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Aponso P M - - 2008
The existence of endogenous progenitor cells in the adult mammalian brain presents an exciting and attractive alternative to existing therapeutic options for treating neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). However, prior to designing endogenous cell therapies, the effect of PD neuropathology on endogenous progenitor cell proliferation and their neurogenic ...
Peterson R Scott - - 2007
Estrogens can be neuroprotective following traumatic brain injury. Immediately after trauma to the zebra finch hippocampus, the estrogen-synthetic enzyme aromatase is rapidly upregulated in astrocytes and radial glia around the lesion site. Brain injury also induces high levels of cell proliferation. Estrogens promote neuronal differentiation, migration, and survival naturally in ...
Silies Marion - - 2007
Any complex nervous system is made out of two major cell types, neurons and glial cells. A hallmark of glial cells is their pronounced ability to migrate. En route to their final destinations, glial cells are generally guided by neuronal signals. Here we show that in the developing visual system ...
Wen Chiu-Ming - - 2008
Astroglial cell lines have many applications for advancing neural developmental and functional studies. However, few astroglial cell lines have been reported from fish. In this study, we report the characterization of the immortal cell line TB2 isolated from adult tilapia brain tissue. The cell line was established at 25 degrees ...
Haas Stefan Jean-Pierre - - 2008
Neural progenitor cell grafting is a promising therapeutic option in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. In previous experiments we grafted temperature-sensitive immortalized CSM14.1 cells, derived from the ventral mesencephalon of E14-rats, bilaterally in the caudate putamen of adult hemiparkinsonian rats. In these studies we were not able to demonstrate either ...
Wei Li-Chun - - 2008
Nestin is an embryonic intermediate filament that transiently expressed in the neural stem/progenitor cells in the developing central nervous system (CNS). Growing evidence has shown that abundant expression of nestin also occurs in both pathological glial-derived tumor cells and reactive astrocytes in various CNS injuries, implying that nestin may play ...
Sechi Leonardo A LA Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Sezione di Microbiologia Sperimentale e Clinica, Universita degli studi di Sassari, Viale S. Pietro 43/B, Sassari 07100, Italy. - - 2007
To establish the role of enteric glial cells during infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in Crohn's disease. In order to establish the role of enteric glial cells during infection with M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in Crohn's disease, Map adhesion experiments on enteric glial cells were performed as ...
Elshatory Yasser Y Department of Ophthalmology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14642, - - 2007
Whereas the mammalian retina possesses a repertoire of factors known to establish general retinal cell types, these factors alone cannot explain the vast diversity of neuronal subtypes. In other CNS regions, the differentiation of diverse neuronal pools is governed by coordinately acting LIM-homeodomain proteins including the Islet-class factor Islet-1 (Isl1). ...
Shi Fuxin - - 2007
In mammals, hair cells and auditory neurons lack the capacity to regenerate, and damage to either cell type can result in hearing loss. Replacement cells for regeneration could potentially be made by directed differentiation of human embryonic stem (hES) cells. To generate sensory neurons from hES cells, neural progenitors were ...
Boyan G S - - 2008
The commissures represent a major neuroarchitectural feature of the central nervous system of insects and vertebrates alike. The adult brain of the grasshopper comprises 72 such commissures, the first of which is established in the protocerebral midbrain by three sets of pioneer cells at around 30% of embryogenesis. These pioneers ...
von Hilchen Christian M - - 2008
Glial cells are crucial for the proper development and function of the nervous system. In the Drosophila embryo, the glial cells of the peripheral nervous system are generated both by central neuroblasts and sensory organ precursors. Most peripheral glial cells need to migrate along axonal projections of motor and sensory ...
Mertsch Sonja - - 2008
Slit and Robo proteins are evolutionarily conserved molecules whose interaction underlies axon guidance and neuronal precursor cell migration. During development secreted Slit proteins mediate chemorepulsive signals on cells expressing Robo receptors. Because similar molecular mechanisms may be utilized in glioma cell invasion and neuroblast migration, we studied the expression of ...
Politis Panagiotis K - - 2007
During development, coordinate regulation of cell cycle exit and differentiation of neuronal precursors is essential for generation of appropriate number of neurons and proper wiring of neuronal circuits. BM88 is a neuronal protein associated in vivo with terminal neuron-generating divisions, marking the exit of proliferative cells from the cell cycle. ...
Seehusen Frauke - - 2007
In canine distemper demyelinating leukoencephalitis (DL), caused by canine distemper virus (CDV), astrocytes represent the main virus target. In these cells, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the main intermediate filament, whereas vimentin occurs early in the astrocytic lineage and is replaced gradually by GFAP. To further characterize the role ...
Li Guangnan - - 2008
Mossy cells are the major class of excitatory neurons in the dentate hilus. Although mossy cells are involved in a range of physiological and pathological conditions, very little is known about their ontogeny. To gain insight into this issue, we first determined the developmental stage at which mossy cells can ...
Sheedlo Harold J - - 2007
A progenitor cell line was developed from a postnatal day 2 (P2) rat retina to study the effects of secreted proteins of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) on isolated retinal progenitor cells and markers for immature and differentiated retinal cells. Progenitor cells were cloned from a P2 explant grown in ...
Konopaske Glenn T GT Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, - - 2008
Both in vivo and postmortem studies suggest that oligodendrocyte and myelination alterations are present in individuals with schizophrenia. However, it is unclear whether prolonged treatment with antipsychotic medications contributes to these disturbances. We recently reported that chronic exposure of macaque monkeys to haloperidol or olanzapine was associated with a 10%-18% ...
Hong Sunghoi S Udall Parkinson's Disease Research Center of Excellence, McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, Massachusetts 02478, - - 2008
Human embryonic stem (hES) cells have the ability to renew themselves and differentiate into multiple cell types upon exposure to appropriate signals. In particular, the ability of hES cells to differentiate into defined neural lineages, such as neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, is fundamental to developing cell-based therapies for neurodegenerative disorders ...
Ahn Jung Min - - 2008
Neurospheres are potentially good tools to study olfactory neurogenesis. For this purpose, it is necessary to characterize neurospheres derived from the olfactory system. This study is aimed at identifying the regional difference of cellular composition within neurospheres derived from the adult mouse olfactory bulb, and studying whether these characteristics are ...
Hattori Noriko - - 2007
Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs) proliferate vigorously as neurospheres in medium containing basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2), but start differentiating into neurons, astrocytes or oligodendrocytes in FGF-2-free medium. An extract of royal jelly (RJ) significantly increased the percentage in the total cell population of not only neurons immunoreactive for class III ...
Wu Minghua - - 2007
LRRC4, leucine-rich repeat C4 protein, has been identified in human (GenBank accession No. AF196976), mouse (GenBank accession No. DQ177325), rat (GenBank accession No. DQ119102) and bovine (GenBank accession No. DQ164537) with identical domains. In terms of their similarity, the genes encoding LRRC4 in these four mammalian species are orthogs and ...
Chung R S - - 2007
Metallothionein (MT) expression is rapidly up-regulated following CNS injury, and there is a strong correlation between the presence or absence of MTand improved or impaired (respectively) recovery from such trauma.We now report that a distinct subset of NG2-positive, GFAP-negative glial cells bordering the injury tract express MT following focal injury ...
Agoston V A - - 2007
Cell-replacement therapy promises a useful tool to regenerate compromised brain tissue, but the interaction between grafted cells and host tissues is not well understood. In these studies, the fates of neuroectodermal stem cells were compared in 'healthy' or damaged mouse forebrains. One-cell derived, fluorescent GFP-4C neural stem cells were implanted ...
Oh Hyun-Sik - - 2008
OBJECTS: Balloon cells are histopathological hallmarks of cortical malformations, i.e., focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) of the Taylor type or the cortical tubers of tuberous sclerosis, and they are believed to be the epileptogenic substrate and cause therapeutic drug resistant epilepsy in man. This study was carried out to investigate the ...
Guillemot François F National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, NW7 1AA London, UK. - - 2007
The vertebrate central nervous system contains a great diversity of neurons and glial cells, which are generated in the embryonic neural tube at specific times and positions. Several classes of transcription factors have been shown to control various steps in the differentiation of progenitor cells in the neural tube and ...
Trülzsch Barbara - - 2007
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a common neurodegenerative disease that is caused by mutations in the survival of motor neuron gene (SMN), leading to reduced levels of the SMN protein in affected individuals. In SMA, motor neurons selectively degenerate, however, the mechanism of cell death and the precise role of ...
Langer D - - 2007
Subventricular zone (SVZ)-derived adult neurospheres express two ectonucleotidases, nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 2 (NTPDase2) and tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP). Agonists of the nucleotide receptors P2Y(1) and P2Y(2) as well as adenosine augment growth factor-mediated progenitor cell proliferation. NTPDase2 converts ATP and UTP to ADP and UDP, respectively, which are all ...
Roy Avik A Department of Neurological Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, - - 2007
Increasing the level of neurotrophins within the central nervous system may have therapeutic efficacy in patients with various neurological diseases. Earlier we have demonstrated that myelin basic protein (MBP)-primed T cells induce the expression of various proinflammatory molecules in glial cells via cell-to-cell contact. Here we describe that after Th2 ...
Smorodchenko Alina - - 2007
Invasion of autoreactive T-cells and alterations of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) represent early pathological manifestations of multiple sclerosis and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Non-CNS-specific T-cells are also capable of entering the CNS. However, studies investigating the spatial pattern of BBB alterations as well as the exact localization ...
Guo Mingquan - - 2007
Phosphatidylserine (PS), the major acidic phospholipid class in eukaryotic biomembranes, plays an important role in various signaling pathways. We have previously demonstrated that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) positively modulates PS biosynthesis and accumulation in neuronal cells, promoting survival. In this paper, we demonstrate that the increase of PS levels upon ...
Lamparello Phillip - - 2007
Focal cortical dysplasia type IIB with Ballon cells is a developmental malformation of the cerebral cortex highly associated with epilepsy. As a strategy to define the embryonic origin and neurochemical phenotype of cells in this disease, we probed specimens (n = 10) resected during epilepsy surgery with a panel of ...
Meunier Alice - - 2008
Activated glial cells in the dorsal spinal cord take an important part in the development of pain after peripheral nerve injury. Our understanding of mechanisms involved in functional changes of spinal glia remains incomplete. Excepting drugs that completely disrupt glial function, pharmacological studies fail to target glia and to modify ...
Bassotti Gabrio - - 2007
The role of enteric glial cells has somewhat changed from that of mere mechanical support elements, gluing together the various components of the enteric nervous system, to that of active participants in the complex interrelationships of the gut motor and inflammatory events. Due to their multiple functions, spanning from supporting ...
Shanley Daniel K - - 2007
Cell surface markers of neuronal precursor cells are of interest since they allow the isolation of these cells from mixed populations of cells. The monoclonal antibody (mAb) 2F7, a cell surface marker, has been shown to label neuronal precursors and post-mitotic neurones in the embryonic rat spinal cord and cortex. ...
Moleres Francisco J - - 2007
The cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is a membrane-bound glycoprotein abundantly expressed in neurons and glial cells within the CNS. The scrapie prion protein (PrP(Sc)) is a conformationally altered isoform of PrP(C) that is responsible for prion diseases, also termed transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), a group of neurodegenerative diseases that affect ...
Byrnes Kimberly R - - 2007
Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes delayed secondary biochemical alterations that lead to tissue loss and associated neurological dysfunction. Up-regulation of cell cycle proteins occurs in both neurons and glia after SCI and may contribute to these changes. The present study examined the role of cell cycle activation on secondary injury ...
Tamura Y - - 2007
Glutathione S-transferase (GST)-pi is a cytosolic isoenzyme used as a marker for mature oligodendrocytes in the mammalian brain. However, the cellular properties of GST-pi-immunoreactive [GST-pi (+)] cells in adult brain are not completely understood. We immunohistochemically demonstrated the existence of two subtypes of GST-pi (+) cells in the cerebral cortex ...
Man Pui-Sin PS School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, P.O. Box 911, Museum Avenue, Cardiff, CF10 3US, - - 2008
Egr-1 is a plasticity-related transcription factor that has been implicated in circadian regulation of the pineal gland. In the present study we have investigated the cellular expression pattern of Egr-1 in the adult rat pineal. Egr-1 protein is restricted to the nucleus of a sub-population of cells. These cells were ...
Ono Yuichi - - 2007
Directed differentiation and purification of mesencephalic dopaminergic (mesDA) neurons from stem cells are crucial issues for realizing safe and efficient cell transplantation therapies for Parkinson's disease. Although recent studies have identified the factors that regulate mesDA neuron development, the mechanisms underlying mesDA neuron specification are not fully understood. Recently, it ...
Aguirre Adan A Center for Neuroscience Research, Children's National Medical Center, 111 Michigan Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20010, USA. - - 2007
Neural progenitor cells that express the NG2 proteoglycan are present in different regions of the adult mammalian brain where they display distinct morphologies and proliferative rates. In the developing postnatal and adult mouse, NG2(+) cells represent a major cell population of the subventricular zone (SVZ). NG2(+) cells divide in the ...
Stipursky Joice - - 2007
Radial glial (RG) cells are specialized type of cell, which functions as neuronal precursors and scaffolding guides to migrating neurons during cerebral cortex development. After neurogenesis and migration are completed, most of RG cells transform into astrocytes. Mechanism and molecules involved in this process are not completely elucidated. We previously ...
Costa Carme - - 2007
Aquaporins (AQP) are a family of transmembrane proteins that act as water selective channels. AQP1 and AQP4 are widely expressed in the central nervous system where they play several roles. Overexpression of AQP has been reported in some human and animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, but information is scanty about their ...
Ina Ayuka - - 2007
In the light of the various neurobiological effects of glutamate in brain development, although some embryonic cells are a probable source of glutamate involved in the development of precursor cells and/or immature neurons, little is known about when and where glutamate plays its crucial roles during corticogenesis. To investigate these ...
Kapoor Nidhi - - 2007
Studies initiated to investigate the distribution of cytochrome P450 2B (CYP2B) isoenzymes in rat brain cells revealed significant activity of CYP2B-dependent 7-pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (PROD) in microsomes prepared from both, cultured rat brain neuronal and glial cells. Neuronal cells exhibited 2-fold higher activity of PROD than the glial cells. RT-PCR and immunocytochemical ...
Zheng Hong - - 2007
In C. elegans, ectopic expression of the UNC-5 netrin receptor is sufficient to cause repulsion of growth cones and cells away from ventral sources of the UNC-6/netrin guidance cue. A genetic suppressor screen identified the seu-1 gene as required for repulsion of touch neuron growth cones ectopically expressing unc-5. We ...
Ishibashi Satoru - - 2007
Galectin-1 (Gal-1) has recently been identified as a key molecule that plays important roles in the regulation of neural progenitor cell proliferation in two neurogenic regions: the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle and the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. To test the hypothesis that Gal-1 contributes ...
Chopp Michael - - 2008
The injured brain can be stimulated to amplify its intrinsic restorative processes to improve neurological function. Thus, after stroke, both cell and pharmacological neurorestorative treatments, amplify the induction of brain neurogenesis and angiogenesis, and thereby reduce neurological deficits. In this manuscript, we describe the use of bone marrow mesenchymal cells ...
Gibney Sinead M - - 2007
Studies on the isolation and propagation of multipotent neural precursors as neurospheres suggest their potential use in the reconstitution of neurons and oligodendrocytes in neurodegenerative diseases. To ensure that an adequate number of functionally relevant cells are present after transplantation, in vitro manipulation of cell fate before transplantation may be ...
Hayashi T - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: Platelet derived-endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF) is a highly potent angiogenic factor. Although angiogenesis plays an active role in pathophysiology of stroke, the expression pattern of this molecule in ischemic brain has not been investigated. In the present study, therefore, we investigated the change of PD-ECGF expression in the ...
Elshatory Yasser Y Center for Aging and Developmental Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14642, - - 2007
The mammalian retina is comprised of six major neuronal cell types and is subdivided into more morphological and physiological subtypes. The transcriptional machinery underlying these subtype fate choices is largely unknown. The LIM-homeodomain protein, Isl1, plays an essential role in central nervous system (CNS) differentiation but its relationship to retinal ...
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