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Mähönen Ari Pekka AP 1] Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014, Finland [2] Molecular Genetics, Department of Biology, Utrecht University, Utrecht 3584 CH, the Netherlands [3] Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014, Finland - - 2014
During plant growth, dividing cells in meristems must coordinate transitions from division to expansion and differentiation, thus generating three distinct developmental zones: the meristem, elongation zone and differentiation zone. Simultaneously, plants display tropisms, rapid adjustments of their direction of growth to adapt to environmental conditions. It is unclear how stable ...
Loubéry Sylvain S Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Geneva, Quai Ernest Ansermet 30, 1211 Geneva, - - 2014
Cell fate decision during asymmetric division is mediated by the biased partition of cell fate determinants during mitosis [1-6]. In the case of the asymmetric division of the fly sensory organ precursor cells, directed Notch signaling from pIIb to the pIIa daughter endows pIIa with its distinct fate [1-6]. We ...
Bultman Scott J SJ Department of Genetics and Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27516, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Dietary factors, microbial composition, and metabolism are intimately intertwined into a complex network whose activities influence important intestinal functions. In a recent issue of Cell, Belcheva et al. (2014) show that microbial-derived butyrate promotes proliferation of cancer-initiated intestinal epithelial cells, suggesting that it can act as an oncometabolite.
Ahmadzai Abdullah A AA Centre for Biophotonics, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, - - 2014
The epithelial-cell layer lining the two morphologically and functionally distinct segments of the mammalian intestinal tract, small intestine, and colon is constantly being renewed. This renewal is necessitated by a harsh lumen environment and is hypothesized to be driven by a small population of stem cells (SCs) that are believed ...
Reznikov Elizabeth A EA Division of Nutritional - - 2014
Lactoferrin is a bioactive milk protein that stimulates cell proliferation in vitro; however, limited in vivo evidence exists to allow lactoferrin to be incorporated into infant formula. Herein, the effect of dietary bovine lactoferrin (bLF) on neonatal intestinal growth and maturation was investigated guided by the hypothesis that bLF would ...
Løkka Guro G Department of Basic Sciences and Aquatic Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: - - 2014
The intestinal mucosa is an important port of entry for many pathogens. Information of antigenic uptake mechanisms is essential to understand and to possibly prevent infections. In teleosts, several studies have aimed at investigating particulate uptake in the gastrointestinal system that seems to vary dependent on species and antigen. In ...
Shokoohinia Yalda Y Department of Pharmacognosy and Biotechnology, School of Pharmacy, P.O. Box 671451673, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran; Novel Drug Delivery Research Center, School of Pharmacy, P.O. Box 671451673, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. Electronic address: - - 2015
Since flavonols are antioxidant agents, they could in principle, beneficially affect neurodegenerative diseases where reactive oxygen species are involved. Quercetin derivatives are the most abundant dietary flavonoids, and we have investigated the capacity of quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (Q3G) isolated from Echinophora cinerea to protect PC12 cells from H2O2-induced cytotoxicity. Direct cytotoxic effects ...
Hine Brad B CSIRO, Animal, Food & Health Sciences, Armidale, NSW, 2350, - - 2014
Intestinal uptake of vitamin B12 (hereafter B12) is impaired in a significant proportion of the human population. This impairment is due to inherited or acquired defects in the expression or function of proteins involved in the binding of diet-derived B12 and its uptake into intestinal cells. Bovine milk is an ...
Sheridan Brian S BS Department of Immunology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The intestinal mucosa promotes T cell responses that might be beneficial for effective mucosal vaccines. However, intestinal resident memory T (Trm) cell formation and function are poorly understood. We found that oral infection with Listeria monocytogenes induced a robust intestinal CD8 T cell response and blocking effector T cell migration showed that intestinal ...
Dailey Megan J MJ Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801. Electronic address: - - 2014
Obese and lean individuals respond differently to nutrients with changes in digestion, absorption and hormone release. This may be a result of differences in intestinal epithelial morphology and function driven by the hyperphagia or the type of diet associated with obesity. It is well known that the maintenance and growth ...
Edogawa Shoko S 2nd Department of Internal Medicine, Osaka Medical College, Osaka, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
In contrast to accumulated knowledge about gastroduodenal injury associated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as indomethacin, small intestinal mucosal injuries have been noticed only recently, and the precise mechanism remains to be elucidated. To clarify the mechanism, we performed 2-DE on IEC-6 rat normal intestinal cells that were treated ...
Johansson Malin E V ME Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, - - 2014
Recent reports indicate that both the inflammasome (Wlodarska et al., 2014) and autophagy (Patel et al., 2013) pathways in goblet cells control mucin secretion, defects in which are linked to difficulties in clearing pathogenic bacteria and maintaining intestinal homeostasis and control colitis.
Jiménez Pilar P Dpepartment of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, and CINAD. University of Valladolid, - - 2014
Ribosome-inactivating lectins (RILs) are A-B type toxins like ricin whose molecular target is the large rRNA of eukaryotic ribosome. Administration of lethal doses of the RIL nigrin b isolated from elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) bark triggers specific intestinal derangement. The aim of the present research was to explore the early ...
Song Hou-Pan HP Spleen and Stomach Institute, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, 12 Airport Road, Baiyun District, Guangzhou 510405, PR - - 2014
Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz (AMK) has been used widely as a digestive and tonic in traditional Chinese medicine. AMK has shown noteworthy promoting effect on intestinal epithelial cell migration, which might represent a promising candidate for the treatment of intestinal mucosa injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the ...
Bigorgne Amélie E - - 2014
Multiple intestinal atresia (MIA) is a rare cause of bowel obstruction that is sometimes associated with a combined immunodeficiency (CID), leading to increased susceptibility to infections. The factors underlying this rare disease are poorly understood. We characterized the immunological and intestinal features of 6 unrelated MIA-CID patients. All patients displayed ...
Masahata Kazunori K 1] Laboratory of Immune Regulation, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan [2] Department of Pediatric Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, - - 2014
Gut-associated lymphoid tissues are responsible for the generation of IgA-secreting cells. However, the function of the caecal patch, a lymphoid tissue in the appendix, remains unknown. Here we analyse the role of the caecal patch using germ-free mice colonized with intestinal bacteria after appendectomy. Appendectomized mice show delayed accumulation of ...
Wang Mengshu M National Engineering Laboratory for AIDS Vaccine, School of Life Sciences, Jilin - - 2014
The purpose of this study was to investigate the permeability of exendin-4-loaded chitosan nanoparticles using the Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell monolayer as an in vitro model and the rat intestine as an ex vivo model of the human intestinal barrier. A series of formulations of sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) ...
Kux Kristina K Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cyprus Nicosia, - - 2014
The intestine, as a barrier epithelium, serves in the first line of defense against invading pathogens and damaging agents that enter the body via food ingestion. Maintenance of intestinal homeostasis is therefore key to organismal health. To maintain homeostasis, intestinal stem cells (ISCs) continuously replace lost or damaged intestinal epithelial ...
Grabinger T T Chair of Biochemical Pharmacology, Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, - - 2014
Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) not only have a critical function in the absorption of nutrients, but also act as a physical barrier between our body and the outside world. Damage and death of the epithelial cells lead to the breakdown of this barrier function and inflammation due to access of ...
Lo Sasso Giuseppe G Laboratory of Integrative and Systems Physiology, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, - - 2014
Dysfunction of Paneth and goblet cells in the intestine contributes to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). Here, we report a role for the NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase SIRT1 in the control of anti-bacterial defense. Mice with an intestinal specific Sirt1 deficiency (Sirt1int-/-) have more Paneth and goblet ...
Assunção Ricardo R a Food and Nutrition Department , National Institute of Health Doutor Ricardo Jorge I.P. , Lisboa , - - 2014
In human health risk assessment, ingestion of food is considered a major route of exposure to many contaminants, although the total amount of an ingested contaminant (external dose) does not always reflect the quantity available for the body (internal dose). In this study, two in vitro methods were applied to ...
Qu Dongfeng D 1University of Oklahoma Health Sciences - - 2013
We have previously reported that doublecortin-like kinase 1 (Dclk1) is a putative intestinal stem cell (ISC) marker. In this report, we evaluated the use of Dclk1 as a marker of surviving ISCs in response to treatment with high-dose total body irradiation (TBI). Both apoptotic and mitotic Dclk1+ cells were observed ...
Metcalfe Ciara C Molecular Oncology Department, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA 94080, - - 2013
The intestinal epithelium continually self-renews and can rapidly regenerate after damage. Lgr5 marks mitotically active intestinal stem cells (ISCs). Importantly, intestinal homeostasis can be maintained after depletion of Lgr5(+) cells due to the activation of Lgr5(-) reserve ISCs. The Lgr5(-) ISC populations are thought to play a similar role during ...
Vázquez-Carretero María D - - 2013
The myofibroblasts placed underneath the epithelium of the rodent small intestine express reelin and the reelin absence modifies both, the morphology and the cell renewal processes of the crypt-villus unit. In the developing central nervous system the reelin effects are mediated by the disabled-1 (Dab1) protein. The present work explores ...
Bollrath Julia - - 2013
The intestine represents one of the most challenging sites for the immune system as immune cells must be able to mount an efficient response to invading pathogens while tolerating the large number and diverse array of resident commensal bacteria. Foxp3(+) regulatory T-cells (Tregs) play a non-redundant role at maintaining this ...
Rossi Oriana - - 2013
In the intestinal mucosa, several adaptations of TLR signalling have evolved to avoid chronic inflammatory responses to the presence of commensal microbes. Here we investigated whether polarized monolayers of intestinal epithelial cells might regulate inflammatory responses by secreting IL-8 in a vectorial fashion (i.e. apical versus basolateral) depending on the ...
Shabafrooz Vahid - - 2013
The creation of engineered intestinal tissue has recently stimulated new endeavors with the ultimate goal of intestinal replacement for massive resections of bowel. In this context, we investigated the effect of hyaluronic acid (HA) on the physicochemical characteristics of gelatin-collagen scaffolds and its cytocompatibilty to the human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 ...
Kimura Rino - - 2013
It is known that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα), whose activation reduces hyperlipidemia, is highly expressed in intestinal epithelial cells. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) could improve postprandial hyperlipidemia, however, its relationship with intestinal PPARα activation is not revealed. In this study, we investigated whether DHA can affect postprandial hyperlipidemia by activating intestinal ...
Musatti Alida - - 2013
a glutathione (GSH) yeast-based biomass (S. cerevisiae) was used to investigate GSH stability, solubilization during gastrointestinal digestion and GSH intestinal transport. a post-growing procedure was applied to improve intracellular GSH yeast content. The presence of adenine (ADE) in the biotransformation solution (CYS-GLY-GLU mixture) and alternatively, a glucose shot after 4 ...
Milcheva Rositsa - - 2013
Trichinella spiralis actively passes through the epithelial cells of the intestinal mucosa but morphologically, these cells do not manifest apparent damage. The possible activation of apoptotic mechanisms in the small intestine mucosa after infection with larvae and adults of Trichinella spiralis was explored by immunohistochemistry. Sporadic individual cells of normal ...
Fischer Jared M JM Department of Molecular and Medical Genetics, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239, - - 2014
Although Apc mutation is widely considered an initiating event in colorectal cancer, little is known about the earliest stages of tumorigenesis following sporadic Apc loss. Therefore, we have utilized a novel mouse model that facilitates the sporadic inactivation of Apc via frameshift reversion of Cre in single, isolated cells and ...
Nakajima Kohei - - 2013
Intestinal intraepithelial T cells contribute to the regulation of inflammatory responses in the intestine; however, the molecular basis for their development and maintenance is unknown. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor complexes with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) and senses environmental factors, including gut microbiota. Here, we identify ARNT as ...
Kim Hyun Jung - - 2013
Existing in vitro models of human intestinal function commonly rely on use of established epithelial cell lines, such as Caco-2 cells, which form polarized epithelial monolayers but fail to mimic more complex intestinal functions that are required for drug development and disease research. We show here that a microfluidic 'Gut-on-a-Chip' ...
Nik Ali Moussavi - - 2013
Current protocols for separating adult intestinal epithelial cells from the underlying muscular and mesenchymal tissues typically involve extended incubations, harsh mechanical treatment, and exposure to either proteases or chelating agents. The drawbacks of these approaches include fragmentation, contamination with other cell types, reduced viability, and under-representation of crypt cells. Here ...
Melendez Jaime J Division of Experimental Hematology and Cancer Biology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio; Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Chemistry, P. Catholic University of Chile, Santiago, - - 2013
Cdc42 is a Rho GTPase that regulates diverse cellular functions, including proliferation, differentiation, migration, and polarity. In the intestinal epithelium, a balance among these events maintains homeostasis. We used genetic techniques to investigate the role of Cdc42 in intestinal homeostasis and its mechanisms. We disrupted Cdc42 specifically in intestinal epithelial cells by ...
Cadwell Ken - - 2013
While intestinal epithelial cells are known for secreting antimicrobial molecules, cell intrinsic defense mechanisms are less characterized. In this issue, Benjamin et al. (2013) demonstrate that MyD88 and autophagy within the intestinal epithelium detect invasive bacteria and prevent dissemination.
Ishida Kazuya - - 2013
  We previously reported that renal function is partly responsible for the interindividual variability of the pharmacokinetics of bisoprolol. The aim of the present study was to examine the variability of bioavailability (F) of bisoprolol in routinely treated Japanese patients and intestinal absorption characteristics of the drug. We first analyzed the ...
Hase Koji - - 2013
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In epithelial cells, protein sorting mechanisms regulate localization of plasma membrane proteins that generate and maintain cell polarity. The clathrin-adaptor protein (AP) complex AP-1B is expressed specifically in polarized epithelial cells, where it regulates basolateral sorting of membrane proteins. However, little is known about its physiological significance. ...
Kolf-Clauw Martine - - 2013
Enniatins, the most prevalent emerging mycotoxins, represent an emerging food safety issue, because of their common co-occurrence with other fusariotoxins such as trichothecenes co-produced by Fusarium spp on field grains and because of their extensive prevalence in grains. In this study, the intestinal toxicity of enniatin B1 (ENN) alone and ...
Monir M M - - 2013
The influence of restricted feeding on the distribution of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-containing endocrine cells in the chicken small intestine was investigated using immunohistochemical and morphometrical techniques. This study demonstrated that the restricted feeding had an influence on the activity of GLP-1-immunoreactive cells in the chicken small intestine. There were differences ...
McCann C J CJ Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV - - 2013
Loss or disruption of Kit(+) -interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) capable of generating pacemaker activity has been implicated in the development of numerous gastrointestinal motility disorders. We sought to develop a model where ICC could be allotransplanted into intestines naturally devoid of these cells. Enzymatically dispersed cells from the intestinal ...
Rubio Carlos A - - 2013
AIMS: To assess synaptophysin expression in columnar-lined oesophageal mucosa showing either goblet cells, known as intestinal metaplasia, or with accompanying oxyntic glands or pyloric glands. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of 159 biopsies, 53 were oesophageal (19 had intestinal metaplasia, 13 oxyntic glands, and 21 pyloric glands), 77 gastric (12 had goblet ...
Yang Yongzhi - - 2013
Although epithelial barrier dysfunction in the gut has been extensively reported in ulcerative colitis (UC), the pathogenesis of this disease is not completely understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of miR-21 in regulating intestinal epithelial barrier function in UC. Colonic biopsies were obtained from 30 chronic UC ...
De Mey Jan R JR CNRS, UMR 7213; Laboratoire de Biophotonique et Pharmacologie; Illkirch, France ; Université de Strasbourg; Strasbourg, - - 2013
The intestinal epithelium constitutes the barrier between the gut lumen and the rest of the body and a very actively renewing cell population. The crypt/villus and crypt/cuff units of the mouse small intestine and colon are its basic functional units. The field is confronted with competing concepts with regard to ...
Castellanos-Gonzalez Alejandro A Infectious Diseases Division, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA. - - 2013
The study of human intestinal pathogens has been limited by the lack of methods for the long-term culture of primary human intestinal epithelial cells (PECs). The development of infection models with PECs would allow a better understanding of host-parasite interactions. The objective of this study was to develop a novel ...
Torashima Yasuhiro - - 2013
Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a morbid and mortal condition characterized in most patients by insufficient intestinal surface area. Current management strategies are inadequate, but tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) offers a potential therapy. A barrier to translation of TESI is the generation of scalable mucosal surface area to significantly increase ...
Mantani Youhei - - 2013
The relationship between the invasion of indigenous bacteria into intestinal crypts and the proliferation of epithelial cells was histoplanimetrically investigated in the rat ascending colon. Indigenous bacteria preferentially adhered to the intestinal superficial epithelial cells in the mesenterium-attached mucosa (MAM) compared to those in the mesenterium-non-attached mucosa (MNM). Intestinal crypts ...
Liévin-Le Moal Vanessa - - 2013
Some water-borne protozoan parasites induce diseases through their membrane-associated functional structures and virulence factors that hijack the host cellular molecules and signaling pathways leading to structural and functional lesions in the intestinal barrier. In this MicroReview we analyze the insights on the mechanisms of pathogenesis of Entamoeba intestinalis, Giardia, and ...
Fan Zhuoyang - - 2013
The purpose of this study was to examine whether Vitamin E-TPGS had a function in promoting the secretion of chylomicrons in enterocytes. Therefore, we simulated the human intestinal epithelial cells by Caco-2 cell model to study the effect of Vitamin E-TPGS on the chylomicron secretion in vitro. Meanwhile, Chylomicron flow ...
Roach Gillian G Department of Biology, Clarkson University, 8 Clarkson Ave., Potsdam, NY 13699, - - 2013
The vertebrate intestinal epithelium is renewed continuously from stem cells at the base of the crypt in mammals or base of the fold in fish over the life of the organism. As stem cells divide, newly formed epithelial cells make an initial choice between a secretory or enterocyte fate. This ...
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