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Results 401 - 450 of 2522
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Marchionatti Ana M - - 2009
Calcitriol or 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) is a negative growth regulator of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The growth arrest is due to apoptosis activation, which involves mitochondrial disruption. This effect is blunted in vitamin D resistant cells (MCF-7(DRes) cells). Menadione (MEN), a glutathione (GSH)-depleting compound, may potentiate antitumoral effects of anticancer drugs. The ...
Cortes-Wanstreet Mabel M - - 2009
Ionizing radiation is toxic to ovarian follicles and can cause infertility. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the toxicity of ionizing radiation in several cell types. We have shown that depletion of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) sensitizes follicles and granulosa cells to toxicant-induced apoptosis and that ...
Brookheart Rita T RT Center for Cardiovascular Research, Department of Internal Medicine, the Department of Cell Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, - - 2009
In obesity and diabetes, an imbalance in fatty acid uptake and fatty acid utilization leads to excess accumulation of lipid in non-adipose tissues. This lipid overload is associated with cellular dysfunction and cell death, which contribute to organ failure, a phenomenon termed lipotoxicity. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of lipid-mediated ...
Williams Sharlene R - - 2009
Functional oligomers based on glutathione (GSH) and poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) were synthesized via Michael addition. Well-defined, spherical nanoparticle self-assembly was confirmed via dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, a series of Michael addition oligomers containing GSH were prepared with various molecular weights of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). ...
Pallardó Federico V - - 2009
Glutathione (GSH) is essential for survival of eukaryotic but not in prokaryotic cells. Its functions in nucleated cells are far from being known. In fact GSH plays an important role in cell proliferation. The purpose of the present review is to summarize the relationship between glutathione and the important events ...
Lim Ju Hee - - 2009
Previously, we suggested that tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an obligatory cofactor for dopamine synthesis, as an intrinsic contributor to dopaminergic neuron vulnerability. The BH4 toxicity is observed in dopamine-producing cells, including Cath.a cells, but not in non-dopaminergic cells. Furthermore, the dopaminergic cell death induced by BH4 is apoptotic in nature and involves ...
Prashant S. Khadke
A self-supported direct borohydride-hydrogen peroxide fuel cell system with internal manifolds and an auxiliary control unit is reported. The system, while operating under ambient conditions, delivers a peak power of 40 W with about 2 W to run the auxiliary control unit. A critical cause and effect analysis, on the ...
Nishide Kenji - - 2009
[This corrects the article on p. e6869 in vol. 4.].
Shin Young Joo - - 2009
PURPOSE: To investigate the protective effect of clusterin on oxidative stress-induced cell death of human corneal endothelial cells. METHODS: Human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs) were cultured according to previously published methods. With treatment of various concentrations (0-50 mM) of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) or clusterin, reactive oxygen species (ROS) producrion was ...
Pauloin Thierry - - 2009
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate high molecular weight hyaluronan (HMW-HA) protection on human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells against ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation-induced toxic effects. METHODS: The HCE cell line was incubated with HMW-HA or phosphate-buffered salt solution (PBS), rinsed, and exposed to UVB radiation. Cell viability, ...
Foyer Christine H - - 2009
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and low molecular weight antioxidants, such as glutathione and ascorbate, are powerful signaling molecules that participate in the control of plant growth and development, and modulate progression through the mitotic cell cycle. Enhanced reactive oxygen species accumulation or low levels of ascorbate or glutathione cause the ...
Liu Xuebo - - 2009
Astaxanthin (AST) is a powerful antioxidant that occurs naturally in a wide variety of living organisms. Based on the report claiming that AST could cross the brain-blood barrier, the aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of AST by using an oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell damage system. ...
Vanwinkle Beth A - - 2009
Mammalian cells take up nanoparticles (NPs) and some NPs increase ROS. We use imaging and measure ROS in parallel to evaluate NP-cell interactions with type I-like alveolar epithelial cells exposed to NPs at 1.2 microg/cm(2) . Titanium dioxide (Ti0(2)), gold (Au), silver (Ag), and manganese (Mn) were internalized by R3-1 ...
Kulkarni Abhijeet P - - 2009
Oxidative stress leads to perturbation of a variety of cellular processes resulting in inhibition of cell proliferation. This study has determined the effect of oxidative stress on protein synthesis in human K562 cells using a hydrophilic peroxyl radical initiator, AAPH and H(2)O(2). The results indicated that oxidative stress leads to ...
Verrax J - - 2009
Cancer cells show an up-regulation of glycolysis, they readily take up vitamin C, and they appear more susceptible to an oxidative stress than the surrounding normal cells. Here we compare, analyse and discuss these particular hallmarks by performing experiments in murine hepatomas (TLT cells) and freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes. The ...
Kim Ki Cheon - - 2009
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produce damage to all major cellular constituents. The antioxidant properties of the ethyl acetate fraction of Empetrum nigrum was assessed against hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced cell damage. Empetrum extract was found to scavenge (1) intracellular ROS in cell system, (2) hydroxyl radicals generated by the Fenton reaction ...
Walsh Bridget - - 2009
Peroxiredoxins are thiol-specific antioxidants that catalyze the reduction of cellular peroxides and protect cells from ROS-mediated damage and death. Peroxiredoxin gene expression is up-regulated in a number of cancers, suggesting a possible role in cancer cell maintenance. Prdx6, a cytoplasmic protein elevated in certain cancers, is highly expressed in liver ...
Wang Li-Wen - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Realgar (arsenic sulfide, As(4)S(4)) has been shown to have clinical efficacy in patients with newly diagnosed and relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia. Mechanistic studies have demonstrated that realgar is able to induce cell differentiation. METHODS: The oxidative stress in the realgar-induced differentiation was examined with human leukemia HL-60 cells. Cell ...
Kuo Hung-Tien - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: Bioincompatible peritoneal dialysate fluids (PDFs) may lead to peritoneal injury. The present study investigated the possible effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) during conventional PDF exposure for human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs). METHODS: Cultured HPMCs were incubated with conventional 1.5% dextrose PDF for different time periods, and NAC was utilized as ...
Skalska Jolanta - - 2009
BACKGROUND: There has been much interest in targeting intracellular redox pathways as a therapeutic approach for cancer. Given recent data to suggest that the redox status of extracellular protein thiol groups (i.e. exofacial thiols) effects cell behavior, we hypothesized that redox active anti-cancer agents would modulate exofacial protein thiols. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL ...
Piskac-Collier Amanda L - - 2009
Lindane is a chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide, currently used in prescription shampoos and lotions to treat scabies and lice infestations. Lindane is known to be nephrotoxic; however, the mechanism of action is not well understood. In other organ systems, lindane produces cellular damage by generation of free radicals and oxidative stress. ...
Wolf Federica I - - 2009
Low Mg availability reversibly inhibited the growth of mammary epithelial HC11 cells by increasing the number of cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Because low Mg has been reported to promote oxidative reactions, we considered that low Mg-dependent growth arrest was mediated by oxidative stress. Surprisingly, both ...
Costa Stefano - - 2009
Several in vitro studies showed that free radical scavengers possess chemopreventive properties against mycotoxin-induced cell damage which are at least partially associated with the induction of phase II detoxifying enzymes and antioxidant enzymes like glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The aim of this project was to study the ...
Park Hyun-Min - - 2009
The 26S proteasome plays a major role in degradation of abnormal proteins within the cell. The indirect antioxidant including sulforaphane (SFN) protects cells from oxidative damage by increasing the expression of Nrf2-target genes. It has been observed that the expression of multiple subunits of the proteasome was up-regulated by indirect ...
Gzyl Jaros?aw - - 2009
Previously, a stable cell suspension of cucumber tolerant to 100 microM CdCl(2) was obtained (Gzyl & Gw??d?, 2005, Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 80: 59-67). In this study, the relationship between the activity of antioxidant enzymes and cadmium tolerance of cucumber cells was analyzed. A cadmium-sensitive and the cadmium-tolerant cell ...
Pulido Pablo - - 2009
Aerobic metabolism inevitably produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), including hydrogen peroxide, which may cause damage to the cell. Besides this toxic effect, hydrogen peroxide has an important signaling function in plant development and response to environmental stimuli. So, the balance of toxic and signaling effects of hydrogen peroxide is highly ...
Odom R Y - - 2009
Cancer prevention by dietary phytochemicals has been shown to involve decreased cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest. However, there is limited understanding of the mechanisms involved. Previously, we have shown that a common effect of phytochemicals investigated is to oxidize the intracellular glutathione (GSH) pool. Therefore, the objective of this ...
Markovic Jelena - - 2009
Glutathione is considered essential for survival in mammalian cells and yeast but not in prokaryotic cells. The presence of a nuclear pool of glutathione has been demonstrated but its role in cellular proliferation and differentiation is still a matter of debate. We have studied proliferation of 3T3 fibroblasts for a ...
Calvo Isabel A - - 2009
An excess of caffeine is cytotoxic to all eukaryotic cell types. We aim to study how cells become tolerant to a toxic dose of this drug, and the relationship between caffeine and oxidative stress pathways. We searched for Schizosaccharomyces pombe mutants with inhibited growth on caffeine-containing plates. We screened a ...
Johnson Jennifer J Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, - - 2009
Eriodictyol, a flavonoid found in citrus fruits, is among the most potent compounds reported to protect human RPE cells from oxidative stress-induced cell death. The present study sought to determine whether eriodictyol-induced phase 2 protein expression further enhances the resistance of human ARPE-19 cells to oxidative stress. The ability of ...
Karachitos Andonis - - 2009
Available data suggest that a copper-and zinc-containing dismutase (CuZnSOD) plays a significant role in protecting eukaryotic cells against oxidative modifications which may contribute to cell aging. Here we demonstrated that depletion of CuZnSOD in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells (Deltasod1 cells) affected distinctly channel activity of VDAC (voltage dependent anion selective channel) ...
Yu Qiu-rong - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein gp120 has been implicated in the development of AIDS-associated retinopathy. The present study tested the hypothesis that gp120 may induce oxidative stress including up regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and production of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) to mediate ...
Caspar-Bauguil Sylvie - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: This work aims to evaluate the resistance of mononuclear cells to oxidative stress using a "KRL" test, formerly utilized to evaluate the resistance of erythrocyte to free radicals. METHODS: The "KRL" test evaluates the resistance to lysis of cells treated by free radicals generated under standardized conditions. RESULTS: We ...
Mur, Luis
A rapid and localized programmed cell death – the hypersensitive response (HR) – is a widely utilized plant resistance mechanism against pathogens. Studies have implicated H2O2 generation as a key elicitory mechanism in the HR. The causal relationship between the kinetics of the in planta oxidative burst, the HR and ...
Zhang Yingxin - - 2009
Methanotrophs have promising applications in the epoxidation of some alkenes and some chlorinated hydrocarbons and in the production of a biopolymer, poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (poly-3-hydroxybutyrate; PHB). In contrast with methane monooxygenase (MMO) activity and ability of PHB synthesis of four kinds of methanotrophic bacteria Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, M. trichosporium IMV3011, Methylococcus capsulatus ...
Choi Chang-Hoon - - 2008
Reduced glutathione (GSH) serves as a primary redox buffer and its depletion causes growth inhibition or apoptosis in many organisms. In Dictyostelium discoideum, the null mutant (gcsA(-)) of gcsA encoding gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase shows growth arrest and developmental defect when GSH is depleted. To investigate the mechanism by which GSH depletion ...
Ortega J A - - 2008
Hypotaurine (HT) has been proposed to reduce sulfide toxicity in some deep-sea invertebrates by scavenging free radicals produced from sulfide oxidation or by scavenging sulfide via the reaction of HT with sulfide, forming thiotaurine (ThT). We tested whether HT or several antioxidants could reduce the total dissolved sulfide concentration in ...
Vad Nikhil M - - 2008
In the current work, we investigated the biochemical toxicity of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA; Aspirin) in human melanoma cell lines using tyrosinase enzyme as a molecular cancer therapeutic target. At 2 h, ASA was oxidized 88% by tyrosinase. Ascorbic acid and NADH, quinone reducing agents, were significantly depleted during the enzymatic ...
Percy Christine J - - 2008
AIMS: Caveolin-1 (cav1) is reported to have both cell survival and pro-apoptotic characteristics. This may be explained by its localisation or phosphorylation in injured cells. This study investigated the role of cav1 in kidney cells of different nephron origin and developmental state after oxidative stress. METHODS: Renal MCDK distal tubular, ...
Iizuka Yoko - - 2008
Agmatine, 2-(4-aminobutyl)guanidine, has been reported to have neuroprotective effects against various neuronal damages. In this study it was investigated whether agmatine pretreatment rescues the retinal ganglion cells from oxidative injury in vitro. After differentiation of transformed rat retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5 cell line) with staurosporine, agmatine (0.0 to 100.0 microM) ...
Sacha Beata - - 2008
Tocopherols (vitamin E) are potent antioxidants as well as modulators of enzymes involved in signal transduction, like nitric oxide synthase (NOS). In primary murine microglial cells and in the microglial cell line BV-2, alpha-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherol and alpha-tocopherol acid succinate, respectively, promote nitric oxide (NO) release. The NOS inhibitors ...
Lin De D Department of Biochemistry, Vanderbilt Institute for Chemical Biology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, U1213C Medical Research Building III, 465 21st Avenue South, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, - - 2008
The biotin-tagged electrophiles 1-biotinamido-4-(4'-[maleimidoethylcyclohexane]-carboxamido)butane (BMCC) and N-iodoacetyl-N-biotinylhexylenediamine (IAB) have been used as model electrophile probes in complex proteomes to identify protein targets associated with chemical toxicity. Whereas IAB activates stress signaling and apoptosis in HEK293 cells, BMCC does not. Cysteine Michael adducts formed from BMCC and nonbiotinylated analogues rapidly disappeared ...
Zhou Zhi Dong - - 2009
In this study, we demonstrated that transient transfection and over-expression of human mutant A53T alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) could induce expression level- and time-dependent, non-apoptotic cell death in PC12 cells, while wild-type and mutant A30P alpha-syn could not. The non-apoptotic cell death induced by over-expression of A53T alpha-syn in PC12 cells was ...
Radyuk Svetlana N - - 2009
GSH concentration is considerably lower in the nucleus than in the cytoplasm; however, it is significantly elevated during active cell proliferation. The main purpose of this study was to understand the mechanism underlying these variations in nuclear/cytoplasmic distribution of GSH. The rate-limiting step in the de novo GSH biosynthesis pathway ...
Yamamoto Takashi - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The potential detrimental effects of glucose degradation products (GDPs) contained in peritoneal dialysis fluids (PDFs) on peritoneal mesothelial cells (PMCs) may impair intraperitoneal homeostasis in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). A recent study showed that 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene (3,4-DGE) was the most strongly cytotoxic among all identified GDPs in ...
Shimazawa Masamitsu - - 2009
We examined the radical-scavenging activity of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and its effects on the neuronal cell death induced by oxidative or hypoxic stress in cultured retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5, a rat ganglion cell-line transformed using E1A virus). The radical-scavenging activity [hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), superoxide anion (O(2)*(-)), and hydroxyl radical (*OH)] ...
Walther Udo I - - 2009
In previous experiments an increase in zinc-mediated toxicity was found after pretreatment of alveolar epithelial type II-like cells with glucocorticoids. In this work toxicity of two peroxides (tertiary butyl hydroperoxide [tBHP], hydrogene peroxide [HP]) was assessed in L2 and A549 cells compared to dexamethasone (DEX) pretreated cells. Pretreatment of cells ...
Walsh Catherine J - - 2009
Blooms of Karenia brevis produce brevetoxins which cause neurotoxic shellfish poisoning and respiratory symptoms in humans as well as harmful effects on sea life. To investigate potential effects of brevetoxins on immune system components, a monocyte cell line (U-937) was exposed in vitro to PbTx-2. U-937 cells metabolized PbTx-2 through ...
Zheng Lin - - 2009
There is increasing evidence for the toxicity of intracellular amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) to neurons and the involvement of lysosomes in this process in Alzheimer disease (AD). We have recently shown that oxidative stress, a recognized determinant of AD, enhances macroautophagy and leads to intralysosomal accumulation of Abeta in cultured neuroblastoma ...
Yu Alice L - - 2008
PURPOSE: The trabecular meshwork (TM) of glaucomatous eyes is characterized by cell loss, increased accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM), and cellular senescence. One factor increasingly discussed in the pathogenesis of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is oxidative stress. The goal of this study was to determine whether oxidative stress is able ...
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