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Ishibashi Satoru - - 2007
Galectin-1 (Gal-1) has recently been identified as a key molecule that plays important roles in the regulation of neural progenitor cell proliferation in two neurogenic regions: the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle and the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. To test the hypothesis that Gal-1 contributes ...
Chopp Michael - - 2008
The injured brain can be stimulated to amplify its intrinsic restorative processes to improve neurological function. Thus, after stroke, both cell and pharmacological neurorestorative treatments, amplify the induction of brain neurogenesis and angiogenesis, and thereby reduce neurological deficits. In this manuscript, we describe the use of bone marrow mesenchymal cells ...
Hayashi T - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: Platelet derived-endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF) is a highly potent angiogenic factor. Although angiogenesis plays an active role in pathophysiology of stroke, the expression pattern of this molecule in ischemic brain has not been investigated. In the present study, therefore, we investigated the change of PD-ECGF expression in the ...
Mishima Tsuneko - - 2007
Glial cells have traditionally been considered to play supportive roles in the central nervous system. As recent experimental evidence suggests glial cells' participation in neural information processing, there has been a need to monitor the physiology of glial cells in vivo in the matured brain. Concurrently, identification and classification of ...
Gibney Sinead M - - 2007
Studies on the isolation and propagation of multipotent neural precursors as neurospheres suggest their potential use in the reconstitution of neurons and oligodendrocytes in neurodegenerative diseases. To ensure that an adequate number of functionally relevant cells are present after transplantation, in vitro manipulation of cell fate before transplantation may be ...
Elshatory Yasser Y Center for Aging and Developmental Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14642, - - 2007
The mammalian retina is comprised of six major neuronal cell types and is subdivided into more morphological and physiological subtypes. The transcriptional machinery underlying these subtype fate choices is largely unknown. The LIM-homeodomain protein, Isl1, plays an essential role in central nervous system (CNS) differentiation but its relationship to retinal ...
Terpstra Brian T BT Department of Neurology, University of Cincinnati, PO Box 670525, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0525, United States. - - 2007
The poor survival rate (5-20%) of grafted embryonic dopamine (DA) neurons is one of the primary factors preventing cell replacement from becoming a viable treatment for Parkinson's disease. Previous studies have demonstrated that graft volume impacts grafted DA neuron survival, indicating that transplant parameters influence survival rates. However, the effects ...
Jellinck Peter H - - 2007
The well-established neuroprotective effect of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been attributed to its metabolism in the brain to provide estrogens known to be neuroprotective and to enhance memory and learning in humans and animals. However, our previous work showed that the conversion of DHEA to 4-androstenedione (AD), the precursor of estrone ...
Liljekvist-Larsson Ingela - - 2007
Progenitor and stem cell transplantation represent therapeutic strategies for retinal disorders that are accompanied by photoreceptor degeneration. The transplanted cells may either replace degenerating photoreceptors or secrete beneficial factors that halt the processes of photoreceptor degeneration. The present study analyzes whether rat retinal progenitor cells differentiated into photoreceptor phenotypic cells ...
Banasr Mounira - - 2007
BACKGROUND: One of the most consistent morphologic findings in postmortem studies of brain tissue from depressed patients is a decrease in the number of glia in the prefrontal cortex. However, little is known about the mechanisms that contribute to this decrease in cell number. METHODS: To address this question, we ...
Zanetti Laura - - 2007
The ascidian Ciona intestinalis is a useful model for the study of nervous system development and function. The larva of this animal represents a 'primitive' vertebrate form that contains only about 100 neurons in the CNS. Although embryos can be easily subjected to genetic manipulation, the nervous system cells are ...
Borgal L - - 2007
Glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) enhances dopamine (DA) cell survival and fiber outgrowth, and may be beneficial in enhancing cell restorative strategies for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, GDNF may have different roles for transplanted DA cell sub-types. The present in vitro study investigated the effect of GDNF on the ...
Honda Shinya - - 2007
In the past few years, the plasticity of the regional specification of the CNS has been widely debated on the results from in utero transplantation. Two different results are reported with this transplantation method. One is that the distribution of transplanted cells is dependent on the donor origin, and the ...
Trimarchi Jeffrey M - - 2007
During development of the central nervous system (CNS), cycling uncommitted progenitor cells give rise to a variety of distinct neuronal and glial cell types. As these different cell types are born they progress from newly specified cells to fully differentiated neurons and glia. In order to define the developmental processes ...
Matsumoto Hiroaki - - 2008
Although neurons and glia inevitably undergo degeneration in the core of ischemic lesions, many cells, particularly immune cells, infiltrate the core and survive in it. Such infiltrating cells may play certain roles in the regeneration and repair of damaged brain tissues. In this study, we characterized macrophage-like cells that accumulated ...
Kanter-Schlifke Irene - - 2007
We investigated the feasibility of viral vector-mediated expression and axonal transport of the glial cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor, a potential antiepileptic agent, to the hippocampus and the piriform cortex, areas involved in the induction and spread of seizure activity. Glial cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor overexpression was induced by injections of recombinant vectors ...
Echeverry Stefania - - 2008
Glial activation is a typical response of the central nervous system to nerve injury. In the current investigation, we characterized the temporal and spatial pattern of glial proliferation, one of the most conspicuous features of glial activation, in relation to nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. Using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) as a mitotic ...
Carney Rosalind S E RS Department of Physiology, Anatomy & Genetics, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3QX, - - 2007
Embryonic germinal zones of the dorsal and ventral telencephalon generate cortical neurons during the final week of gestation in rodent and during several months in human. Whereas the vast majority of cortical interneurons originate from the ventral telencephalon, excitatory neurons are locally generated within the germinal zone of the dorsal ...
Tamura Yasuhisa - - 2007
In the adult mammalian brain, multipotent stem or progenitor cells involved in reproduction of neurons and glial cells have been well investigated only in very restricted regions; the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle and the dentate gyrus in the hippocampal formation. In the neocortex, a series of in vitro ...
Saito N - - 2007
The brain is frequently affected by the spread of lung cancer, and haematogenous metastasis is a common route to brain metastasis. We therefore developed an isogenic brain metastasis model of lung cancer to use the Lewis lung carcinoma cell line and analysed dynamics of neoplastic cells after extravasation. Histological analysis ...
Spiegler Maria - - 2007
Neurogenesis persists throughout life in the rodent subventricular zone (SVZ) and subgranular zone (SGZ) and increases in the adult after brain injury. In this study, postnatal day 7 rats underwent middle cerebral artery electrocoagulation and transient homolateral common carotid artery occlusion, a lesioning protocol that resulted in ipsilateral (IL) forebrain ...
Rabchevsky Alexander G - - 2007
The aim of this study was to systematically determine the spatial distribution of oligodendrocytes (CC1(+)) and glial progenitor cells (NG2(+)) throughout the ventral lateral funiculi (VLF) of adult rat thoracic spinal cord white matter over the course of spontaneous hindlimb locomotor recovery following moderate contusion injury. We used the optical ...
Kronenberg Golo - - 2007
Since reports that precursor cells in the adult subventricular zone (SVZ) contribute to regenerative neuro- and gliogenesis in CA1, we wondered whether a similar route of migration might also exist under physiological conditions. Permanent labeling of SVZ precursor cells with a lentiviral vector for green fluorescent protein did not reveal ...
Monnin Julie - - 2007
In lower vertebrates, like fishes and amphibians, retina is able to self-regenerate whereas Mammalian retina has lost this property. Nevertheless, recently, it has turned out that retinal glial Müller cells were playing a role in neuronal regeneration of the adult rodent retina, in case of acute damages, by dedifferentiating and ...
Seki Tatsunori - - 2007
Adult neurogenesis occurs in the subgranular zone and innermost part of the dentate granule cell layer. To examine how neural precursor cells proliferate, migrate, and extend their neurites, we performed BrdU- and improved retrovirus-green fluorescence protein (GFP)-labeling analyses. Soon after labeling the majority of BrdU+ cells and GFP+ cells expressed ...
Thannickal Thomas C - - 2007
It has recently been reported that Parkinson's disease (PD) is preceded and accompanied by daytime sleep attacks, nocturnal insomnia, REM sleep behaviour disorder, hallucinations and depression, symptoms which are frequently as troublesome as the motor symptoms of PD. All these symptoms are present in narcolepsy, which is linked to a ...
da Silveira Alexandre Barcelos Morais - - 2007
After acute infestation with the Chagas disease parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, some patients who are serologically positive develop chronic megacolon and megaesophagus, whereas others are symptom-free. Chagas disease with gastrointestinal involvement involves an inflammatory invasion of the enteric plexuses and degeneration of enteric neurons. It is known that glial cells can ...
Helkamaa Teemu - - 2007
Activated microglial cells are found in the substantia nigra and the striatum of Parkinson's disease patients. These cells have been shown to express catechol-O-methyltransferase activity which may increase during pathological conditions. Lipopolysaccharides are potent activators of microglial cells. After paranigral lipopolysaccharide infusion to rats we observed intense microglial activation around ...
Cullen D Kacy DK Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology/Emory University, 313 Ferst Dr., Atlanta, GA 30332-0535, - - 2007
A mechanical insult to the brain drastically alters the microenvironment as specific cell types become reactive in an effort to sequester severely damaged tissue. Although injury-induced astrogliosis has been investigated, the relationship between well-defined biomechanical inputs and acute astrogliotic alterations is not well understood. We evaluated the effects of strain ...
O'Toole D A - - 2007
Olfactory ensheathing cells have been used in several studies to promote repair in the injured spinal cord. However, cellular interaction between olfactory ensheathing cells and glial cells induced to be reactive in the aftermath of injury site has not been investigated. Using an in vitro model of astrogliosis, we show ...
Curtis Maurice A - - 2007
1. The subventricular zone (SVZ) of the forebrain that overlies the caudate nucleus is one of the principal brain regions in which neurogenesis occurs in the human brain, throughout life. 2. In response to the degeneration that occurs in the caudate nucleus in Huntington's disease, or in the caudate nucleus ...
Kim So Hee - - 2007
Central nervous system (CNS) midline cells are essential for identity determination and differentiation of neurons in the Drosophila nervous system. It is not clear, however, whether CNS midline cells are also involved in the development of lateral glial cells. The roles of CNS midline cells in lateral glia development were ...
Prakash - - 2007
The present work was undertaken to reveal the mechanism of cerebral aqueduct agenesis found to result in hydrocephalus following intrauterine exposure to model teratogen, cyclophosphamide, in murine fetuses. A single dose of 10-mg/kg body weight cyclophosphamide was injected intaperitoneally to pregnant mice on day 10, 11 or 12 of gestation. ...
Gordon R J - - 2007
A number of studies have demonstrated directed migration of neural progenitor cells to sites of brain injury and disease, however a detailed examination of when a cell is "born" in relation to injury induction and the migratory response of that cell has not previously been determined. This study therefore examined ...
Yang, Ming-Hui
Aquaporin-9 (AQP9) is a neutral channel, permeable to water, glycerol, and a number of solutes. The presence of AQP9 in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) was confirmed. AQP9 and a number of proteins responded differently to two animal models of glaucoma. Inhibition of AQP9 may protect RGCs under hypoxia conditions. The ...
Denes Adam A Laboratory of Molecular Neuroendocrinology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary. - - 2007
Cerebral ischaemia usually results in the rapid death of neurons within the immediate territory of the affected artery. Neuronal loss is accompanied by a sequence of events, including brain oedema, blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, and neuroinflammation, all of which contribute to further neuronal death. Although the role of macrophages and ...
San Sebastián W - - 2007
In non-human primates, striatal tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) cells are increased in number after dopamine depletion and in response to trophic factor delivery. As carotid body cells contain the dopaminotrophic glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), we evaluated the number, morphology and neurochemistry of these TH-ir cells, in the anterior and ...
Byrnes Kimberly R - - 2007
Following trauma or ischemia to the central nervous system (CNS), there is a marked increase in the expression of cell cycle-related proteins. This up-regulation is associated with apoptosis of post-mitotic cells, including neurons and oligodendrocytes, both in vitro and in vivo. Cell cycle activation also induces proliferation of astrocytes and ...
Bentz Kristine - - 2007
In the present study, we compare the capacity of two different embryonic stem (ES) cell lines to secrete neurotrophins in response to cerebral tissue extract derived from healthy or injured rat brains. The intrinsic capacity of the embryonic cell lines BAC7 (feeder cell-dependent cultivation) to release brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) ...
Xu Hangxiu - - 2007
To isolate and characterize progenitor cells derived from adult mammalian ciliary body. The authors isolated progenitor cells from the ciliary body of adult mice, rats, and human cadaver eyes and determined quantitative growth characteristics of groups of progenitor cells called neurosphere (NS) cells, including individual cell diameter, NS diameter, percentage ...
Song Cha-Kyong - - 2007
Olfactory cues are among the sensory inputs that crayfish use in establishing dominance hierarchies. Throughout their lives, new neurons are continuously added into brain cell clusters 9 and 10, which contain somata of olfactory local and projection interneurons, respectively. Using markers for DNA synthesis (bromodeoxyuridine) and mitosis (phospho-histone-3), we tested ...
Vaccarino Flora M - - 2007
Three main cellular components have been described in the CNS: neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. In the past 10 years, lineage studies first based on retroviruses in the embryonic CNS and then by genetic fate mapping in both the prenatal and postnatal CNS have proposed that astroglial cells can be progenitors ...
Raye Warren S - - 2007
The possibility exists that directed differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells is capable of yielding enriched populations of dopaminergic neurons, but at present there is little understanding of the pharmacological properties of these cells; or whether such cells represent a pharmacologically, phenotypically similar population. In this study we used ...
Kurkowska-Jastrzebska Iwona - - 2007
We investigated the influence of administration of autoimmune T cells on trimethyltin-induced degeneration of hippocampal neurons. Female Lewis rats received 8 mg/kg trimethyltin intraperitoneally alone, or followed 24 h later by a second intravenous injection of anti-myelin basic protein T cells (green fluorescent protein-tagged). Neurodegeneration was assessed by NeuN and ...
Beretti F - - 2007
1. Microglial cell activation occurs during brain injury, ischemia, and in several neurologic disorders. Recently, we isolated a transmissible cytotoxic activity (TCA) from the cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with brain ischemia. Such a TCA, associated with one or more protein(s) that supposedly had undergone in vivo misfolding, causes apoptosis ...
Wang Yi-bao - - 2007
To investigate the underlying basis for the selective modulation of the permeability of the blood-brain barrier by small doses of bradykinin, we first established cell lines of rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) and astrocytes by primary cultures from neonatal rats. BMECs, astrocytes and C6 glioma cells were treated with ...
Morris Daniel C - - 2007
Neurogenesis occurs in adult brain neural progenitor cells (NPCs) located in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle and the subgrandular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. After ischemic stroke, NPCs in the SVZ proliferate and migrate towards the ischemic boundary region to replenish damaged neurons. During development, the ...
Zhang Rui Lan - - 2007
Ischemic stroke induces neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ), and newly generated neurons in the SVZ migrate toward the ischemic boundary. However, the characteristics of migrating SVZ cells have not been investigated after stroke. Using time-lapse imaging in both SVZ cells and organotypic brain slice cultures, we measured the dynamics ...
Spector Reynold - - 2007
Detection of DNA synthesis in brain employing ((3)H)thymidine (((3)H)dT) or bromo deoxyuridine (BrdU) is widely used as a measure of the "birth" of cells in brain development, adult neurogenesis and neuronal stem cell replacement strategies. However, recent studies have raised serious questions about whether this methodology adequately measures the "birth" ...
Carmen Jessica - - 2007
The lineages of both astrocytes and oligodendrocytes have been popular areas of research in the last decade. The source of these cells in the mature CNS is relevant to the study of the cellular response to CNS injury. A significant amount of evidence exists to suggest that resident precursor cells ...
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