroprotective effects in vivo. Here, we determined the neuroprotective potential of CBs during neuronal damage in excitotoxically lesioned organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs). OHSCs are the best characterized in vitro model to investigate the function of microglial cells in neuronal damage since blood-borne monocytes and T-lymphocytes ...
Albrecht Phillip J - - 2007
CNTF (ciliary neurotrophic factor) has been suggested to be an important survival factor for oligodendrocytes; however, this effect is inconsistently obtained and myelination appears normal in CNTF null animals. On the other hand, CNTF stimulates astrocytes to produce growth and trophic factors. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that CNTF acts ...
Santra M - - 2006
Doublecortin (DCX) is a microtubule-associated protein expressed in migrating neuroblasts. DCX expression is increased in subventricular zone (SVZ) cells migrating to the boundary of an ischemic lesion after induction of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in adult rats and mice. We tested the hypothesis that DCX, in addition to being ...
Jomura Sachiko - - 2007
Potential therapeutic effects of Oct-4-positive rat umbilical cord matrix (RUCM) cells in treating cerebral global ischemia were evaluated using a reproducible model of cardiac arrest (CA) and resuscitation in rats. Animals were randomly assigned to four groups: A, sham-operated; B, 8-minute CA without pretreatment; C, 8-minute CA pretreated with defined ...
Rovetta F - - 2007
Manganese (Mn) is both an essential nutrient and a toxicant, with specific effects on liver and kidney (acute exposure) and on central nervous system (CNS) (chronic exposure). Mn neurotoxicity includes neurobehavioral disorders and extra-pyramidal motor dysfunctions (manganism), possibly due to focal injuries to the basal ganglia. Even if widely investigated, ...
Becker-Catania Sara G - - 2006
Loss of arginase I (AI) results in a metabolic disorder characterized by growth retardation, increased mental impairment and spasticity, and potentially fatal hyperammonemia. This syndrome plus a growing body of evidence supports a role for arginase and arginine metabolites in normal neuronal development and function. Here we report our initial ...
Anderová Miroslava - - 2006
GFP labeled/NE-4C neural progenitor cells cloned from primary neuroectodermal cultures of p53- mouse embryos give rise to neurons when exposed to retinoic acid in vitro. To study their survival and differentiation in vivo, cells were transplanted into the cortex of 6-week-old rats, 1 week after the induction of a photochemical ...
Dizon M L V ML Children's Memorial Research Center (CMRC) Neurobiology Program, Children's Memorial Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60614-3394, - - 2006
Subventricular zone (SVZ) cells emigrate toward brain injury but relatively few survive. Thus, if they are to be used for repair, ex vivo expansion and autologous transplantation of SVZ cells may be necessary. Since it is unclear how brain injury alters SVZ cell culture, we studied neurosphere formation, differentiation, and ...
Yao Jing - - 2006
Retinal progenitor cells could differentiate into various retinal cells that made cell-replacement therapy possible. Here, we investigated the role of cellular microenvironment on their regulation and differentiation and found that the percentage of proliferating cells and the percentage of retinal ganglion cells produced from them increased, when retinal progenitor cells ...
Dupiereux Ingrid - - 2006
A synthetic peptide corresponding to the 106-126 amyloidogenic region of the cellular human prion protein (PrP(c)) is useful for in vitro study of prion-induced neuronal cell death. The aim of the present work was to examine the implication of the cellular prion protein in the toxicity mechanism induced by PrP ...
Kapoor Nidhi - - 2006
Studies initiated to determine the expression of CYP1A1/1A2 isoenzymes in the primary cultures of rat brain neuronal and glial cells revealed significant activity of CYP1A-dependent 7-ethoxyresorufin-o-dealkylase (EROD) in microsomes prepared from both rat brain neuronal and glial cells. RT-PCR and immunocytochemical studies demonstrated constitutive mRNA and protein expression of CYP1A1 ...
Georgopoulou Niki - - 2006
Control of cell cycle progression/exit and differentiation of neuronal precursors is of paramount importance during brain development. BM88 is a neuronal protein associated with terminal neuron-generating divisions in vivo and is implicated in mechanisms underlying neuronal differentiation. Here we have used mouse neuroblastoma Neuro 2a cells as an in vitro ...
de Groot Dorien M - - 2006
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) belongs to the neurotrophin family of neuronal cell survival and differentiation factors but is thought to be involved in neuronal cell proliferation and myelination as well. To explore the role of BDNF in vivo, we employed the intermediate pituitary melanotrope cells of the amphibian Xenopus laevis ...
Janke Angela D - - 2006
Beneficial effects of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) have been described, including a decrease of brain atrophy. We have previously shown that activated T cells kill neurons in culture. In this manuscript, we show that the pretreatment of activated T cells with IVIg attenuates T cell neurotoxicity. ...
Kang Soo-Kyung - - 2006
Isolated rat adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (rATSCs) contain pluripotent cells that can be differentiated into a variety of cell lineages, including neural cells. Recent work has shown that ATSCs can make neurosphere-like clumps and differentiate into neuron-like cells expressing neuronal markers, but their therapeutic effect is unclear. Here we report ...
Li Faqi F Division of Cellular and Molecular Ischemia, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Michigan 48201, - - 2006
Recognized as a robust cytoprotectant for multiple tissues of the hematopoietic, vascular, cardiac, and nervous systems, erythropoietin (EPO) also is considered to be an attractive therapeutic candidate to modulate inflammatory cell function and survival during neurodegenerative disorders. To this end, microglia of the central nervous system serve a complex function ...
Ravindran Geeta - - 2006
We describe a method of generating an enriched population of NCAM-positive cells from a human teratocarcinoma cell line (NTera2/D1) and their differentiation into midbrain dopaminergic neurons in the absence of the caudalizing factor retinoic acid (RA). NTera2 cells were induced to form embryoid bodies and then to generate nestin-positive cells ...
Saraswathy Sindhu - - 2006
PURPOSE: Peroxynitrite generated during the early phase of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) causes peroxidation of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6), a principal unsaturated fatty acid of the photoreceptor membrane, to its hydroperoxide (22:6HP). During this phase, microglia migrate to the site of photoreceptors. The effect of 22:6HP on the migration of isolated ...
Horiuchi Makoto - - 2006
Interactions between oligodendroglial and astroglial lineages during development are still unclear. In this study, FBD-102b, derived from p53-/- fetal brains, was characterized as an oligodendroglial progenitor cell (OPC) line. In co-culture with 102b cells, cells of an astrocyte progenitor cell line, FBD-104, elongated monopolar processes, like radial glia, and actively ...
Rola Radoslaw - - 2006
Clinical and experimental data show that traumatic brain injury (TBI)-induced cognitive changes are often manifest as deficits in hippocampal-dependent functions of spatial information processing. The underlying mechanisms for these effects have remained elusive, although recent studies have suggested that the changes in neuronal precursor cells in the dentate subgranular zone ...
Chen Wei-Jung A - - 2006
Smoking during pregnancy poses a potential risk to unborn children. The present study examined the long-term effects of early nicotine exposure on the number of pyramidal and granule cells in the hippocampus, and Purkinje cells in the cerebellar vermis. The loss of neurons is the most severe form of brain ...
Casella Gizelda T B - - 2006
Contusion of the spinal cord causes an immediate local loss of neurons and disruption of vasculature; additional loss continues thereafter. To explore the possibility of a causal link between delayed endothelial cell (EC) death and secondary neural cell loss, we evaluated neural and endothelial cell survival, and measured inflammatory cell ...
Alvarez-Dolado Manuel M Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, - - 2006
Embryonic medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) cells transplanted into the adult brain can disperse, migrate, and differentiate to neurons expressing GABA, the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter. It has been hypothesized that grafted MGE precursors could have important therapeutic applications increasing local inhibition, but there is no evidence that MGE cells can modify ...
Uda Munehiro - - 2006
Proliferating astrocytes and proliferating neuroblasts have been observed in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG) in the hippocampus of adult rats under normal conditions. However, whether these proliferating cells are stimulated by running has not been determined. Using immunohistochemical techniques, we examined the effects of chronic treadmill ...
Lees Jason R - - 2006
T-cell invasion of the CNS is critical for the induction of a variety of autoimmune mediated neuronal diseases. We utilized blood-brain barrier (BBB) mediated exclusion of anti-CD4 antibody to define populations of encephalitogenic T-cells recovered from mouse CNS preparations as either CNS invasive or non-invasive. This separation of cells allowed ...
Muresan Zoia - - 2006
Our goal is to understand the pathogenesis of amyloid-beta (Abeta) deposition in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. We established a cell culture system where central nervous system-derived neuronal cells (CAD cells) produce and accumulate within their processes large amounts of Abeta peptide, similar to what is believed to occur in ...
Yue Fengming - - 2006
The aim of this study was to produce dopaminergic neurons from primate embryonic stem (ES) cells following coculture with mouse Sertoli cells. After 3 weeks of induction, immunostaining revealed that 90% +/- 9% of the colonies contained tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (TH(+)) neurons, and 60% +/- 7% of the tubulin beta III-positive ...
Ishizaki Yasuki - - 2006
During CNS development, multipotent neural stem cells give rise first to various kinds of specified precursor cells, which proliferate extensively before terminally differentiating into either neurons or glial cells. Control of proliferation of the precursor cells plays a crucial role in determining the number of cells in the CNS. Proliferation ...
Covolan L - - 2006
Pilocarpine-induced (320 mg/kg, i.p.) status epilepticus (SE) in adult (2-3 months) male Wistar rats results in extensive neuronal damage in limbic structures. Here we investigated whether the induction of a second SE (N = 6) would generate damage and cell loss similar to that seen after a first SE (N ...
Hinsch Karen - - 2006
In contrast to mammals, teleost fish are distinct in their ability to continuously produce a tremendous number of new neurons in many regions of the adult brain. In the present study, we have isolated intrinsic stem cells from the telencephalon, corpus cerebelli, and valvula cerebelli of the teleost Apteronotus leptorhynchus ...
Song Hyun - - 2006
Invasion of tumor cells is the primary cause of therapeutic failure in the treatment of malignant gliomas. In an attempt to investigate the properties of the malignant progression of glioma cells, we examined the correlation between cell migration and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) secretion of two glioma cell lines ...
Sun Faneng - - 2006
Impairment in ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) has recently been implicated in Parkinson's disease, as demonstrated by reduced proteasomal activities, protein aggregation and mutation of several genes associated with UPS. However, experimental studies with proteasome inhibitors failed to yield consensus regarding the effect of proteasome inhibition on dopaminergic degeneration. In this study, ...
Montani Giorgia - - 2006
This paper examines a possible role of microvillar cells in coordinating cell death and regeneration of olfactory epithelial neurons. The olfactory neuroepithelium of mammals is a highly dynamic organ. Olfactory neurons periodically degenerate by apoptosis and as a consequence of chemical or physical damage. To compensate for this loss of ...
Steiner Johann - - 2006
Immunological alterations have been demonstrated in peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with schizophrenia, while previous postmortem studies have provided an inconsistent picture as to the role of microglia in the context of schizophrenia. Microglial activation is a sensitive indicator of changes in the CNS microenvironment, such as inflammatory ...
Mourzina Yulia - - 2006
A spatially resolved delivery of substances integrated with cell culture substrates shows promise for application in pharmacological assays, bioanalytical studies on cell signaling pathways and cell-based biosensors, where control over the extracellular biochemical environment with a cellular resolution is desirable. In this work, we studied a biohybrid system where rat ...
Yamashita Toru - - 2006
Recent studies have revealed that the adult mammalian brain has the capacity to regenerate some neurons after various insults. However, the precise mechanism of insult-induced neurogenesis has not been demonstrated. In the normal brain, GFAP-expressing cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles include a neurogenic cell population ...
Yamazoe Hironori - - 2006
Transplantation of dopamine neurons is a promising approach to treat Parkinson's disease. Embryonic stem (ES) cells are expected to be a cell source of the dopaminergic neurons. Various difficulties, however, need to be overcome to realize cell therapy of Parkinson's disease using dopaminergic neurons from ES cells. For example, they ...
Lepore A C - - 2006
Neural precursor cell (NPC) transplantation is a promising strategy for treatment of CNS injuries and neurodegenerative disorders because of potential for cell replacement. An important element of future clinical applications is development of a non-invasive procedure to follow NPC fate. We show that neuronal-restricted precursors (NRPs) and glial-restricted precursors (GRPs), ...
McKay Brian S - - 2006
Transplantation of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in the basal ganglia could provide a novel cell-based therapy for Parkinson's disease by providing a constant source of dopamine replacement via the melanin synthetic pathway enzyme tyrosinase. We now demonstrate that human RPE cells also produce a neurotrophic effect on primary cultures ...
McBride Jodi L - - 2006
Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal, genetic, neurological disorder resulting from a trinucleotide repeat expansion in the gene that encodes for the protein huntingtin. These excessive repeats confer a toxic gain of function on huntingtin, which leads to the degeneration of striatal and cortical neurons and a devastating motor, cognitive, ...
Keilhoff Gerburg - - 2006
Growing evidence indicates that alterations of neuroplasticity may contribute to the pathophysiology of depression. In contrast, various antidepressants increase adult hippocampal neurogenesis and block the effects of stress. These findings result in the 'neurogenesis hypothesis of depression'. The present study seeks to determine out whether cell proliferation is altered in ...
Sergent-Tanguy Solène - - 2006
Nestin, a currently used marker of neural stem cells, is transiently coexpressed with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) during development and is induced in reactive astrocytes following brain injury. Nestin expression has also been found in cultures of astroglial cells, but little is known about the fate and the mitotic ...
Murín Radovan - - 2006
To evaluate the ability of ependymal, microglial and oligodendroglial cells to degrade leucine, the presence of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC) was investigated in cultures of these cells. MCC is a biotin-containing heterodimeric enzyme that is specific for the irreversible part of the leucine catabolic pathway. It has been reported previously that ...
Taylor Roseanne M - - 2006
While transplanted neural stem cells (NSCs) have been shown to hold promise for cell replacement in models of a number of neurological disorders, these examples have typically been under conditions where the host cells become dysfunctional due to a cell autonomous etiology, i.e. a 'sick' cell within a relatively supportive ...
Farin Azadeh - - 2006
Glioma cells have a remarkable capacity to infiltrate the brain and migrate long distances from the tumor, making complete surgical resection impossible. Yet, little is known about how glioma cells interact with the complex microenvironment of the brain. To investigate the patterns and dynamics of glioma cell infiltration and migration, ...
Hosoi Rie - - 2006
Although several pieces of evidence have indicated that glial cells support neuronal cells in the ischemia-reperfusion brain, the direct contribution of glial cells to cell damage is not well known. The present study was designed to determine whether there are any changes in cell damage after a short-term middle cerebral ...
Watson G - - 2006
Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is caused by an inherited deficiency of alpha-L-iduronidase (IDUA). The result is a progressive, lysosomal storage disease with central nervous system (CNS) as well as systemic involvement. To target gene therapy to the CNS, recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors carrying IDUA sequence were administered to ...
Nelson Sacha B - - 2006
Neural circuits within the vertebrate brain are composed of highly diverse cell types. The exact extent of this diversity is a matter of continuing debate. For example, do cortical interneurons comprise a few, dozens or >100 distinct cell types? Recently, several groups have used microarrays to measure genome-wide gene expression ...
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