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Chatonnet Fabrice F Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, INRA, CNRS, Cedex, - - 2014
Thyroid hormone is required for the timely transition of Sertoli cells from proliferative to differentiating and maturing. This transition takes place during a critical developmental period in mammals, which in mice is the first post-natal week. In order to identify the underlying molecular mechanisms of this differentiation process, we used ...
Boroviak Thorsten T Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1GA, UK Wellcome Trust-Medical Research Council Cambridge Stem Cell Institute, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QR, - - 2014
Formation of a eutherian mammal requires concurrent establishment of embryonic and extraembryonic lineages. The functions of the trophectoderm and primitive endoderm are to enable implantation in the maternal uterus, axis specification and delivery of nutrients. The pluripotent epiblast represents the founding cell population of the embryo proper, which is protected ...
Atwell Brian J BJ Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Macquarie University, Sydney, 2109, NSW, - - 2014
I. II. III. IV. V. References SUMMARY: Anoxia tolerance in plants is distinguished by direction of the sparse supply of energy to processes crucial to cell maintenance and sometimes to growth, as in rice seedlings. In anoxic rice coleoptiles energy is used to synthesise proteins, take up K(+) , synthesise ...
Amante Dinah H DH 1 Inovio Pharmaceuticals , Plymouth Meeting, PA - - 2014
Abstract The skin is rich in antigen-presenting cells and as such is an excellent target tissue for vaccination strategies. Electroporation is a physical delivery method that potentiates the uptake of DNA vaccines into target cells. Intradermal electroporation offers a minimally invasive solution to DNA delivery in the clinic. Here we ...
Yang Xue-Wei - - 2014
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies and a major cause of cancer-related mortality in the world. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs that play essential roles in various stages during cancer progression. The aim of the current study was to elucidate the role of miR-1269 in ...
Wang Zhanjiang - - 2014
Cell migration is a highly regulated and complex cellular process to maintain proper homeostasis for various biological processes. Extracellular environment was identified as the main affecting factors determining the direction of cell crawling. It was shown experimentally that the cell prefers migrating to the area with denser or stiffer array ...
Govender Dhineshree D Non-viral Gene Delivery Laboratory, Discipline of Biochemistry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa, - - 2014
Mono-antennary galacto derivatives of cholesterol are being actively developed to direct lipoplexes to the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R) on hepatocytes. Here we report on a novel ASGP-R ligand cholest-5-en-3-yl [1-(β-D-galactopyranosyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]methylcarbamate (4), assembled by a copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (click chemistry), and compare it with cholest-5-en-3-yl-β-D-galactopyranoside (2) and cholest-5-en-3-yl [1-(β-D-galactopyranosyl-1'-oxy)phen-4-yl]carbamate (3), in liposome ...
Tang Q Y QY Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; Center for Biosystems, Neuroscience, and Nanotechnology, City University of Hong Kong, Hong - - 2014
In this study, we explored the concept of introducing asymmetry to cell shapes by patterned cell culture substrates, and investigated the consequence of this induced asymmetry to cell migration behaviours. Three patterns, named "Squares", "Grating", and "Arcs" were fabricated, representing different levels of rotational asymmetry. Using time-lapse imaging, we systematically ...
Hsieh Yi-Chun YC Department of Anatomy & Neurobiology, Program in Neuroscience, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, - - 2014
The subventricular zone is a proliferative region that provides neurons to olfactory bulb throughout life. The new neurons undergo cell migration from SVZ and travel until they reach their final destination. We previously showed in the early postnatal mouse a ventral migratory subpopulation from SVZ targets the Islands of Calleja ...
Bhatia Shikha S Department of Animal - - 2014
Here we have tested the hypothesis that prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) may enhance mucosal barrier function through direct modulation of goblet cell function. Human adenocarcinoma-derived LS174T cells, which exhibit an intestinal goblet cell-like phenotype, were used to examine the non-prebiotic effects of GOS on goblet cell functions. LS174T cells were treated ...
Shekari Farnaz F Medicinal and Natural Products Chemistry Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, - - 2014
Multidrug resistance (MDR) caused by P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1, MDR-1) transporter over-expression in cancer cells substantially limits the effectiveness of chemotherapy. 1,4-Dihydropyridines (DHPs) derivatives possess several pharmacological activities. In this study, 18 novel asymmetrical DHPs bearing 3-pyridyl methyl carboxylate and alkyl carboxylate moieties at C3 and C5 positions, respectively, as well ...
Kim Hye Sung HS Department of Biomedical Materials Engineering, College of Biomedical Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701, Republic of Korea. - - 2014
For the cell-directed association of nanofibrils, polymeric nanofibrils (NFs) were fabricated by fragmentation of electrospun nanofibers and subsequent surface-decoration with poly(methacrylate) derivatives via ATRP. The decorated NFs showed higher degrees of protein sequestration and enhanced cell proliferation with free infiltration of cells, which leads to hydrogel-like behavior.
Garbe James C JC a Life Sciences Division ; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory ; Berkeley , CA - - 2014
Telomerase reactivation and immortalization are critical for human carcinoma progression. However, little is known about the mechanisms controlling this crucial step, due in part to the paucity of experimentally tractable model systems that can examine human epithelial cell immortalization as it might occur in vivo. We achieved efficient non-clonal immortalization ...
Milkevych Viktor V Department of Engineering, Aarhus University, Hangøvej 2, 8200 Aarhus N, - - 2014
Members of the family Methanosarcinaceae are important archaeal representatives due to their broad functionality, ubiquitous presence, and functionality in harsh environments. A key characteristic is their multicellular (packet) morphology represented by aggregates of spatially confined cells. This morphology is driven by directed growth of cells in confinement with sequential variation ...
Rastogi Himanshu H Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Mahal, Jagatpura, Jaipur, 302025, - - 2014
Phenolic compounds are common ingredients in many dietary supplements and functional foods. However, data concerning physicochemical properties and permeability of polyphenols on the intestinal epithelial cells are scarce. The aims of this study were to determine the experimental partition coefficient (Log P), and parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA), to ...
Yamanaka Hiroaki H Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 1-3 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0781, - - 2014
In multicellular organisms, cell properties, such as shape, size and function are important in morphogenesis and physiological functions. Recently, 'cellular chirality' has attracted attention as a cellular property because it can cause asymmetry in the bodies of animals. In recent in vitro studies, the left-right bias of cellular migration and ...
Zhao Wen-Cui WC Pharmacy Department, 208th Hospital of PLA., Changchun, 130062, Jilin, - - 2014
To study the various processes involved in transcellular transport (TT) of huperzine A alone or in combination with ginkgolide B in Caco-2 and Madin-Darby canine renal (MDCK) cell monolayer. The transepithelial passage was assayed in the apical-to-basolateral (AP to BL) direction and opposite direction (BL to AP) in both cell ...
Peukes Julia J Institut Curie, Centre de Recherche, UMR168, Paris, France; Sorbonne Universités, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris 06, UMR 168, Paris, France; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR168, Paris, - - 2014
Mechanics is at the heart of many cellular processes and its importance has received considerable attention during the last two decades. In particular, the tension of cell membranes, and more specifically of the cell cortex, is a key parameter that determines the mechanical behavior of the cell periphery. However, the ...
Plášek Jaromír J Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Ke Karlovu 3, 12116 Prague, Czech Republic. Electronic address: - - 2014
Here we present a fluorometric method for direct determination of supernatant-free fluorescence spectra generated from fluorescently stained cells in suspension. The key element in the new technique is the design of an adapter to a standard cuvette holder that makes it possible to measure front-face fluorescence spectra from thin layers ...
Trendowski Matthew M Department of Biology, Syracuse University, 107 College Place, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA. - - 2014
Although the amount of progress cancer therapy has made in recent years is commendable, considerable limitations still remain. Most agents preferentially target rapidly proliferating cells, thereby destroying tumorigenic growths. Unfortunately, there are many labile cells in the patient that are also rapidly dividing, ultimately perpetuating significant side effects, including immunosuppression. ...
Gao Jing J Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA, 95817; School of Life Science, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming, Yunnan 650500, - - 2014
Directed migration of corneal epithelial cells (CECs) is critical for maintenance of corneal homeostasis as well as wound healing. Soluble cytoactive factors and the intrinsic chemical attributes of the underlying extracellularmatrix (ECM) participate in stimulating and directing migration. Additionally, numerous publications document the central importance of the intrinsic biophysical attributes ...
El-Sherry Taymour M TM Department of Theriogenology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt. - - 2014
We study rheotaxis of bull sperm inside microchannels to characterize the effects of flow and wall shape on sperm swimming behavior. We found that a large percentage of sperm cells, 80 to 84%, exhibited positive rheotaxis (sperm cells swimming against the flow) within flow velocities of 33 to 134 μm ...
Comelles Jordi J Laboratory of Cell Physics ISIS/IGBMC, CNRS UMR 7006 and University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France; Development and Stem Cells Program, IGBMC, CNRS UMR 7104, INSERM (U964) and University of Strasbourg, Illkirch, France; Nanobioengineering Group, Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), Barcelona, - - 2014
Cell migration is a crucial event during development and in disease. Mechanical constraints and chemical gradients can contribute to the establishment of cell direction, but their respective roles remain poorly understood. Using a microfabricated topographical ratchet, we show that the nucleus dictates the direction of cell movement through mechanical guidance ...
Jia Wei W Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, The University of Georgia, College of Pharmacy, 240 W. Green Street, Athens, Georgia - - 2014
The LPA3 receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor that binds extracellular lysophosphatidic acid and mediates intracellular signaling cascades. Although we previously reported that receptor inhibition using siRNA or chemical inhibition obliterates the viability of melanoma cells, the mechanism was unclear. Herein we hypothesized that amino acids comprising the Src homology ...
Varum Sandra S Institute of Anatomy, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich, - - 2014
Aberrant neural crest (NC) development is at the origin of many congenital diseases. Given the limitations in human NC cell isolation and expansion, the development of new strategies for NC generation is crucial. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Kim et al. (2014) report the direct reprogramming of postnatal fibroblasts into ...
Starke Josefine J *Department of Dermatology, University of Würzburg, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 2, 97080 Würzburg, - - 2014
Mobile cells discriminate and adapt to mechanosensory input from extracellular matrix (ECM) topographies to undergo actin-based polarization, shape change and migration. We tested 'cell-intrinsic' and adaptive components of actin-based cell migration in response to widely used in vitro collagen-based substrates, including a continuous 2D surface, discontinuous fibril-based surfaces (2.5D) and fibril-based ...
Laczko Rozalia R John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, - - 2014
Results of the present study support ocular epithelia-specific LOXL1 functions in exfoliation glaucoma that may include both dysregulated extracellular matrix cross-linking activity and cellular mechanisms involving a role for LOXL1, in direct interaction with Snail1, in promoting epithelial to mesenchymal transition and a potential shift towards fibrogenic epithelial cell phenotypes.
Housh Adam A AA California State University Sacramento - - 2014
Head direction (HD) cells, found in the rodent Papez circuit, are thought to form the neural circuitry responsible for directional orientation. Because NMDA transmission has been implicated in spatial tasks requiring directional orientation, we sought to determine if the NMDA antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801) would disrupt the directional signal carried by ...
Nance Jeremy J Helen L. and Martin S. Kimmel Center for Biology and Medicine, the Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, and Department of Cell Biology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016 Helen L. and Martin S. Kimmel Center for Biology and Medicine, the Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, and Department of Cell Biology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016 - - 2014
Polarization of early embryos along cell contact patterns-referred to in this paper as radial polarization-provides a foundation for the initial cell fate decisions and morphogenetic movements of embryogenesis. Although polarity can be established through distinct upstream mechanisms in Caenorhabditis elegans, Xenopus laevis, and mouse embryos, in each species, it results ...
Lu Jun J FuJian Provincial Key Laboratory of Transplant Biology, Fuzhou General Hospital/ or Dongfang Hospital, Xiamen University, Fuzhou 350025, China. Electronic address: - - 2014
The direct conversion of one cell type to another without an intermediate pluripotent stage is required for regenerative therapies. The ventral pancreas and liver share a common developmental origin. Recent studies have shown that hepatocytes could be induced to transdifferentiate into insulin-producing cells. In this paper, we showed a new ...
Mishra Amaresh A Institute of Organic Chemistry II and Advanced Materials, University of Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89081, Ulm, - - 2014
A new class of acceptor-substituted S,N-heteropentacenes is developed for vacuum-processed organic solar cells, providing encouraging power conversion efficiencies of up to 6.5%. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) investigations give a direct correlation between the blend film morphology and the photovoltaic parameters, such as short-circuit current density (JSC) and fill factor (FF).
Zhao Siwei S Micro-Nano Innovations (MiNI) Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA, USA. - - 2014
Both endogenous and externally applied electrical stimulation can affect a wide range of cellular functions, including growth, migration, differentiation and division. Among those effects, the electrical field (EF)-directed cell migration, also known as electrotaxis, has received broad attention because it holds great potential in facilitating clinical wound healing. Electrotaxis experiment ...
Li Qinghua Q Public Health College, Weifang Medical University, Weifang 261053, - - 2014
Preeclampsia (PE) is the leading cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying placentation facilitates the development of better intervention of this disease. MicroRNAs are strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of this syndrome. In current study, we found that miR-125b-1-3p was elevated in placentas derived ...
Yaffe Etai E The Mina & Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan - - 2014
The kinase Fer and its spermatogenic meiotic variant, FerT, are co-expressed in normal testes and cancerous tumors, but whether they exert related roles in spermatogenic or malignant cells has not been known. Here we show that Fer and FerT reside in the mitochondria of spermatogenic cells and are harnessed to ...
Das Sanskrita S Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi- 110016, India; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), 77 Cheong-Am Ro, Nam-gu, Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-784, South Korea; Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi- 110016, - - 2014
Bioprinting has exciting prospects of printing three dimensional (3D) tissue constructs by delivering living cells with appropriate matrix materials. However, progress of this field is severely slowed down currently due to limited choices of bioink for cell encapsulation and cytocompatible gelation mechanisms. Here we report development of clinically relevant sized ...
Snider Taylor Nicholas TN Department for Biologic and Materials Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, - - 2014
This review provides an overview of the state and future directions of development and pathology in the craniofacial complex in the context of Cranial Neural Crest Cells (CNCC). CNCC are a multipotent cell population that is largely responsible for forming the vertebrate head. We focus on findings that have increased ...
Saadaoui Mehdi M Institut de Biologie de l'École Normale Supérieure, Ecole Normale Supérieure, F-75005 Paris, France Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Medicale, U1024, F-75005 Paris, France Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 8197, F-75005 Paris, - - 2014
Oriented cell divisions are necessary for the development of epithelial structures. Mitotic spindle orientation requires the precise localization of force generators at the cell cortex via the evolutionarily conserved LGN complex. However, polarity cues acting upstream of this complex in vivo in the vertebrate epithelia remain unknown. In this paper, ...
Seifert Stefanie S Department of Neurobiology and Center for Glial Biology in Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, - - 2014
The molecular and cellular mechanisms governing cell motility and directed migration in response to the neuropeptide bradykinin are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that human glioma cells whose migration is guided by bradykinin generate bleb-like protrusions. We found that activation of the B2 receptor leads to a rise in free ...
Lau On Sun OS Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, - - 2014
Lineage-specific stem cells are critical for the production and maintenance of specific cell types and tissues in multicellular organisms. In Arabidopsis, the initiation and proliferation of stomatal lineage cells is controlled by the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor SPEECHLESS (SPCH). SPCH-driven asymmetric and self-renewing divisions allow flexibility in stomatal production and ...
Kornberg Thomas B TB Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, CA, - - 2014
Filopodia are cellular protrusions that have been implicated in many types of mechanosensory activities. Morphogens are signaling proteins that regulate the patterned development of embryos and tissues. Both have long histories that date to the beginnings of cell and developmental biology in the early 20th century, but recent findings tie ...
Wang Fang F Department of Pathophysiology, Key Immunology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, and Center for Neuroscience, Shantou University College of Medicine, 22 Xinling Road, Shantou, Guangdong 515041, - - 2014
Establishment of microtubule polarity is critical for directional cell migration involved in morphogenesis, differentiation, cell division, and metastasis. Current models, involving iterative microtubule capture and inactivation of microtubule depolymerizing mechanisms at the leading edge, cannot account for the biased migration exhibited by cells in culture in the absence of directional ...
Xia Zhigang Z High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences and University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026, People's Republic of - - 2014
In this paper, we provide and demonstrate a design of a unique cell with Pt single crystal bead electrode for electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope (ECSTM) measurements. The active metal Pt electrode can be protected from air contamination during the preparation process. The transparency of the cell allows the tip and ...
Zapanta Rinonos Serendipity S Pathology Department and Cell Biology Program, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA; * St. John's University, New York City, - - 2014
In many organisms, the geometry of encounter of haploid germ cells is arbitrary. In S. cerevisiae, the resulting zygotes have been seen to bud asymmetrically in several directions as they produce diploid progeny. What mechanisms account for the choice of direction and do the mechanisms directing polarity change over time ...
Lawrence Scott A SA Virginia Commonwealth University, United - - 2014
Folylpoly-γ-glutamate synthetase (FPGS) catalyzes the addition of multiple glutamates to tetrahydrofolate derivatives. Two mRNAs for the fpgs gene direct isoforms of FPGS to the cytosol and to mitochondria in mouse and human tissues. We sought to clarify the functions of these two compartmentalized isoforms. Stable cell lines were created that ...
Mähönen Ari Pekka AP 1] Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014, Finland [2] Molecular Genetics, Department of Biology, Utrecht University, Utrecht 3584 CH, the Netherlands [3] Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014, Finland - - 2014
During plant growth, dividing cells in meristems must coordinate transitions from division to expansion and differentiation, thus generating three distinct developmental zones: the meristem, elongation zone and differentiation zone. Simultaneously, plants display tropisms, rapid adjustments of their direction of growth to adapt to environmental conditions. It is unclear how stable ...
Loubéry Sylvain S Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Geneva, Quai Ernest Ansermet 30, 1211 Geneva, - - 2014
Cell fate decision during asymmetric division is mediated by the biased partition of cell fate determinants during mitosis [1-6]. In the case of the asymmetric division of the fly sensory organ precursor cells, directed Notch signaling from pIIb to the pIIa daughter endows pIIa with its distinct fate [1-6]. We ...
Kim Yong Jun YJ Institute for Cell Engineering, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA; Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, - - 2014
Neural crest (NC) generates diverse lineages including peripheral neurons, glia, melanocytes, and mesenchymal derivatives. Isolating multipotent human NC has proven challenging, limiting our ability to understand NC development and model NC-associated disorders. Here, we report direct reprogramming of human fibroblasts into induced neural crest (iNC) cells by overexpression of a ...
Liu Yuwu Y Department of Pathology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008, P.R. - - 2014
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators in cell processes. Emerging evidence has suggested that there is a direct association between miRNAs and cancer. However, the exact regulatory mechanisms of miRNAs in tumorigenesis are poorly understood. In the present study, we showed that miR-145 is able to significantly reduce mRNA and protein ...
Bultman Scott J SJ Department of Genetics and Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27516, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Dietary factors, microbial composition, and metabolism are intimately intertwined into a complex network whose activities influence important intestinal functions. In a recent issue of Cell, Belcheva et al. (2014) show that microbial-derived butyrate promotes proliferation of cancer-initiated intestinal epithelial cells, suggesting that it can act as an oncometabolite.
Ahmadzai Abdullah A AA Centre for Biophotonics, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, - - 2014
The epithelial-cell layer lining the two morphologically and functionally distinct segments of the mammalian intestinal tract, small intestine, and colon is constantly being renewed. This renewal is necessitated by a harsh lumen environment and is hypothesized to be driven by a small population of stem cells (SCs) that are believed ...
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