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Delaunay Delphine - - 2008
The question of how neurons and glial cells are generated during the development of the CNS has over time led to two alternative models: either neuroepithelial cells are capable of giving rise to neurons first and to glial cells at a later stage (switching model), or they are intrinsically committed ...
Wang Beibei - - 2008
Effective cell replacement therapies for neurological disease require neuron-restricted precursors as grafted cells. The problem of obtaining sufficient grafts for transplantation can be resolved by creating an appropriate immortalized cell line. In the present study, a thermally controlled immortalized GABAergic neuronal progenitor cell line (RMNE6) was established from E13 rat ...
Hoppe Barbara - - 2008
Selenium is present in various biologically important selenoproteins. The preferential incorporation of selenium into the brain indicates its significance for this organ, but so far knowledge concerning the cerebral selenoproteome is scarce. We therefore investigated the expression of selenoproteins in various regions of the rat brain, various subcellular fractions and ...
Irvin Dwain K - - 2008
The degeneration of neurons in the mammalian brain is commonly associated with the division of cells located in the damaged area. The aim of the present study has been to characterise the phenotype of newly born cells in the striatum of adult rats following 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the nigro-striatal pathway. ...
Glavaski-Joksimovic Aleksandra - - 2008
The poor regeneration capability of the mammalian hearing organ has initiated different approaches to enhance its functionality after injury. To evaluate a potential neuronal repair paradigm in the inner ear and cochlear nerve we have previously used embryonic neuronal tissue and stem cells for implantation in vivo and in vitro. ...
Clemente D - - 2008
NADPH-diaphorase (ND) positive cell types were characterized throughout the optic nerve of the tench in normal conditions and after optic nerve transection with survival periods of 1, 3, 7, 14, 30, 60, 120 and 180 days. Astrocytic markers (S100 and glutamine synthetase) and the microglial marker tomato lectin were employed. ...
Hua Rui - - 2008
A cortical lesion was induced by disrupting the medium-size pial vessels, which led to a cone-shaped cortical lesion and turned into a fluid-filled cavity surrounded by a glial acidic fibrillary protein-positive (GFAP(+)) glia limitans 21 days after injury. Therefore, it mimics conditions of lacunar infarctions, one of the most frequent ...
Takeda Masumi M The Schepens Eye Research Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, - - 2008
Retinal Müller glia in higher vertebrates have been reported to possess progenitor cell properties and the ability to generate new neurons after injury. This study was conducted to determine the signals that can activate this dormant capacity of Müller glia in adult mice, by studying their behavior during glutamate stimulation. ...
Andersen Rikke K - - 2008
Tissue blocks containing neural precursor cells were isolated from the rat forebrain subventricular zone (SVZ) and ventral mesencephalon (VM) and propagated as neural tissue-spheres (NTS). In the presence of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) and epidermal growth factor (EGF), SVZ-derived NTS were propagated and maintained for more than 6 months with ...
Buffo Annalisa - - 2008
Reactive gliosis is the universal reaction to brain injury, but the precise origin and subsequent fate of the glial cells reacting to injury are unknown. Astrocytes react to injury by hypertrophy and up-regulation of the glial-fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Whereas mature astrocytes do not normally divide, a subpopulation of the ...
Pringproa Kidsadagon - - 2008
The understanding of oligodendrocyte differentiation is crucial for designing therapies of demyelinating diseases. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells are of particular interest in this context, because of their remyelinating potential. Permanent cell lines, which are a versatile tool for studying oligodendrocyte physiology, have been so far mainly established from the rat CNS. ...
Peng Ying - - 2008
l-3-n-Butylphthalide (l-NBP), as an anti-cerebral ischemia agent, has been shown to have therapeutic effects on learning and memory deficits induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion and Abeta intracerebroventricular infusion in rats. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of l-NBP on beta-amyloid (Abeta)25-35-induced neuronal death/apoptosis and potential mechanisms in ...
Uebing-Czipura A Ulrike - - 2008
Crucial aspects in the development of in vitro neuropathogenic disease model systems are the identification, characterization and continuous mitotic expansion of cultured neuronal cells. To facilitate long-term cultivation, we immortalized porcine olfactory neuronally restricted progenitor cells by genomic insertion of a cDNA encoding the catalytic subunit of the human telomerase ...
Holmøy T - - 2008
The inflammatory process in ALS involves infiltration of T cells and activation of antigen presenting cells co-localizing with motor neuron damage in the brain and spinal cord. The role of T cells in the pathogenic process is not settled. T cells may damage motor neurons by cell-cell contact or cytokine ...
Natori Takamitsu - - 2008
Chondroitin sulfate (CS), which is known to be a neurite-preventing molecule, is a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the central nervous system (CNS). The CS expression is upregulated around damaged areas. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress causes neuronal cell death in numerous neurodegenerative diseases. However, the effects of ...
Uchida, Kazuyuki
A solitary brain mass of a 4-month-old miniature dachshund showing seizure-like neurological signs was examined histopathologically. At necropsy a white tumor mass, replacing the thalamus, approximately 1.5 cm in diameter, was found. There was cystic space filled with yellowish pale fluid in the central area of the tumor mass. Histopathological ...
Ciba P - - 2008
In vitro cultures of native fish cell lines are of great importance, both for basic research and applied science. In particular, there is strong demand for long-term growable cell lines from breeding fish, like sturgeon. Here, we describe the culture of cells from Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) head kidney. The ...
Korzhevskii D E - - 2008
Nestin, an intermediate filament protein, is known to be expressed in proliferating and provisional cells in the forming mammalian brain, disappearing on differentiation. The aim of the present work was to identify the morphological types and locations of cells regaining the ability to synthesize nestin after transient total brain ischemia ...
Kitayama Hiroko - - 2008
Macrophages or microglial cells are the major target cells for HIV-1 infection in the brain. The infected cells release neurotoxic factors that may cause severe neuronal cell damage, especially in the basal ganglia and hippocampus. In this study, we used rat OHC to examine the region-specific neuronal cell damage caused ...
Kawashima Koichiro - - 2008
Acetylcholine (ACh) is a phylogenetically ancient molecule involved in cell-to-cell signaling in almost all life-forms on earth. Cholinergic components, including ACh, choline acetyltransferase, acetylcholinesterase, and muscarinic and nicotinic ACh receptors (mAChRs and nAChRs, respectively) have been identified in numerous non-neuronal cells and tissues, including keratinocytes, cancer cells, immune cells, urinary ...
Zhang Jian-Min - - 2008
The hippocampus is a key brain region regulating complex cognitive and emotional responses, and is implicated in the etiology of depressive and anxiety disorders, many of which exhibit some degree of sex difference. The male rat hippocampus is consistently reported to be slightly but significantly larger than the female. The ...
Gómez-Climent María Angeles - - 2008
New neurons in the adult brain transiently express molecules related to neuronal development, such as the polysialylated form of neural cell adhesion molecule, or doublecortin (DCX). These molecules are also expressed by a cell population in the rat paleocortex layer II, whose origin, phenotype, and function are not clearly understood. ...
Morita Kyoji - - 2008
Tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are considered in theory to induce the outflow of neurotransmitters, norepinephrine, and serotonin from the synapses as a consequence of inhibiting their reuptake into the nerve terminals, resulting in the stimulation of glial cells surrounding the synapses in the brain. Then, we have ...
Hirrlinger Petra G - - 2008
Glial cells are proposed to play a major role in the ionic and osmotic homeostasis in the CNS. Swelling of glial cells contributes to the development of edema in neural tissue under pathological conditions such as trauma and ischemia. In this study, we compared the osmotic swelling characteristics of murine ...
Tanaka Tatsuhide - - 2008
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a survival factor for many neuronal cell types and has wide ranging effects within the central nervous system. To investigate the expression of the GDNF gene in immune cell lines under inflammatory conditions, we pharmacologically estimated the induction of GDNF mRNA in RAW264.7 ...
Fiedorowicz Anna - - 2008
NG2+, stellate cells present in the adult central nervous system (CNS) have been recently recognized as a distinct glial class, identified as multipotent progenitor cells. Antigenically, they are indistinguishable from oligodendroglia progenitor cells. In response to a variety of CNS insults, these cells become rapidly activated and undergo morphological changes ...
Sulik Artur - - 2008
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are capable of degrading components of the basal lamina of cerebral vessels, thereby disrupting the blood-brain barrier and inducing leukocyte recruitment. This study provides comprehensive information regarding the cell specificity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-9) and their binding tissue inhibitors (TIMP-1, TIMP-2) in the central nervous system ...
Tracy E - - 2008
BACKGROUND: As human umbilical cord blood (UCB) is known to be a rich source of progenitor cells, the prospect of isolating a subset of these cells that could differentiate into cells of non-hematopoietic lineages suggests a therapeutic use for patients with inherited lysosomal and peroxisomal storage diseases currently treated with ...
Butz Markus - - 2008
Adult neurogenesis is a key feature of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). Neurogenesis is accompanied by synaptogenesis as new cells become integrated into the circuitry of the hippocampus. However, little is known to what extent the embedding of new neurons rewires the pre-existing network. Here we investigate synaptic rewiring in ...
Kala Kaia - - 2008
We describe here a transgenic mouse line MHB-Cre, which expresses Cre recombinase in a group of cells at the midbrain-hindbrain boundary. Using this mouse line, we studied the contribution of the boundary cells to distinct brain areas during development. Initially, the MHB-Cre expression coincides with that of Cdh22 and p21 ...
Mione Marina - - 2008
We used transgenic zebrafish expressing GFP or YFP in subpopulations of neurons to study the migration, homing process and axon extension of groups of CNS neurons in different regions of the zebrafish brain. We found that extensive migration takes place at all levels of the CNS and gives rise to ...
Ayuso-Sacido Angel - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Many common neurosurgical procedures, including anterior temporal lobectomy and endoscopic ventricular puncture, allow neurosurgeons to retrieve portions of the germinal subventricular zone (SVZ). Isolation and maintenance of precursor cells from this zone can be used for hypothesis-driven experiments with a goal of improving our understanding of the basic mechanisms ...
Riley Jonathan - - 2008
Recent advances in the laboratory have improved the current understanding of neurobiological mechanisms underlying the initiating events and pathological progression observed in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Whereas initial studies have revealed the late-stage intracellular cascades contributing to neuronal dysfunction and cell death, more recently collected data have begun to elucidate ...
Massi Paola - - 2008
In the last few years the role and significance of the glia in CNS function and pathology have been drastically reassessed. Glial cells physiology appears very different in healthy versus pathological brain and the recent identification of cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands in glia has triggered a number of ...
Parker Graham C - - 2008
Progressive spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), the most prevalent hereditary lower motor neuron disease, is caused by mutations in the telomeric copy of the survival of motor neuron (SMN1) gene. Unlike other cells, lower motor neurons cannot tolerate low levels of smn protein. However, it is unclear as to the nature ...
Clarke Robert - - 2008
In this paper and video, we describe the protocols used in our laboratory to study the targeting preferences of regenerating cell processes of adult retinal neurons in vitro. Procedures for preparing retinal cell cultures start with the dissection, digestion and trituration of the retina, and end with the plating of ...
Minden Jonathan - - 2008
The Drosophila brain is generated by a complex series of morphogenetic movements. To better understand brain development and to provide a guide for experimental manipulation of brain progenitors, we created a fate map using photoactivated gene expression to mark cells originating within specific mitotic domains and time-lapse microscopy to dynamically ...
Nagai Atsushi - - 2008
Cystatin C Leu68Gln variant is known to induce amyloid deposition in cerebral arterioles, resulting in Icelandic type cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Wild-type cystatin C is also observed in solitary CAA involving amyloid beta protein (Abeta), and accelerates the amyloidogenicity of Abeta in vitro. In neurological inflammatory diseases and leptomeningeal metastasis, ...
Yen B Linju - - 2008
Stem cells have great potential for clinical application because of their self-renewal property and ability to differentiate into many types of cells, but because there are ethical and biological limitations with current sources of stem cells, the search continues for more suitable sources of multipotent cells. We have reported previously ...
Sosunov Alexander A - - 2008
PURPOSE: Cortical tubers are epileptogenic lesions in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Giant cells and dysplastic neurons are pathological hallmarks of cortical tubers. Severe astrogliosis, which is invariably present in tubers, has attracted much less attention. We hypothesize that the development of astrogliosis in cortical tubers constitutes a primary ...
Hua Ya - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Our previous studies have demonstrated that argatroban, a specific thrombin inhibitor, reduces brain edema and neurological deficits in rat glioma models. The present study investigated whether or not thrombin enhances glioma growth in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: There were two parts in this study. In the first part, ...
Reich Doreen M - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The therapeutic capacity of human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (HUCB-MNC) and stem cells derived thereof is documented in animal models of focal cerebral ischemia, while mechanisms behind the reduction of lesion size and the observed improvement of behavioral skills still remain poorly understood. METHODS: A human in vitro ...
Kondziolka Douglas - - 2008
Stroke is a common cause of death and disability. The role of cellular transplantation to promote functional recovery has been explored. Preclinical studies first established the potential for cultured neuronal cells derived from a teratocarcinoma cell line to be tested for safety and efficacy in the treatment of human stroke. ...
Hartenstein Volker - - 2008
In this chapter we will start out by describing in more detail the progenitors of the nervous system, the neuroblasts and ganglion mother cells. Subsequently we will survey the generic cell types that make up the developing Drosophila brain, namely neurons, glial cells and tracheal cells. Finally, we will attempt ...
Witusik Monika - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Although extensive research has been performed to control differentiation of neural stem cells - still, the response of those cells to diverse cell culture conditions often appears to be random and difficult to predict. To this end, we strived to obtain stabilized protocol of NHA cells differentiation - allowing ...
Politis Panagiotis K - - 2008
During development, co-ordinate regulation of cell cycle exit and differentiation of neuronal precursors is essential for generation of appropriate number of neurons and proper wiring of neuronal circuits. Recent studies have identified some of the molecules implicated in the regulation of these cellular events, but the complex machinery that orchestrates ...
Rekha Arcot - - 2008
Paragangliomas are uncommon neck swellings, usually associated with hypertension and flushing. They occur in the neck and other amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation cell rests, and are a challenge to the anesthetist at the time of excision.
Clelland Claire D CD Cambridge Centre for Brain Repair, Forvie Site, Robinson Way, Cambridge CB2 2PY, United - - 2008
Huntington disease (HD), caused by polyglutamate expansions in the huntingtin protein, is a progressive neurodegenerative disease resulting in cognitive and motor impairments and death. Neuronal dysfunction and degeneration contribute to progressive physiological, motor, cognitive, and emotional disturbances characteristic of HD. A major impetus for research into the treatment of HD ...
Laabs Tracy L - - 2007
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are upregulated in the CNS after injury and participate in the inhibition of axon regeneration mainly through their glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains. In the present study, we have identified a new way to alleviate the inhibition of axonal regeneration by CSPG GAGs. We have successfully decreased ...
Yen B Linju - - 2007
Stem cells have great potential for clinical application because of their self-renewal property and ability to differentiate into many types of cells, but because there are ethical and biological limitations with current sources of stem cells, the search continues for more suitable sources of multipotent cells. We have reported previously ...
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