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Tiong Chi Xin - - 2010
Hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) is a novel neuromodulator. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of H(2)S against cell injury induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), a selective dopaminergic neurotoxin often used to establish a model of Parkinson's disease for studying the underlying mechanisms of this condition. Cell viability in SH-SY5Y ...
Guo Yan-Lin - - 2010
Oxidative stress, associated with either normal metabolism or disease conditions, affects many cellular activities. Most of our knowledge in this field is derived from fully differentiated cells. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have attracted enormous attention for their potential applications in cell therapy, but little is known about how the unique ...
Xu Xiuling - - 2010
The antioxidant enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) serves as the primary defense against mitochondrial superoxide. Impaired SOD2 activity in murine hematopoietic cells affects erythroid development, resulting in anemia characterized by intra-mitochondrial iron deposition, reticulocytosis and shortened red cell life span. Gene expression profiling of normal and SOD2 deficient erythroblasts identified ...
Rao V Ashutosh VA Laboratory of Biochemistry, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. - - 2010
Mitoquinone (MitoQ) is a synthetically modified, redox-active ubiquinone compound that accumulates predominantly in mitochondria. We found that MitoQ is 30-fold more cytotoxic to breast cancer cells than to healthy mammary cells. MitoQ treatment led to irreversible inhibition of clonogenic growth of breast cancer cells through a combination of autophagy and ...
Horvath Gabriella - - 2010
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide with highly potent neuro- and general cytoprotective actions. PACAP is also an important modulator of circadian rhythmic functions, including time-dependent effects in the pineal gland. It is not known whether PACAP influences the survival of pinealocytes. The present study had two ...
Peng Xinjian - - 2010
25-Hydroxyvitamin D(3) (25(OH)D(3)) is a prohormone and a major vitamin D metabolite. The discovery of (25(OH)D(3)) 1 alpha-hydroxylase in many vitamin D target organs has yielded an increased interest in defining the role(s) of 25(OH)D(3) in these tissues. The etiology of cancer appears to be complex and multi-factorial. Cellular stress ...
Jung Sang Hoon - - 2010
The shrub Thuja orientalis is extensively used as a herbal medicine in Korea and China. In the present study extracts of the plant were subjected to fractionation and purification, with seven compounds (myricitrin, isoquercitrin, hypoletin-7-O-β-D-xylopyranoside, quercitrin, kaempferin, kaempferol, and amentoflavone) being isolated. Of these seven compounds, isoquercitrin was found to ...
Matés José M - - 2010
Oxidants have critical functions inside healthy and unhealthy cells. Deregulated cell cycle and apoptosis, both regulated by oxidative stress, have been described as hallmarks of mitotic (cancer) and postmitotic (neuronal) cells. This review provides an updated revision of the oxidant effects of some environmental contaminants such as dioxins and the ...
Lu Yan-Hua - - 2010
Oxidative stress has been considered as a major cause of cellular injuries in a variety of clinical abnormalities. One of the plausible ways to prevent the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated cellular injury is dietary or pharmaceutical augmentation of endogenous antioxidant defense capacity. In this study, we investigated the protective actions ...
Akanitapichat Pannarat - - 2010
Eggplant is consumed throughout the world and varies in fruit color, shape, and size. In this study, five varieties of eggplant (purple colored moderate size, white-green colored moderate size, long green, green striped moderate size and pale-green colored small size, respectively, called SM1-SM5) were evaluated for total phenolic and flavonoid ...
Ishikawa Shin-ichi - - 2010
Epidemiological and animal model studies have suggested that high intake of heme, present in red meat, is associated with an increased risk of colon cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying this association are not clear. This study aimed to investigate whether heme induces DNA damage and cell proliferation of colonic epithelial ...
Dorantes-Aranda Juan José - - 2010
The dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides isolated from Bahía de La Paz, Gulf of California, showed an important short-term toxic effect on the spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus. This microalga was able to decrease fish liver catalase activity and lipid peroxidation. Fish exposed to live dinoflagellates developed an abnormal mucus secretion on ...
Lawal Akeem Olalekan - - 2010
Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal with no uniform mechanism of toxicity. In this the present study, the toxic effect of 5, 10 and 50 microM of Cd chloride was compared in three human cell lines; a human hepatoma cell line HepG2, a human astrocytoma cell line 1321N1, and ...
Horvath Gabriella - - 2011
Oxidative stress plays an important role in various renal and hepatic pathologies, and reduction of oxidative stress-induced processes is an important protective strategy in tissues of diverse origins against harmful stimuli. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a well-known cytotrophic and cytoprotective peptide. PACAP promotes cell survival in numerous ...
Posser Thaís - - 2010
In a previous study we demonstrated that human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells transfected with human tyrosine hydroxylase isoform 1 (SH+TH cells) were substantially more resistant to cell death induced by pro-oxidants than wild type SH-SY5Y cells (SH cells). In the present communication we used methylmercury as a model of cell stress ...
Erkekoglu Pinar P CEA Grenoble, INAC/SCIB/LAN, 17 Rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9, - - 2010
Di(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) is the most abundantly used phthalate derivative, inevitable environmental exposure of which is suspected to contribute to the increasing incidence of testicular dysgenesis syndrome in humans. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in germ cells are suggested to contribute to phthalate-induced disruption of spermatogenesis in rodents, and Leydig cells ...
Barillet S - - 2010
Silicon carbide (SiC) is considered a highly biocompatible material, consequently SiC nanoparticles (NPs) have been proposed for potential applications in diverse areas of technology. Since no toxicological data are available for these NPs, the aim of this study was to draw their global toxicological profile on A549 lung epithelial cells, ...
Mester Laszlo - - 2011
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide with potent neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects. We have previously shown that PACAP protects against several types of retinal injuries in vivo, including retinal ischemia, glutamate-induced excitotoxicity, UV A-induced lesion, and diabetic retinopathy. We have also shown that PACAP activates antiapoptotic pathways and ...
Rama Narsimha Reddy A - - 2011
In this study, we investigated the mechanisms involved in multi-wall carbon particles/nanomaterials (MWCNM) induced cytotoxicity using human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells and to assess the effect of physicochemical properties on the cytotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by the carbon nanomaterials (CNM). To elucidate the possible mechanisms of CNM-induced cytotoxicity, cell ...
Kaur Parvinder - - 2010
Methylmercury (MeHg), an environmental toxicant primarily found in fish and seafood poses a dilemma to both consumers and regulatory authorities given the nutritional benefits of fish consumption vs. possible adverse neurological damage caused by MeHg. The present study addresses whether supplementation with 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox), alters the neuro-oxidative effects of ...
Malerba Massimo - - 2010
The phytohormone ethylene is involved in many physiological and developmental processes of plants, as well as in stress responses and in the development of disease resistance. Fusicoccin (FC) is a well-known phytotoxin, that in sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cultured cells, induces a set of stress responses, including synthesis of ethylene. ...
Marzocco Stefania - - 2010
Guanidino compounds, as methylguanidine (MG), may play an important role in the etiology of neurological complications which occur in uremic syndrome. Dementia is a neurological complication more common in uremic patients than in general population and several types of dementia are associated to astroglial apoptosis. Here we report the effect ...
Laborde E - - 2010
Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of glutathione (GSH) to a variety of electrophilic substances. Their best known role is as cell housekeepers engaged in the detoxification of xenobiotics. Recently, GSTs have also been shown to act as modulators of signal transduction pathways that control cell proliferation ...
Gałgańska Hanna - - 2010
Proteins involved in apoptosis are still a matter of debate. Therefore, we decided to check the effect of the presence of VDAC (voltage dependent anion selective channel) on viability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells following their exposure to H(2)O(2) that is known to induce apoptosis both in S. cerevisiae and in ...
Albrecht Philipp - - 2010
The glutamate/cystine antiporter system x(c)- transports cystine into cells in exchange for the important neurotransmitter glutamate at a ratio of 1:1. It is composed of a specific light chain, xCT, and a heavy chain, 4F2, linked by a disulfide bridge. Both subunits are localized prominently in the mouse and human ...
Gao Shang Shang - - 2010
The aflatoxin B(1)-8,9-epoxide (AFBO) is hepatocarcinogenic intermediate of aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) and is detoxified by glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). In this study, we investigated whether sulforaphane (SFN) could increase the rate of conjugation between AFBO and glutathione (GSH) as well as which of the GST isozymes were involved in the conjugation ...
Mandavilli Bhaskar S - - 2010
Glutathione plays an important role in protecting mammalian cells from oxidative stress and cell death. Because reduced glutathione (GSH) represents the large majority of intracellular free thiols, cell-permeant, thiol-reactive fluorescent probes represent potentially useful indicators of intracellular GSH. The ThiolTracker Violet stain (a registered trademark of Invitrogen) is a bright ...
Yang Eun Sun - - 2010
It has been shown that acute and chronic alcohol administrations increase the production of reactive oxygen species, lower cellular antioxidant levels and enhance oxidative stress in many tissues. We recently reported that cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) functions as an antioxidant enzyme by supplying NADPH to the cytosol. Upon exposure ...
Cho Chun-Seok - - 2010
Chronic redox imbalance in erythrocytes of individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD) contributes to oxidative stress and likely underlies common etiologies of hemolysis. We measured the amounts of six antioxidant enzymes-SOD1, catalase, glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1), as well as peroxiredoxins (Prxs) I, II, and VI-in red blood cells (RBCs) of ...
Mohapatra Sridev - - 2010
The diamine putrescine (Put) has been shown to accumulate in tree leaves in response to high Al and low Ca in the soil, leading to the suggestion that this response may provide a physiological advantage to leaf cells under conditions of Al stress. The increase in Put is reversed by ...
Markovic Jelena - - 2010
Cells with high proliferation rate have high glutathione levels. This typical feature of cancer cells is viewed usually as a defence mechanism against ionizing radiation or chemotherapy. Efforts have been made in order to decrease cellular glutathione levels in tumours as a necessary pre-treatment for cancer therapy. However, very few ...
Lynn Edward G - - 2010
Prolonged cardiac overexpression of the mitochondrial biogenesis regulatory transcriptional coactivator PGC-1alpha disrupts cardiac contractile function and its genetic ablation limits cardiac capacity to enhance workload. In contrast, transient induction of PGC-1alpha alleviates neuronal cell oxidative stress and enhances skeletal myotube anti-oxidant defenses. We explored whether transient upregulation of PGC-1alpha in ...
Chang Hsiao-Hua - - 2010
Monomers released from resin-containing products may cause various adverse effects. Urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) is a principal resin monomer and also a major component released from various dental resin materials. Thus the toxic effects and mechanisms should be elucidated for improving of its safety use. Here we investigated the effects of ...
Horie Masanori - - 2010
Because of the expansion of the functionalities available for modification of fullerene C60 and its derivatives, their uses are increasing. However, the consequences of fullerene exposure to human health have not been fully studied. In vitro experiments are useful for risk assessment and for understanding potential applications. However, the insolubility ...
Itoh Shinji - - 2010
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and the mechanism of gamma linolenic acid (GLA) treatment on human hepatocellular (HCC) cell lines. The human HCC cell line HuH7 was exposed to GLA. Cell proliferation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation including lipid peroxidation and apoptosis were compared. ...
Yogo Takatoshi - - 2010
Photosensitizers produce cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon light illumination, but it is difficult to ablate cells of a specific type (e.g., tumor cells) in the presence of other cell populations, because of the limited precision with which light illumination can be directed to small areas. Here, we report a ...
Zhang Zhaowu - - 2010
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were modified with glutathione (GSH) to form GSH-capped GNPs, which have carboxyl groups on the surface of these nanoparticles. Then folic acid (FA) was conjugated with GNPs through the reaction between amino group of FA and carboxyl group of GSH. These folic acid-conjugated nanoparticles (FA-GSH-GNPs) were stable ...
King Nicola - - 2010
Cysteine has been implicated in myocardial protection, although this is controversial and constrained by limited knowledge about the effects of cysteine at the cellular level. This study tested the hypothesis that a physiologically relevant dose of L: -cysteine could be safely loaded into isolated cardiomyocytes leading to improved protection against ...
Hsieh Bau-Shan - - 2011
Arginine is a physiological substrate for nitric oxide synthase to generate nitric oxide (NO), which can influence tumor cell survival, while ascorbic acid is selectively toxic for cancer cells. This study explored the effect of an arginine/ascorbic acid combination on human cancer cell lines. The hepatoma cell line HA22T/VGH was ...
Sabolić Ivan - - 2010
Metallothioneins are cysteine-rich, small metal-binding proteins present in various mammalian tissues. Of the four common metallothioneins, MT-1 and MT-2 (MTs) are expressed in most tissues, MT-3 is predominantly present in brain, whereas MT-4 is restricted to the squamous epithelia. The expression of MT-1 and MT-2 in some organs exhibits sex, ...
Orciani M - - 2010
Stem cells are undifferentiated cells with the capacity for self-renewal and differentiation. Here we have determined the susceptibility to oxidative stress of isolated mesenchymal stem cells from human skin (S-MSCs) in comparison with keratinocytes, which are differentiated cells of the same lineage. To induce pro-oxidant conditions, S-MSCs and keratinocytes were ...
Horie Masanori - - 2010
Even though there have been some investigations into cellular responses induced by ultrafine titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) in vitro, the relationship between cellular responses and secondary particle size is still not clear. In this study, a stable and uniform TiO(2)-cell culture-medium dispersion was prepared, and cellular responses prompted by "ultrafine secondary ...
Lee Sun-Mi - - 2010
Tryptophan-derived metabolites, initiated by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), preferentially induce activated T cell death, which is an important mechanism in IDO-mediated T cell suppression. However, the mechanism of this phenomenon remains unclear. We found that 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA), the most potent metabolite, selectively eliminated activated T cells, which were stimulated with ...
Kudugunti Shashi K - - 2010
In the current work, we investigated the in vitro biochemical mechanism of Caffeic Acid Phenylethyl Ester (CAPE) toxicity and eight hydroxycinnamic/caffeic acid derivatives in vitro, using tyrosinase enzyme as a molecular target in human SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells. Enzymatic reaction models using tyrosinase/O(2) and HRP/H(2)O(2) were used to delineate the role ...
Lee Yong Hui - - 2010
The CdS-sensitized solar cells (CdS-SSC) were fabricated by spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD) method. The performance of the cells was greatly improved through post-treatments that included thermal oxidation at 500 degrees C for 30 min in an air atmosphere and subsequent chemical etching by 40 mM aqueous HCl solution at room ...
Shiota Masaki - - 2010
Although cytokine therapy involving interleukin-2 or interferon-alpha has been employed for metastatic renal cell cancer (RCC) treatment, these therapies yielded limited response and benefit. Recently, several molecular-targeted agents have become available, and one newly developed anti-RCC agent, sorafenib (BAY 43-9006), is known to target multiple kinases. In this study, sorafenib ...
Han Yong Hwan - - 2010
MG132 as a proteasome inhibitor can induce apoptotic cell death through formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, the effects of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC; an antioxidant) on MG132-induced HeLa cell death in relation to ROS and glutathione (GSH) were investigated. MG132 induced cell growth inhibition and apoptosis in ...
Liang Qingning - - 2010
In vitro cell models, which can partially mimic in vivo responses, offer potentially sensitive tools for toxicological assessment. The objective of this study was to explore the possible mechanisms of acetaminophen (AP)-induced toxicity in human normal liver L-02 cells. The expression of the CYP2E1 enzyme, which is reported to transform ...
Yu Hyeon-Hee - - 2010
The radix of Pueraria thunbergiana (P. thunbergiana) is traditionally prescribed to attenuate the clinical manifestation of inner ear dysfunction and various clinical situations including fevers, gastrointestinal disorders, skin problems, migraine headaches, lowering cholesterol, and treating chronic alcoholism in oriental medicine. In the present study, we examined the protective effect of ...
Altinkiliç Sevil - - 2010
Oxidative stress is a critical route of damage in various psychological disorders such as schizophrenia, although fish oil and risperidone (RISP) induce antioxidant effects in the human body. However, the mechanisms behind these effects remain elusive. We investigated the effects of fish oil and RISP in the PC12 cell line ...
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