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Leung Jacqueline M JM Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, United States of America ; Program in Cellular, Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, United States of - - 2014
T. gondii uses substrate-dependent gliding motility to invade cells of its hosts, egress from these cells at the end of its lytic cycle and disseminate through the host organism during infection. The ability of the parasite to move is therefore critical for its virulence. T. gondii engages in three distinct ...
Egarter Saskia S Wellcome Trust Centre for Molecular Parasitology, Institute of Infection, Immunity & Inflammation, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United - - 2014
Apicomplexan parasites are thought to actively invade the host cell by gliding motility. This movement is powered by the parasite's own actomyosin system, and depends on the regulated polymerisation and depolymerisation of actin to generate the force for gliding and host cell penetration. Recent studies demonstrated that Toxoplasma gondii can ...
Brizuela Mariana M The Menzies Research Institute Tasmania, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, - - 2014
The human erythrocyte contains an abundance of the thiol-dependant peroxidase Peroxiredoxin-2 (Prx2), which protects the cell from the pro-oxidant environment it encounters during its 120 days of life in the blood stream. In malarial infections, the Plasmodium parasite invades red cells and imports Prx2 during intraerythrocytic development, presumably to supplement ...
Sharma Pushkar - - 2013
The ability of Apicomplexan parasites to invade host cells is key to their survival and pathogenesis. Plasmodium and Toxoplasma parasites share common mechanisms for invasion of host cells. Secretion of microneme and rhoptry proteins, tight junction formation and assembly of an acto-myosin motor are key steps for successful invasion by ...
Rub Abdur - - 2013
Host-lipidome caters parasite interaction by acting as first line of recognition, attachment on the cell surface, intracellular trafficking, and survival of the parasite inside the host cell. Here, we summarize how protozoan parasites exploit host-lipidome by suppressing, augmenting, engulfing, remodeling and metabolizing lipids to achieve successful parasitism inside the host.
Goo Youn-Kyoung - - 2013
Host cell invasion by apicomplexan parasites driven by gliding motility and empowered by actin-based movement is essential for parasite survival and pathogenicity. The parasites share a conserved invasion process: actin-based motility led by the coordination of adhesin-cytoskeleton via aldolase. A number of studies of host cell invasion in the Plasmodium ...
Meissner Markus - - 2013
Apicomplexa are obligate intracellular parasites that cause several human and veterinary diseases worldwide. In contrast to most intracellular pathogens these protozoans are believed to invade a rather passive host cell in a process, that is, tightly linked to the ability of the parasites to move by gliding motility. Indeed specific ...
Del Portillo Hernando A - - 2013
During the blood stage of their life cycle, malaria parasites invade and replicate within host erythrocytes. Some parasites differentiate to form male and female gametocytes, enabling transmission to the insect vector. Two studies by Regev-Rudzki et al. and Mantel et al. reveal an unexpected role for cell-cell communication using extracellular vesicles in ...
Hartmann Anne A Departments of Molecular Parasitology, Humboldt University, 10115 Berlin, - - 2013
cAMP research in intracellular parasites remains underappreciated, and it requires a specific method for cyclic nucleotide regulation. Optogenetic induction of cAMP in T. gondii affects host-cell invasion, stage-specific expression, and parasite differentiation. The underlying method allows a versatile control of parasite cAMP. Optogenetic parasite strains offer valuable tools for dissecting ...
Twu Olivia O Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California, United States of - - 2013
Trichomonas vaginalis is a common sexually transmitted parasite that colonizes the human urogential tract where it remains extracellular and adheres to epithelial cells. Infections range from asymptomatic to highly inflammatory, depending on the host and the parasite strain. Here, we use a combination of methodologies including cell fractionation, immunofluorescence and ...
Kimura Risa - - 2012
In the cytoplasm of Plasmodium falciparum, two peroxiredoxins: PfTPx-1 and Pf1-Cys-Prx, are expressed at different time-points of the parasite cell cycle during the intraerythrocytic stage. In the present study, to gain insight into the functions of Prxs in the cytoplasm of P. falciparum, we investigated the heat stress sensitivity of ...
Combrinck Jill M - - 2013
By using cell fractionation and measurement of Fe(III)heme-pyridine, the antimalarial chloroquine (CQ) has been shown to cause a dose-dependent decrease in hemozoin and concomitant increase in toxic free heme in cultured Plasmodium falciparum that is directly correlated with parasite survival. Transmission electron microscopy techniques have further shown that heme is ...
Barrand Margery A - - 2012
Glutathione export from uninfected human erythrocytes was compared with that from cells infected with the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, using two separate methods that distinguish between oxidised (GSSG) and reduced (GSH) glutathione. One involved enzymatic recycling with or without thiol-masking; the other involved rapid derivatization followed by HPLC. Glutathione efflux ...
Lutkenhaus Joe J Department of Microbiology, Molecular Genetics and Immunology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas. - - 2012
Ancestral homologues of the major eukaryotic cytoskeletal families, tubulin and actin, play critical roles in cytokinesis of bacterial cells. FtsZ is the ancestral homologue of tubulin and assembles into the Z ring that determines the division plane. FtsA, a member of the actin family, is involved in coordinating cell wall ...
Chen Zhi-hui ZH College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD15EH, - - 2012
Cyclic di-(3′:5′)-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a major prokaryote signalling intermediate that is synthesized by diguanylate cyclases and triggers sessility and biofilm formation. We detected the first eukaryote diguanylate cyclases in all major groups of Dictyostelia. On food depletion, Dictyostelium discoideum amoebas collect into aggregates, which first transform into migrating slugs ...
Hung Chin-Sheng - - 2012
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an essential role in mediating gene expression in both normal and malignant cells. However, little is known about specific miRNAs during the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from well-differentiated to poorly differentiated cells. METHODS: We performed miRNA array analysis of three different HCC cell lines: HepG2, ...
Wright Belinda K - - 2012
NADH is a naturally fluorescent metabolite associated with cellular respiration. Exploiting the different fluorescence lifetime of free and bound NADH has the potential to quantify the relative amount of bound and free NADH, enhancing understanding of cellular processes including apoptosis, cancer pathology, and enzyme kinetics. We use the phasor-fluorescence lifetime ...
Velazquez Elsa F - - 2012
Penile squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and their corresponding precancerous lesions can be classified in 2 major groups: human papillomavirus (HPV) related and HPV unrelated. In the former (warty and basaloid SCC), there is a predominance of undifferentiated basaloid cells. In the latter (eg, usual, papillary, and verrucous SCC), the predominant ...
Lickert Heiko - - 2012
Cell polarity is essential to the function of many cell types, such as epithelial cells and neurons. The Discs large (Dlg) scaffolding protein was identified in Drosophila as a major regulator of basolateral epithelial identity. Four Dlg orthologs (Dlg1 through 4) are found in vertebrates, and mutations in the human ...
Fang Likui - - 2012
As an important agronomic trait, leaf rolling in rice (Oryza sativa L.) has attracted much attention from plant biologists and breeders. Moderate leaf rolling increases the amount of photosynthesis in cultivars and hence raises grain yield. Here, we describe the map-based cloning of the gene RL14, which was found to ...
Renault Marie - - 2012
A peek inside: Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) enhances the spectroscopic sensitivity of solid-state NMR measurements of uniformly ((13) C,(15) N)- labeled preparations of Escherichia coli cells by more than an order of magnitude (see picture; MW=microwaves, ε=enhancement factor). The major molecular components in the cells can be characterized in this ...
Togashi Tatsuya - - 2012
We isolated protoplasts from male and female gametophytes of a strictly dioecious strain of the coenocytic marine green alga Bryopsis plumosa. The protoplasts successfully developed into macrothalli. These in turn produced swimming cells, which appeared similar to biflagellated gametes even when the mixed protoplasts were comprised of protoplasm from male ...
Almli Lynn M - - 2012
Gonadal steroid hormones have been shown to influence adult neurogenesis in addition to their well-defined role in regulating social behavior. Adult neurogenesis consists of several processes including cell proliferation, which can be studied via 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling. In a previous study we found that social stimulation altered both cell proliferation ...
Grzybowski Marcin M - - 2012
Ubiquitous parasite of humans and endothermic animals Toxoplasma gondii (type Apicomplexa), identified by Nicolle and Manceaux over 100 years ago, is still an object of numerous extensive studies bringing very interesting and often even surprising observations as that announced in the title [1].
Ishizaka Yukihito - - 2012
Approximately 42% of the human genome is composed of endogenous retroelements, and the major retroelement component, long interspersed element-1 (L1), comprises ∼17% of the total genome. A single human cell has more than 5 × 10(5) copies of L1, 80∼100 copies of which are competent for retrotransposition (RTP). Notably, L1 can induce ...
Huvet Arnaud - - 2011
We investigated the role of oyster gonadal TGFβ (og-TGFβ) in the reproduction of Crassostrea gigas, using an in vivo RNA interference approach. We designed double-stranded RNA targeting og-TGFβ, which is specifically expressed in the somatic cells surrounding germ cells in the gonad of both male and female oysters. In vivo ...
Niblock Mary M - - 2011
The retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) is thought to regulate breathing in response to changes in blood carbon dioxide (CO(2)), and to make a vital contribution to respiratory drive, especially during sleep. However, cells in the female RTN fail to upregulate c-fos in response to low level CO(2) exposure, while cells in ...
Kessler Sharon A - - 2011
In angiosperms, the sperm cells are carried within the pollen tubes (male gametophytes) to the female gametophyte so that double fertilization can occur. The female gametophyte exerts control over the male, with specialized cells known as synergids guiding the pollen tubes and controlling their behavior when they enter the female ...
Casper Abbie L AL Biology Department, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, - - 2011
Male and female germ cells follow distinct developmental paths with respect to germline stem cell (GSC) production and the types of differentiated progeny they produce (sperm versus egg). An essential aspect of germline development is how sexual identity is used to differentially regulate the male and female germ cell genomes ...
Wittmann Walter - - 2011
There is a male bias in the size of the cerebellum, with males on average having more Purkinje cells than females. The critical periods in cerebellum development occur when the immature testes secrete Müllerian inhibiting Substance (MIS, synonym anti-Müllerian hormone) but only trace levels of testosterone. This suggests that the ...
Ben-Yosef Dalit - - 2012
The factors limiting the rather inefficient derivation of human embryonic stem cells (HESCs) are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to analyze the sex ratio in our 42 preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)-HESC lines, in an attempt to verify its affect on the establishment of HESC lines. The ...
Hano Takeshi - - 2011
We evaluated the effects of 17(-ethinylestradiol (EE(2)) on sexual differentiation in transgenic olvas-GFP/STII-YI medaka (Oryzias latipes) in terms of the proliferative activity of germ cells. This strain contains the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene fused to the regulatory region of the medaka vasa gene, and germ cell-specific expression of GFP ...
Golec Piotr - - 2010
Bacteriophage T4 is able to adjust its development to the growth parameters of the host cell. Here, we present evidence for production of two different subpopulations of phage particles, which differ in ability to infect starved cells of Escherichia coli. The ability of phage T4 to produce the fraction of ...
Franco-Vidal Leticia - - 2011
Specific growth rates of heterotrophic bacterioplankton have been frequently estimated from in situ bacterial production (BP) to biomass (BB) ratios, using a series of assumptions that may result in serious discrepancies with values obtained from predator-free cultures. Here, we used both types of approaches together with a comprehensive assessment of ...
Jaeschke Holger - - 2010
Constitutively activating mutations (CAMs) of the TSHR are the major cause for nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism. Re-examination of constitutive activity previously determined in CHO cell lines recently demonstrated the caveats for the in vitro determination of constitutive TSHR activity, which leads to false positive conclusions regarding the molecular origin of hyperthyroidism or ...
Langman Gerald - - 2011
Pleomorphic adenoma is a benign salivary gland neoplasm with a diverse morphology. This is considered to be a function of the neoplastic myoepithelium, which shows histological and immunophenotypical variability. Wilms' tumor 1 gene (WT1) protein, involved in bidirectional mesenchymal-epithelial transition, has been detected by reverse transcription PCR in salivary gland ...
Palaniyandi S - - 2011
Oral complications of salivary hypofunction often afflict cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancers. Dry mouth or xerostomia is an undesirable consequence of radiotherapy that compromises normal oral functions in addition to causing odynophagia and increasing the patient's risk of oral infections and dental caries. Radiation-induced xerostomia is ...
Guérineau Nathalie C - - 2010
The adrenal medullary tissue contributes to maintain body homeostasis in reaction to stressful environmental changes via the release of catecholamines into the blood circulation in response to splanchnic nerve activation. Accordingly, chromaffin cell stimulus-secretion coupling undergoes temporally restricted periods of anatomo- functional remodeling in response to prevailing hormonal requirements of ...
Pereira Carolina Parga Martins - - 2011
The tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus is currently considered an urban plague. For this reason many studies are intended to find methods to control these ectoparasites. Thus, the present study analyzed the ultrastructural modifications of the salivary glands cells of semi-engorged females of R. sanguineus resulting from their exposition to Fipronil (active ...
Botta R - - 2011
Thyroid hormone release requires degradation of thyroglobulin (Tg) by thyroid epithelial cells, which occurs mainly in the lysosomal pathway following Tg endocytosis. Non-specific fluid-phase endocytosis is thought to be the main route of Tg uptake leading to degradation, whereas receptor- mediated endocytosis is believed to lead to post-endocytic pathways other ...
Topor Lisa Swartz - - 2011
Initiating factors leading to production of adrenal androgens are poorly defined. Cortisol is present in high concentrations within the adrenal gland, and its production rises with growth during childhood. Our aim was to characterize the effect of cortisol and other glucocorticoids on androgen secretion from a human adrenocortical cell line ...
Pan Hongmei - - 2011
Thyroid is a frequent target for endocrine effects of pesticides. Thyroglobulin (TG) and iodide uptake are crucial to thyroid hormone synthesis and may be targets of thyroid-disrupting chemicals. In our study, thyroid follicular FRTL-5 cells were treated with amitrole, an inhibitor of the thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and the effects on ...
Sroyraya Morakot - - 2010
The androgenic glands (AG) of male decapod crustaceans produce insulin-like androgenic gland (IAG) hormone that controls male sex differentiation, growth and behavior. Functions of the AG are inhibited by gonad-inhibiting hormone originating from X-organ-sinus gland complex in the eyestalk. The AG, and its interaction with the eyestalk, had not been ...
Avcı Arzu - - 2012
Myoepithelial cells are an important component of salivary gland tumors and are partly responsible from the diverse histology of them. In this study, we focus on the myoepithelial cell differentiation by using cytological morphology in a various types of salivary gland tumors especially with regard to their contribution to the ...
Albi Elisabetta - - 2010
Prolonged spaceflights are known to elicit changes in human cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and nervous systems, whose functions are regulated by the thyroid gland. It is known that sphingomyelin metabolism is involved in apoptosis (programmed cell death) of thyroid cells induced by UVC radiation, but at present no data exists with regard ...
Baker Olga J OJ Department of Oral Biology, School of Dental Medicine, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, New York 14214-3092, USA. - - 2010
The use of polarized salivary gland cell monolayers has contributed to our understanding of salivary gland physiology. However, these cell models are not representative of glandular epithelium in vivo, and, therefore, are not ideal for investigating salivary epithelial functions. The current study has developed a three-dimensional (3D) cell culture model ...
Hong Seok Jong SJ Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 115 Mill Street, Belmont, MA 02478, USA. - - 2011
During development, sympathetic neurons and chromaffin cells originate from bipotential sympathoadrenal (SA) progenitors arising from neural crests (NC) in the trunk regions. Recently, we showed that AP-2β, a member of the AP2 family, plays a critical role in the development of sympathetic neurons and locus coeruleus and their norepinephrine (NE) ...
Hu Dongliang - - 2012
The expression of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) was elevated in adrenal aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA). The influence of SF-1 on adrenal tumorigenesis by adrenocortical cell line H295R cells was investigated. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to detect SF-1 expression in 16 APA samples and 12 normal adrenal samples. Specific SF-1-shRNA ...
Dickmeis Thomas - - 2011
The circadian clock, an endogenous timekeeper that regulates daily rhythms of physiology, also influences the dynamic release of glucocorticoids. The release of glucocorticoids is characteristically pulsatile and is further modulated in a circadian fashion. A circadian pacemaker in the brain regulates daily rhythms of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system ...
Paramonova I - - 2010
The endothelium releases factors stimulating the adrenal cortex. It is also known that endothelin-1 (ET-1) promotes generation of cortisol and aldosterone, and proliferation of adrenocortical cells. The aim of the study was to find out whether the effect of the endothelium on adrenocortical cells is dominated by the action of ...
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