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Shih Yu-Tzu - - 2011
San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang (SHXT), composed of Coptidis rhizoma, Scutellariae radix and Rhei rhizoma, is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine used to treat gastritis, gastric bleeding and peptic ulcers. This study investigated the neuroprotective effects of SHXT on microglia-mediated neurotoxicity using co-cultured lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglia-like BV-2 cells with neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Effects of ...
Wiesinger Benjamin - - 2011
: The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of 6 commercially available magnetic resonance contrast media (CM) on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and the induction of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) in dermal fibroblasts (HSF) as a possible model for the pathogenesis of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. : ...
Escrevente Cristina - - 2011
Exosomes consist of membrane vesicles that are secreted by several cell types, including tumors and have been found in biological fluids. Exosomes interact with other cells and may serve as vehicles for the transfer of protein and RNA among cells. SKOV3 exosomes were labelled with carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl-ester and collected ...
Gianani Roberto - - 2011
The issue of beta cell regeneration in human pancreas is probably one of the most controversial aspects of type 1 diabetes research. In this review, we will first describe the known mechanisms underlying beta cell development and expansion in normal human pancreatic development because it is likely that such mechanisms ...
Chu Chih-Wen - - 2011
Dynamic instability is a critical property of microtubules (MTs). By regulating the rate of tubulin polymerization and depolymerization, cells organize the MT cytoskeleton to accommodate their specific functions. Among many processes, posttranslational modifications of tubulin are implicated in regulating MT functions. Here we report a novel tubulin acetylation catalyzed by ...
Bartoszewska Magdalena - - 2011
We have investigated the significance of autophagy in the production of the β-lactam antibiotic penicillin (PEN) by the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. In this fungus PEN production is compartmentalized in the cytosol and in peroxisomes. We demonstrate that under PEN-producing conditions significant amounts of cytosolic and peroxisomal proteins are degraded ...
Varelas Xaralabos - - 2010
The Hippo pathway senses cell density information to control tissue growth by regulating the localization of the transcriptional regulators TAZ and YAP (TAZ/YAP). TAZ/YAP also regulate TGF-β-SMAD signaling, but whether this role is linked to cell density sensing is unknown. Here we demonstrate that TAZ/YAP dictate the localization of active ...
Driessens Gregory - - 2011
Despite the defined function of the β-catenin pathway in thymocytes, its functional role in peripheral T cells is poorly understood. We report that in a mouse model, β-catenin protein is constitutively degraded in peripheral T cells. Introduction of stabilized β-catenin into primary T cells inhibited proliferation and cytokine secretion after ...
Lodde Valentina - - 2011
The present studies were designed to assess the roles of progesterone (P4) and Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 (PGRMC1) in regulating mitosis of spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells (SIGCs) and ovarian cancer cells, SKOV-3 cells. Because PGRMC1 has been detected among the proteins of the human mitotic spindle, we theorized that ...
Ehata S - - 2011
Stem cells in normal tissues and cancer-initiating cells (CICs) are known to be enriched in side population (SP) cells. However, the factors responsible for the regulation of expression of ABCG2, involved in efflux of dyes, in SP cells have not been fully investigated. Here, we characterized the SP cells within ...
Gianni Tatiana - - 2010
HSVs enter cells in a receptor-dependent [nectin1 or herpesviruses entry mediator (HVEM)] fashion by fusion of the viral envelope with plasma membrane (neutral pH compartment), by endocytosis into neutral or acidic compartments, or by macropinocytosis/phagocytosis. The cellular determinants of the route of entry are unknown. Here, we asked what cellular ...
Garg Sanjay K - - 2011
The synthesis of glutathione, a major cellular antioxidant with a critical role in T cell proliferation, is limited by cysteine. In this study, we evaluated the contributions of the x(C)(-) cystine transporter and the transsulfuration pathway to cysteine provision for glutathione synthesis and antioxidant defense in naïve versus activated T ...
Graf Michaela - - 2011
Dysfunction of cellular processes in the testes can lead to infertility, tumourigenesis or other testicular disorders. 14-3-3 proteins are known to play pivotal roles in cellular communication, signal transduction, intracellular trafficking, cell-cycle control, transcription and cytoskeletal structure and have been implicated in several diseases including tumourigenesis. Here we investigated the ...
Ramkissoon Annmarie - - 2011
The dopamine (DA) precursor l-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) and metabolites dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 3-methoxytyramine may serve as substrates for prostaglandin H synthase (PHS)-catalyzed bioactivation to free radical intermediates. We used CHO-K1 cells expressing human (h) PHS-1 or hPHS-2 to investigate hPHS isozyme-dependent oxidative damage and cytotoxicity. hPHS-1- and ...
Grimm Stefanie - - 2010
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an important clinical approach for cancer treatment. It involves the administration of a photosensitizer, followed by its activation with light and induction of cell death. The underlying mechanism is an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to oxidative stress, which is followed by cell ...
Seo Gimoon - - 2011
Abstract A novel mechanism for H(2)O(2)-induced autophagic cell death in GSH-depleted RAW 264.7 cells, a murine macrophage cell line, is proposed. Under GSH-depleted conditions, H(2)O(2)-induced autophagic cell, characterized by an increased LC3-II/I ratio, a decreased level of p62 and the formation of autophagic vacuoles, was inhibited by bafilomycin A1 and ...
Li Xudong - - 2011
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cells are predominantly infected with latent Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), presenting a barrier to the destruction of tumor cells. Latent KSHV can be reactivated to undergo lytic replication. Here we report that in PEL cells, oxidative stress induced by upregulated reactive oxygen ...
Peterson Karen M KM Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, - - 2011
To investigate the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of hypoxia preconditioning (HPC) on mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and optimize novel non-invasive methods to assess the effect of biological interventions aimed to increased cell survival. MSCs from rat femur, with or without HPC, were exposed to hypoxic conditions in cell culture ...
Bologov Anastasia - - 2011
Either protective or toxic effects of cannabinoids on cell survival have been reported extensively in the literature; however, the factors that determine the direction of the effect are still obscured. In this study we have used the neuroblastoma cell line N18TG2 that expresses CB1 cannabinoid receptors to investigate several factors ...
Wang P - - 2011
The disturbance of the insulin-signaling pathway plays an important role in Alzheimer's disease. Resistance to insulin signaling renders neurons energy-deficient and vulnerable to oxidization or other metabolic insults and impairs synaptic plasticity. In search of neuroprotective drugs, we synthesized a peptide analogue, P165, an active domain of the soluble amyloid ...
Vivancos Pedro Diaz - - 2010
Cellular redox homeostasis and signalling are important in progression of the eukaryotic cell cycle. In animals, the low-molecular-weight thiol tripeptide glutathione (GSH) is recruited into the nucleus early in the cell proliferation cycle. To determine whether a similar process occurs in plants, we studied cell proliferation in Arabidopsis thaliana. We ...
YU Sung-Liang - - 2010
to investigate the effect of isochaihulactone (also known as K8), a lignan compound of Bupleurum scorzonerifolium, on H(2)O(2)-induced cytotoxicity in neuronally differentiated PC12 cells (nPC12). viability of neuronal PC12 cells was measured using MTT assay. Protein expression was determined by Western blot. Apoptotic cells was determined using TUNEL assay. D-galactose ...
Eom Hyun-Jeong - - 2010
To identify potential harmful effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on human health, a comprehensive toxicity assay was conducted on human Jurkat T cells, using oxidative stress-related endpoint. The effect of Ag ions was also investigated and compared with that of AgNPs, as it is anticipated that Ag ions will be ...
Martinovich Grigory G - - 2010
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in a variety of biological phenomena, such as mutation, carcinogenesis, inflammation, aging, development, and signal transduction. Intracellular generation of ROS might lead to the activation of redox signaling or oxidative stress. Nonetheless, it is difficult to estimate whether ROS-induced intracellular events are beneficial or ...
Nemmiche Saïd - - 2011
Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread environmental contaminant. Cd affects the cellular homeostasis and generates damage via complex mechanisms involving interactions with other metals, induction of oxidative stress and apoptotic or necrotic cell death, depending on the cell type and the concentration. The goal of the present study was to investigate ...
Shen Wenbin - - 2011
Cordyceps sinensis as a well-known traditional Chinese tonic has many therapeutic functions. In the present study, an acid polysaccharide (APS) was isolated from cultivated Cordyceps mycelia by ion-exchange and sizing chromatography. The protective capacity of APS against H(2) O(2) -induced oxidative damage in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells was investigated by ...
Gelhaus Stacy L SL Center for Cancer Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6610, - - 2011
Environmental carcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), require metabolic activation to DNA-reactive metabolites in order to exert their tumorigenic effects. Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a prototypic PAH, is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (P450) 1A1/1B1 and epoxide hydrolase to (-)-B[a]P-7,8-dihydro-7,8-diol (B[a]P-7,8-dihydrodiol). B[a]P-7,8-dihydrodiol then undergoes further P4501A1/1B1-mediated metabolism to the ultimate carcinogen, (+)-anti-7,8-dihydroxy-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-B[a]P ...
Tewari-Singh Neera N Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Denver School of Pharmacy, Aurora, Colorado 80045, - - 2011
Exposure to chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (HD) is reported to cause GSH depletion, which plays an important role in HD-linked oxidative stress and skin injury. Using the HD analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), we evaluated the role of GSH and its efficacy in ameliorating CEES-caused skin injury. Using mouse ...
Chonpathompikunlert Pennapa - - 2011
Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It can cause cell death in Alzheimer's disease by evoking a cascade of oxidative damage to neurons. Antioxidant compounds may help to elucidate and develop a treatment for Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, we investigated the ...
Storz Peter - - 2011
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cellular oxidative stress are involved in many physiological and pathophysiological processes, including cellular and organismal aging, migration, proliferation, senescence or death of normal and cancer cells, and stress resistance of stem cells. The forkhead homeobox type O (FOXO) transcription factors FOXO1, FOXO3a, and FOXO4 are ...
You Bo Ra - - 2011
MG132, as a proteasome inhibitor, has been shown to induce apoptotic cell death through the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we investigated the effects of MAPK inhibitors on MG132-treated calf pulmonary artery endothelial cells (CPAECs) in relation to cell death, ROS, and glutathione (GSH). MG132 inhibited ...
You Bo Ra - - 2011
Gallic acid (GA), as a polyhydroxylphenolic compound, has various biological properties, including an anticancer effect. However, little is known about the toxicological effect of GA in primary normal cells. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of GA on human pulmonary fibroblast (HPF) cell death in relation to ...
Diaz Vivancos Pedro - - 2010
The complex antioxidant network of plant and animal cells has the thiol tripeptide GSH at its centre to buffer ROS (reactive oxygen species) and facilitate cellular redox signalling which controls growth, development and defence. GSH is found in nearly every compartment of the cell, including the nucleus. Transport between the ...
Subramaniam Sudhakar R - - 2011
Esculetin (6,7-dihydroxy coumarin), is a potent antioxidant that is present in several plant species. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of protection of esculetin in human hepatoma HepG2 cells against reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by hydrogen peroxide. Cell viability, cell integrity, intracellular glutathione levels, generation ...
Gualtieri A F - - 2011
Controversial effects of bisphenol A (BPA) have been reported on testicular function. These differences might reflect dissimilar exposure conditions. Dose responses to toxicants may be non-linear, e.g. U-shaped, with effects at low and at high levels of exposure and lower or inexistent effects at intermediate levels. Sertoli cells produce high ...
Bo Ra - - 2011
Gallic acid (GA) has various biological properties including anti-cancer effect. However, little is known about the toxicological effect of GA in primary normal cells. Here, we evaluated the effects of GA on human pulmonary fibroblast (HPF) cells in relation to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH). GA inhibited the ...
Li Ying Bo - - 2011
Much correlative evidence indicates that the oxidative modification of protein by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in normal aging as well as the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we explored the antioxidative and neuroprotective effects of a naphthoquinone, 2-methoxy-6-acetyl-7-methyljuglone (MAM), purified from the ...
Han Yong Hwan - - 2010
MG132, as a proteasome inhibitor, has been shown to induce apoptotic cell death through the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we investigated the effects of MG132 and/or MAPK inhibitors on As4.1 juxtaglomerular cells in relation to cell growth, cell death, ROS, and glutathione (GSH) levels. MG132 ...
Li G - - 2010
Quercetin has been reported to be an efficient antioxidant which protects chicken spermatogonial cells from oxidative damage through increasing intracellular antioxidants and decreasing lipid peroxidation. Exposure to diethylstilboestrol (DES) could cause reproductive damage in males, which is associated with oxidative stress. This study was conducted to investigate the protective effects ...
Cnop M - - 2010
Pancreatic β-cell dysfunction is central to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, and the loss of functional β-cell mass in type 2 diabetes is at least in part secondary to increased β-cell apoptosis. Accumulating evidence suggests that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is present in β-cells in type 2 diabetes. Free ...
Bertolotti Milena - - 2010
Limited amounts of reactive oxygen species are necessary for cell survival and signaling, but their excess causes oxidative stress. H(2)O(2) and other reactive oxygen species are formed as byproducts of several metabolic pathways, possibly including oxidative protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. B- to plasma-cell differentiation is characterized by a ...
Qi Xu-Feng - - 2010
Recent studies have suggested that oxidative stress may play a role in the cytotoxic activity of statins against cancer cells. The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of oxidative stress in the cytotoxicity of simvastatin in murine CT26 colon carcinoma cells and B16BL6 melanoma cells. We found ...
Mandraffino Giuseppe - - 2010
Cigarette smoking is involved in vascular inflammation and impairment of circulating progenitor cells (CPCs), including endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). The study aim was to evaluate the redox balance of these cells in relation to smoking exposure. Circulating cells from 36 healthy smokers and 26 controls were isolated and identified by ...
Chen Tian - - 2011
Oxidative stress has been considered as one of the possible mechanisms leading to the neurotoxicity of lead. One of the effective ways to prevent cellular damage after lead exposure is using antioxidants. In this paper, a novel C(60) -methionine derivate (FMD), a fullerene molecule modified with methionine, was synthesized. The ...
Puerto Maria - - 2011
The cyanobacteria Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is considered a threat to aquatic organisms due to the production of the toxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN). Despite the numerous reports evidencing the toxic effects of C. raciborskii cells and CYN in different species, not much is known regarding the toxicity mechanisms associated with this toxin and ...
Ogunrinu Toyin Adeyemi - - 2010
Glutathione (GSH) is an essential antioxidant responsible for the maintenance of intracellular redox homeostasis. As tumors outgrow their blood supply and become hypoxic, their redox homeostasis is challenged by the production of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In gliomas, the sustained import of L-cystine via the L-cystine/L-glutamate exchanger, ...
Sharma Rajendra - - 2011
Alpha-class glutathione transferases (α-GSTs) have been shown to protect cells from the harmful effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) during oxidative stress caused by various physico-chemical agents. While GSTA1-1/A2-2 isozymes exhibit high activity towards lipid and fatty acid hydroperoxides through their selenium independent glutathione peroxidase (GPx) ...
Son Min Jeong - - 2010
Previous studies reported that high levels of nitric oxide (NO) induce apoptotic cell death in osteoblasts. We examined molecular mechanisms of cytotoxic injury induced by sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a NO donor, in both glutathione (GSH)-depleted and control U2-OS osteoblasts. Cell viability was reduced by much lower effective concentrations of SNP ...
Vadhana M S Dhivya - - 2010
Pollutants including insecticides have been recently reported to be a risk factor involved in various diseases. Permethrin, a member of the family of synthetic pyrethroids, is widely used as insecticide in agriculture and other domestic applications. To investigate possible cardiotoxicity, we had examined different concentrations of permethrin on the freshly ...
Tiong Chi Xin - - 2010
Hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) is a novel neuromodulator. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of H(2)S against cell injury induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), a selective dopaminergic neurotoxin often used to establish a model of Parkinson's disease for studying the underlying mechanisms of this condition. Cell viability in SH-SY5Y ...
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