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Matsumoto Hiroaki - - 2007
Brain ischemia causes the death of neurons and glial cells. Such brain cells are believed to inevitably undergo degeneration in the core of ischemic lesions, whereas neurons and glial cells may survive in the region surrounding the core that is often referred to as the ischemic penumbra. However, many cells, ...
Pinto Luisa - - 2007
Here, we discuss the identity, heterogeneity and functions of radial glial cells mostly in the developing central nervous system (CNS). First, we define radial glial cells by morphological, cell biological and molecular criteria as true glial cells, akin to astroglia. We then describe the appearance of radial glial cells during ...
Tambuyzer Bart R - - 2007
Microglia are dispersed throughout the central nervous system. Under physiological circumstances they display a 'ramified' resting phenotype. In different neuropathologies microglia reversibly transform into the activated form, an amoeboid phagocyte with a broad spectrum of immune effector functions. In this study, a coculture of porcine microglia and the pig renal ...
Zamoner Ariane - - 2007
Thyroid hormones (3,5,3'-triiodo-L: -thyronine, T3; 3,5,3',5'-L: -tetraiodothyronine, T4; TH) play crucial roles in the growth and differentiation of the central nervous system. In this study, we investigated the actions of TH on proliferation, viability, cell morphology, in vitro phosphorylation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and actin reorganization in C6 ...
Nat Roxana - - 2007
The great potential of human embryonic stem (hES) cells offers the opportunity both for studying basic developmental processes in vitro as well as for drug screening, modeling diseases, or future cell therapy. Defining protocols for the generation of human neural progenies represents a most important prerequisite. Here, we have used ...
Pellegrini Elisabeth - - 2007
Compared with other vertebrates, the brain of adult teleost fish exhibits two unique features: it exhibits unusually high neurogenic activity and strongly expresses aromatase, a key enzyme that converts aromatizable androgens into estrogens. Until now, these two features, high neurogenic and aromatase activities, have never been related to each other. ...
Lu Wen-Guo - - 2007
Totipotent and regionally non-specified embryonic stem (ES) cells provide a powerful tool to understand mechanisms controlling stem cell differentiation in different regions of the adult brain. As the development capacity of ES cells in the adult brain is still largely unknown, we grafted small amounts of mouse ES (mES) cells ...
Ohtsuki Sumio - - 2007
PURPOSE: To establish a method for isolating highly purified brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) from rat brain by using magnetic cell sorting, and clarify the expression levels of multidrug resistance-associated protein (Mrp) subtypes in these highly purified BCECs. METHODS: The cells were prepared from the capillary enriched-fraction by enzyme digestion, ...
Alvaro Ana Rita - - 2007
NPY is present in the retina of different species but its role is not elucidated yet. In this work, using different rat retina in vitro models (whole retina, retinal cells in culture, microglial cell cultures, rat Müller cell line and retina endothelial cell line), we demonstrated that NPY staining is ...
Mondal Soma - - 2007
Organization of the central nervous system during embryonic development is an intricate process involving a host of molecular players. The Drosophila segmentation genes, sloppy paired (slp) 1/2 have been shown to be necessary for development of a neuronal precursor cell subtype, the NB4-2 cells. Here, we show that slp1/2 also ...
Cafferty Patrick - - 2007
Glial cells play a wide range of essential roles in both nervous system development and function and has been reviewed recently (Parker and Auld, 2006). Glia provide an insulating sheath, either form or direct the formation of the blood-brain barrier, contribute to ion and metabolite homeostasis and provide guidance cues. ...
Silies Marion - - 2007
In complex organisms the nervous system comprises two cell types: neurons and glial cells. Their correct interplay is of crucial importance during both the development of the nervous system and for later function of the nervous system. In recent years tools have been developed for Drosophila that enable genetic approaches ...
Shin Soojung - - 2007
Although embryonic stem (ES) cells are capable of forming any cell type in the body, the mechanisms that control cell type-specific differentiation are largely unknown. In the present study, we examined the process of differentiation to motor neurons and oligodendrocytes from mouse (Olig2GFP) ES cells. Mouse ES cells undergo a ...
Hida Hideki - - 2007
Pleiotrophin promotes survival of dopaminergic neurons in vitro. To investigate whether pleiotrophin promotes survival of grafted dopaminergic neurons in vivo, donor cells from ventral mesencephalon were treated with pleiotrophin (100 ng/ml) during cell preparation and grafted into striatum of hemi-Parkinson model rats. Functional recovery in methamphetamine-induced rotations was improved, and ...
Sullivan Jeremy M JM Department of Biological Sciences, Wellesley College, Wellesley, Massachusetts 02481, - - 2007
Adult neurogenesis, the generation of new neurons from adult precursor cells, occurs in the brains of a phylogenetically diverse array of animals. In the higher (amniotic) vertebrates, these precursor cells are glial cells that reside within specialized regions, known as neurogenic niches, the elements of which both support and regulate ...
Tatard Valérie M - - 2007
To improve the outcome of foetal dopaminergic cell transplantation for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, pharmacologically active microcarriers (PAM) were developed. PAM are able to convey cells on their surface and release a growth factor to improve cell survival, differentiation and integration after brain implantation. Lysozyme-releasing PAM were first produced ...
Zhang Rui Lan - - 2007
Adult ependymal cells are postmitotic and highly differentiated. Radial glial cells are neurogenic precursors. Here, we show that stroke acutely stimulated adult ependymal cell proliferation, and dividing ependymal cells of the lateral ventricle had genotype, phenotype, and morphology of radial glial cells in the rat. The majority of radial glial ...
Henry, Rebecca Ann
Neurogenesis is the process by which functionally integrated neurons are generated from progenitor cells. In the adult mammalian brain two sites of high density cell division have been identified that contain neural progenitor cells retaining the ability to generate new neurons: the subgranular zone of the hippocampus (SGZ) and the ...
Li, Yuhong
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), caused by maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy, has been extensively studied in the human. Animal studies show that alcohol exposure during very early development may result in severe brain damage, often incompatible with a postnatal life. However, for surviving offspring it is unknown whether they ...
Willi Monnerat, Susan
Neocortical function and malfunction depends critically on a spectrum of inhibitory interneurons. To gain novel insight in normal brain function and mechanisms leading to diseases, such as epilepsy or schizophrenia, the knowledge about the specific functions of each interneuron type appears crucial. To date, the mystery about the diversity of ...
Grandgirard D - - 2007
Bacterial meningitis is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, despite advances in antibiotic therapy. Meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae is associated with a particularly high incidence of neurological sequelae including deficits resulting from damage to the hippocampus. Previous studies have documented that in neonatal rats with experimental pneumococcal ...
Yasuhara Takao - - 2007
Over the last decade, molecular biology has progressively developed, leading to new technology with subsequent clinical application for various cerebral diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD), one of the most investigated neurodegenerative disorders. The therapy for PD is mainly composed of medication, including drug replacement therapy, surgical treatment, and cell transplantation. ...
Dalla Puppa Lisa - - 2007
Oxidative brain damage, such as excitotoxicity and stroke, leads to primary neuronal destruction. The primary damage is further potentiated by macrophages and microglial cells, which are attracted and invade into the zone of damage resulting in secondary neuronal death. Since the essential trace element selenium has anti-inflammatory properties, we analyzed ...
Noctor Stephen C - - 2007
Recent work has begun to identify neural stem and progenitor cells in the embryonic and adult brain, and is unravelling the mechanisms whereby new nerve cells are created and delivered to their correct locations. Radial glial (RG) cells, which are present in the developing mammalian brain, have been proposed to ...
Bullmann Torsten - - 2007
Tau is a microtubule-associated protein with a developmentally regulated expression of multiple isoforms. The neonatal isoform is devoid of two amino terminal inserts and contains only three instead of four microtubule-binding repeats (0N/3R-tau). We investigated the temporal expression pattern of 0N-tau and 3R-tau in the rat hippocampus. After the decline ...
Harvey B K - - 2007
One therapeutic approach to stroke is the transplantation of cells capable of trophic support, reinnervation, and/or regeneration. Previously, we have described the use of novel truncated isoforms of SV40 large T antigen to generate unique cell lines from several primary rodent tissue types. Here we describe the generation of two ...
Sciaccaluga Miriam - - 2007
The notion that gliomas could originate from mutated glial precursor cells highlights the possibility of modulating the proliferative and migratory behaviour of glioma cells by acting on the molecular mechanisms operative during the development of the Central Nervous System (CNS), but absent in the normal adult brain. We show that ...
Braissant Olivier - - 2007
In mammals, creatine is taken up from the diet and can be synthesized endogenously by a two-step mechanism involving the enzymes arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT). Creatine (Cr) is taken up by cells through a specific transporter, CT1. While the major part of endogenous synthesis of Cr is ...
Savaskan N E - - 2007
Autotaxin is a secreted cell motility-stimulating exo-phosphodiesterase with lysophospholipase D activity that generates bioactive lysophosphatidic acid. Lysophosphatidic acid has been implicated in various neural cell functions such as neurite remodeling, demyelination, survival and inhibition of axon growth. Here, we report on the in vivo expression of autotaxin in the brain ...
Fisher Linda - - 2007
Inhibition of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB has emerged as an important strategy for design of anti-inflammatory therapies. In neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease, inflammatory reactions mediated by glial cells are believed to promote disease progression. Here, we report that uptake of a double-stranded oligonucleotide NF-kappaB decoy in rat primary glial cells ...
Jain Pooja - - 2007
Upon treatment with retinoic acid, NTera-2 (NT2) human teratocarcinoma and SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells can be induced to terminally differentiate into postmitotic neuronal cells. The neuronal cell yield obtained from the NT-2 cells is partially dependent on the time of differentiation (24-55 days). SK-N-SH cells differentiate into a mixed population of ...
Rizzi Simona - - 2007
In the current study we examined the effects of early isolation rearing on cell proliferation, survival and differentiation in the dentate gyrus of the guinea pig. Animals were assigned to either a standard (control) or an isolated environment a few days after birth (P5-P6), taking advantage of the precocious independence ...
Kronenberg Golo - - 2007
To investigate strain differences and genetic effects on different aspects of neurogenesis, we compared young adult spontaneously hypertensive/hyperactive rats (SHR) and stroke-prone SHR (SHRSP) with the genetic control WKY strain. In both hypertensive/hyperactive strains, the number of newly generated neurons and the number of lineage-determined cells as detected by doublecortin ...
Asaga Hiroaki - - 2007
Peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) are Ca(2+)-dependent post-translational modification enzymes that catalyze the citrullination of protein arginyl residues. PAD type 2 (PAD2) is thought to be involved in some processes of neurodegeneration and myelination in the central nervous system. In this study, we found PAD2-positive cells in rat cerebra in 19-to 21-day ...
Chen Kevin - - 2007
In order to fully characterize and determine the therapeutic potential of adult neural progenitor cells (NPCs), it is important to be able to isolate and study NPCs from animals such as rats, in which there are existing models of brain injury and disease. The focus of this study was to ...
Tonchev A B - - 2007
We performed transient global cerebral ischemia on adult macaque monkeys by reversibly stopping blood flow to the brain. We labeled de novo-generated cells in postischemic animals as well as in sham-operated controls by infusing the DNA synthesis indicator BrdU, and subsequently investigated the distribution and phenotype of BrdU-labeled cells in ...
Steiner Johann - - 2007
BACKGROUND: S100B is considered an astrocytic in-situ marker and protein levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or serum are often used as biomarker for astrocytic damage or dysfunction. However, studies on S100B in the human brain are rare. Thus, the distribution of S100B was studied by immunohistochemistry in adult human brains ...
Giehl Klaus M - - 2007
Biological tools that are unleashed in malignancies are employed in a controlled manner during neuronal development. By default, early embryonic cells would become neuronal stem cells, a path that is blocked by specific signaling pathways. The future nervous system only develops where this blockade is inhibited by inductive signals from ...
Eaton Mary J - - 2007
The relief of neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury (SCI) remains daunting, because pharmacologic intervention works incompletely and is accompanied by multiple side effects. Transplantation of human cells that make specific biologic agents that can potentially modulate the sensory responses that are painful would be very useful to treat problems ...
Babu Harish - - 2007
Stem cell cultures are key tools of basic and applied research in Regenerative Medicine. In the adult mammalian brain, lifelong neurogenesis originating from local precursor cells occurs in the neurogenic regions of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Despite widespread interest in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and the use of mouse models to ...
Bannerman Peter P Institute for Pediatric Regenerative Research, UC Davis School of Medicine, Shriners Hospital for Children, Northern California, Sacramento, California 95817, - - 2007
A prominent feature of multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the accumulation of enlarged, multipolar glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and brain lipid binding protein (BLBP) immunoreactive astroglia within and at the margins of the inflammatory demyelinative lesions. Whether this astrogliosis is due to both astroglial hyperplasia ...
Baer Kristin - - 2007
Transcription factors (TFs) are responsible for the specification and fate determination of cells as they develop from progenitor cells into specific types of cells in the brain. Sox-2 and Pax-6 are TFs with key functional roles in the developing brain, although less is known about TFs in the rudimentary germinal ...
Masuo Y - - 2007
Hippocalcin, which is a member of the neuronal calcium-sensor protein family, is highly expressed in hippocampal pyramidal cells. Recently, it was demonstrated that hippocalcin deficit caused an increase in neuronal cell death in the field CA3 of Ammon's horn (CA3) region of the hippocampus following the systemic injection of kainic ...
Battiste James - - 2007
The neural basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Ascl1 (previously Mash1) is present in ventricular zone cells in restricted domains throughout the developing nervous system. This study uses genetic fate mapping to define the stage and neural lineages in the developing spinal cord that are derived from Ascl1-expressing cells. We find that ...
Pastrana Erika - - 2007
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are the main glial cell type that populates mammalian olfactory nerves. These cells have a great capacity to promote the regeneration of axons when transplanted into the injured adult mammalian CNS. However, little is still known about the molecular mechanisms they employ in mediating such a ...
Giussani Paola - - 2007
S1P is involved in the regulation of multiple biological processes (cell survival, growth, migration and differentiation) both in neurons and glial cells. The study was aimed at investigating the possible effects of S1P on calcium signaling in cerebellar astrocytes and differentiated granule cells. In cerebellar astrocytes S1P is able to ...
Steiner Barbara - - 2006
In the course of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, new cells go through a series of stages associated with proliferative activity. The most highly proliferative cell type is an intermediate precursor cell, called type-2 cell. We here report that on the level of type-2 cells a transition takes place between features associated ...
Lytle Judith M - - 2006
Following contusive spinal cord injury (SCI), 50% of oligodendrocytes in the residual white matter are lost within 24 h. NG2-expressing cell proliferation is maximal 3 days after SCI, and may be the source of mature oligodendrocytes and astrocytes that chronically replace those that were lost. We studied NG2(+) cells dissociated ...
Lohr Christian - - 2006
Calcium signaling studies in invertebrate glial cells have been performed mainly in the nervous systems of the medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis) and the sphinx moth Manduca sexta. The main advantages of studing glial cells in invertebrate nervous systems are the large size of invertebrate glial cells and their easy accessibility ...
Metea Monica R - - 2006
This article reviews calcium signaling in three specialized types of glial cells: Müller cells of the retina, Bergmann glial cells of the cerebellum, and radial glial cells of the developing cortex. Müller cells generate spontaneous and neuronal activity-evoked increases in Ca(2+). Neuron to Müller cell signaling is mediated by neuronal ...
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