Search Results
Results 1 - 50 of 1159
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Dailey Megan J MJ Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801. Electronic address: - - 2014
Obese and lean individuals respond differently to nutrients with changes in digestion, absorption and hormone release. This may be a result of differences in intestinal epithelial morphology and function driven by the hyperphagia or the type of diet associated with obesity. It is well known that the maintenance and growth ...
Edogawa Shoko S 2nd Department of Internal Medicine, Osaka Medical College, Osaka, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
In contrast to accumulated knowledge about gastroduodenal injury associated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as indomethacin, small intestinal mucosal injuries have been noticed only recently, and the precise mechanism remains to be elucidated. To clarify the mechanism, we performed 2-DE on IEC-6 rat normal intestinal cells that were treated ...
Johansson Malin E V ME Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, - - 2014
Recent reports indicate that both the inflammasome (Wlodarska et al., 2014) and autophagy (Patel et al., 2013) pathways in goblet cells control mucin secretion, defects in which are linked to difficulties in clearing pathogenic bacteria and maintaining intestinal homeostasis and control colitis.
Jiménez Pilar P Dpepartment of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, and CINAD. University of Valladolid, - - 2014
Ribosome-inactivating lectins (RILs) are A-B type toxins like ricin whose molecular target is the large rRNA of eukaryotic ribosome. Administration of lethal doses of the RIL nigrin b isolated from elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) bark triggers specific intestinal derangement. The aim of the present research was to explore the early ...
Song Hou-Pan HP Spleen and Stomach Institute, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, 12 Airport Road, Baiyun District, Guangzhou 510405, PR - - 2014
Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz (AMK) has been used widely as a digestive and tonic in traditional Chinese medicine. AMK has shown noteworthy promoting effect on intestinal epithelial cell migration, which might represent a promising candidate for the treatment of intestinal mucosa injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the ...
Masahata Kazunori K 1] Laboratory of Immune Regulation, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan [2] Department of Pediatric Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, - - 2014
Gut-associated lymphoid tissues are responsible for the generation of IgA-secreting cells. However, the function of the caecal patch, a lymphoid tissue in the appendix, remains unknown. Here we analyse the role of the caecal patch using germ-free mice colonized with intestinal bacteria after appendectomy. Appendectomized mice show delayed accumulation of ...
Qu Dongfeng D 1University of Oklahoma Health Sciences - - 2013
We have previously reported that doublecortin-like kinase 1 (Dclk1) is a putative intestinal stem cell (ISC) marker. In this report, we evaluated the use of Dclk1 as a marker of surviving ISCs in response to treatment with high-dose total body irradiation (TBI). Both apoptotic and mitotic Dclk1+ cells were observed ...
Metcalfe Ciara C Molecular Oncology Department, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA 94080, - - 2013
The intestinal epithelium continually self-renews and can rapidly regenerate after damage. Lgr5 marks mitotically active intestinal stem cells (ISCs). Importantly, intestinal homeostasis can be maintained after depletion of Lgr5(+) cells due to the activation of Lgr5(-) reserve ISCs. The Lgr5(-) ISC populations are thought to play a similar role during ...
Vázquez-Carretero María D - - 2013
The myofibroblasts placed underneath the epithelium of the rodent small intestine express reelin and the reelin absence modifies both, the morphology and the cell renewal processes of the crypt-villus unit. In the developing central nervous system the reelin effects are mediated by the disabled-1 (Dab1) protein. The present work explores ...
Bigorgne Amélie E - - 2013
Multiple intestinal atresia (MIA) is a rare cause of bowel obstruction that is sometimes associated with a combined immunodeficiency (CID), leading to increased susceptibility to infections. The factors underlying this rare disease are poorly understood. We characterized the immunological and intestinal features of 6 unrelated MIA-CID patients. All patients displayed ...
Bollrath Julia - - 2013
The intestine represents one of the most challenging sites for the immune system as immune cells must be able to mount an efficient response to invading pathogens while tolerating the large number and diverse array of resident commensal bacteria. Foxp3(+) regulatory T-cells (Tregs) play a non-redundant role at maintaining this ...
Rossi Oriana - - 2013
In the intestinal mucosa, several adaptations of TLR signalling have evolved to avoid chronic inflammatory responses to the presence of commensal microbes. Here we investigated whether polarized monolayers of intestinal epithelial cells might regulate inflammatory responses by secreting IL-8 in a vectorial fashion (i.e. apical versus basolateral) depending on the ...
Shabafrooz Vahid - - 2013
The creation of engineered intestinal tissue has recently stimulated new endeavors with the ultimate goal of intestinal replacement for massive resections of bowel. In this context, we investigated the effect of hyaluronic acid (HA) on the physicochemical characteristics of gelatin-collagen scaffolds and its cytocompatibilty to the human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 ...
Kimura Rino - - 2013
It is known that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα), whose activation reduces hyperlipidemia, is highly expressed in intestinal epithelial cells. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) could improve postprandial hyperlipidemia, however, its relationship with intestinal PPARα activation is not revealed. In this study, we investigated whether DHA can affect postprandial hyperlipidemia by activating intestinal ...
Musatti Alida - - 2013
a glutathione (GSH) yeast-based biomass (S. cerevisiae) was used to investigate GSH stability, solubilization during gastrointestinal digestion and GSH intestinal transport. a post-growing procedure was applied to improve intracellular GSH yeast content. The presence of adenine (ADE) in the biotransformation solution (CYS-GLY-GLU mixture) and alternatively, a glucose shot after 4 ...
Milcheva Rositsa - - 2013
Trichinella spiralis actively passes through the epithelial cells of the intestinal mucosa but morphologically, these cells do not manifest apparent damage. The possible activation of apoptotic mechanisms in the small intestine mucosa after infection with larvae and adults of Trichinella spiralis was explored by immunohistochemistry. Sporadic individual cells of normal ...
Fischer Jared M - - 2013
Although Apc mutation is widely considered an initiating event in colorectal cancer, little is known about the earliest stages of tumorigenesis following sporadic Apc loss. Therefore, we have utilized a novel mouse model that facilitated the sporadic inactivation of Apc via frameshift reversion of Cre in single, isolated cells and ...
Nakajima Kohei - - 2013
Intestinal intraepithelial T cells contribute to the regulation of inflammatory responses in the intestine; however, the molecular basis for their development and maintenance is unknown. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor complexes with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) and senses environmental factors, including gut microbiota. Here, we identify ARNT as ...
Kim Hyun Jung - - 2013
Existing in vitro models of human intestinal function commonly rely on use of established epithelial cell lines, such as Caco-2 cells, which form polarized epithelial monolayers but fail to mimic more complex intestinal functions that are required for drug development and disease research. We show here that a microfluidic 'Gut-on-a-Chip' ...
Nik Ali Moussavi - - 2013
Current protocols for separating adult intestinal epithelial cells from the underlying muscular and mesenchymal tissues typically involve extended incubations, harsh mechanical treatment, and exposure to either proteases or chelating agents. The drawbacks of these approaches include fragmentation, contamination with other cell types, reduced viability, and under-representation of crypt cells. Here ...
Melendez Jaime J Division of Experimental Hematology and Cancer Biology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio; Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Chemistry, P. Catholic University of Chile, Santiago, - - 2013
Cdc42 is a Rho GTPase that regulates diverse cellular functions, including proliferation, differentiation, migration, and polarity. In the intestinal epithelium, a balance among these events maintains homeostasis. We used genetic techniques to investigate the role of Cdc42 in intestinal homeostasis and its mechanisms. We disrupted Cdc42 specifically in intestinal epithelial cells by ...
Cadwell Ken - - 2013
While intestinal epithelial cells are known for secreting antimicrobial molecules, cell intrinsic defense mechanisms are less characterized. In this issue, Benjamin et al. (2013) demonstrate that MyD88 and autophagy within the intestinal epithelium detect invasive bacteria and prevent dissemination.
Ishida Kazuya - - 2013
  We previously reported that renal function is partly responsible for the interindividual variability of the pharmacokinetics of bisoprolol. The aim of the present study was to examine the variability of bioavailability (F) of bisoprolol in routinely treated Japanese patients and intestinal absorption characteristics of the drug. We first analyzed the ...
Hase Koji - - 2013
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In epithelial cells, protein sorting mechanisms regulate localization of plasma membrane proteins that generate and maintain cell polarity. The clathrin-adaptor protein (AP) complex AP-1B is expressed specifically in polarized epithelial cells, where it regulates basolateral sorting of membrane proteins. However, little is known about its physiological significance. ...
Kolf-Clauw Martine - - 2013
Enniatins, the most prevalent emerging mycotoxins, represent an emerging food safety issue, because of their common co-occurrence with other fusariotoxins such as trichothecenes co-produced by Fusarium spp on field grains and because of their extensive prevalence in grains. In this study, the intestinal toxicity of enniatin B1 (ENN) alone and ...
Monir M M - - 2013
The influence of restricted feeding on the distribution of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-containing endocrine cells in the chicken small intestine was investigated using immunohistochemical and morphometrical techniques. This study demonstrated that the restricted feeding had an influence on the activity of GLP-1-immunoreactive cells in the chicken small intestine. There were differences ...
McCann C J - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Loss or disruption of Kit(+) -interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) capable of generating pacemaker activity has been implicated in the development of numerous gastrointestinal motility disorders. We sought to develop a model where ICC could be allotransplanted into intestines naturally devoid of these cells. METHODS: Enzymatically dispersed cells from ...
Rubio Carlos A - - 2013
AIMS: To assess synaptophysin expression in columnar-lined oesophageal mucosa showing either goblet cells, known as intestinal metaplasia, or with accompanying oxyntic glands or pyloric glands. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of 159 biopsies, 53 were oesophageal (19 had intestinal metaplasia, 13 oxyntic glands, and 21 pyloric glands), 77 gastric (12 had goblet ...
Yang Yongzhi - - 2013
Although epithelial barrier dysfunction in the gut has been extensively reported in ulcerative colitis (UC), the pathogenesis of this disease is not completely understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of miR-21 in regulating intestinal epithelial barrier function in UC. Colonic biopsies were obtained from 30 chronic UC ...
De Mey Jan R JR CNRS, UMR 7213; Laboratoire de Biophotonique et Pharmacologie; Illkirch, France ; Université de Strasbourg; Strasbourg, - - 2013
The intestinal epithelium constitutes the barrier between the gut lumen and the rest of the body and a very actively renewing cell population. The crypt/villus and crypt/cuff units of the mouse small intestine and colon are its basic functional units. The field is confronted with competing concepts with regard to ...
Li Ming-Yang - - 2013
Background: The ubiquitin editing enzyme A20 plays an important role in maintaining the homeostasis in the body Microbe-derived adjuvants are commonly used in animal models of intestinal allergy. Objective: This study aims to investigate the role of cholera toxin-induced A20 suppression in compromising intestinal barrier function. Methods: Human intestinal epithelial ...
Castellanos-Gonzalez Alejandro A Infectious Diseases Division, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA. - - 2013
The study of human intestinal pathogens has been limited by the lack of methods for the long-term culture of primary human intestinal epithelial cells (PECs). The development of infection models with PECs would allow a better understanding of host-parasite interactions. The objective of this study was to develop a novel ...
Torashima Yasuhiro - - 2013
Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a morbid and mortal condition characterized in most patients by insufficient intestinal surface area. Current management strategies are inadequate, but tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) offers a potential therapy. A barrier to translation of TESI is the generation of scalable mucosal surface area to significantly increase ...
Mantani Youhei - - 2013
The relationship between the invasion of indigenous bacteria into intestinal crypts and the proliferation of epithelial cells was histoplanimetrically investigated in the rat ascending colon. Indigenous bacteria preferentially adhered to the intestinal superficial epithelial cells in the mesenterium-attached mucosa (MAM) compared to those in the mesenterium-non-attached mucosa (MNM). Intestinal crypts ...
Liévin-Le Moal Vanessa - - 2013
Some water-borne protozoan parasites induce diseases through their membrane-associated functional structures and virulence factors that hijack the host cellular molecules and signaling pathways leading to structural and functional lesions in the intestinal barrier. In this MicroReview we analyze the insights on the mechanisms of pathogenesis of Entamoeba intestinalis, Giardia, and ...
Fan Zhuoyang - - 2013
The purpose of this study was to examine whether Vitamin E-TPGS had a function in promoting the secretion of chylomicrons in enterocytes. Therefore, we simulated the human intestinal epithelial cells by Caco-2 cell model to study the effect of Vitamin E-TPGS on the chylomicron secretion in vitro. Meanwhile, Chylomicron flow ...
Roach Gillian - - 2013
The vertebrate intestinal epithelium is renewed continuously from stem cells at the base of the crypt in mammals or base of the fold in fish over the life of the organism. As stem cells divide, newly formed epithelial cells make an initial choice between a secretory or enterocyte fate. This ...
Levin Daniel E - - 2013
Tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) represents a potential cure for short bowel syndrome (SBS). We previously reported full-thickness intestine formation using an organoid units-on-scaffold approach in rodent and swine models. Transplanted intestinal xenografts have been documented to survive from human fetal tissue but not from postnatal tissue. We now present the ...
Ohrvik Helena - - 2013
Newborns have a higher gastrointestinal uptake of cadmium than adults. In adults, the iron transporters DMT1 and FPN1 are involved in the intestinal absorption of cadmium, while in neonates, the mechanisms for cadmium absorption are unknown. We have investigated possible cadmium transporters in the neonatal intestine by applying a model ...
Yu Yong - - 2013
Loss of the endotoxin tolerance of intestinal epithelium contributes to a number of intestinal diseases. The etiology is not clear. Psychological stress is proposed to compromise the intestinal barrier function. The present study aims to elucidate the role of the stress-derived corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in breaching the established intestinal ...
Di Luccia Blanda - - 2013
It is now commonly accepted that the intestinal microbiota plays a crucial role in the gut physiology and homeostasis, and that both qualitative and quantitative alterations in the compositions of the gut flora exert profound effects on the host's intestinal cells. In spite of this, the details of the interaction ...
Kauffman Amanda L - - 2013
Physiologically relevant sources of absorptive intestinal epithelial cells are crucial for human drug transport studies. Human adenocarcinoma-derived intestinal cell lines, such as Caco-2, offer conveniences of easy culture maintenance and scalability, but do not fully recapitulate in vivo intestinal phenotypes. Additional sources of renewable physiologically relevant human intestinal cells would ...
Lai Chieh-Wen - - 2013
The intestinal mucosa exhibits high turnover rates with a balance of shedding and the migration of epithelial cells to maintain gut barrier function. Systemic diseases such as sepsis and major thermal injury accelerate the rate of cell shedding, subsequent gap formation, and gut barrier dysfunction. However, the detailed changes of ...
Carayol Nathalie - - 2013
As opposed to other invasive pathogens that reside into host cells in a parasitic mode, Shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery, invades the colonic mucosa but does not penetrate further to survive into deeper tissues. Instead, Shigella invades, replicates, and disseminates within the colonic mucosa. Bacterial invasion and spreading ...
Wang Yanbo - - 2013
Nano-selenium (Se), with its high bioavailability and low toxicity, has attracted wide attention for its potential application in the prevention of oxidative damage in animal tissues. However, the effect of nano-Se of different sizes on the intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) is poorly understood. Our ...
Bevins Charles L - - 2013
The intestinal mucosa interfaces with a complex, dense community of microorganisms, including hundreds of species of resident microbiota and many transient microbes entering from food- and water-borne sources. In the small intestine, Paneth cells (specialized secretory epithelial cells) produce abundant quantities of α-defensins and several other antibiotic peptides. Human Paneth ...
Maghsoudlou Panagiotis - - 2013
Successful tissue engineering involves the combination of scaffolds with appropriate cells in vitro or in vivo. Scaffolds may be synthetic, naturally-derived or derived from tissues/organs. The latter are obtained using a technique called decellularization. Decellularization may involve a combination of physical, chemical, and enzymatic methods. The goal of this technique ...
Hughes Norman Richard - - 2012
AIM: Cholangiocarcinomas display intestinal and pyloric gland metaplasia-cell phenotypes. Those that arise in chronically inflamed (fluke infested) bile ducts more frequently express the intestinal metaplasia-cell phenotype and p53 than sporadic cholangiocarcinomas. We wished to determine if adenocarcinomas of the gallbladder display a similar profile. METHODS: Adenocarcinoma, adenoma, and dysplastic and ...
Cervantes Sara - - 2012
The gastrointestinal tract carries out essential functions for the organism, including the digestion and absorption of nutrients. The cells lining the lumen of the gut tube derive from the endoderm, one of the three germ layers formed during gastrulation. The length of the intestinal tract determines its digestive and absorptive ...
Noah Taeko K - - 2012
The small and large intestines are tubular organs composed of several tissue types. The columnar epithelium that lines the inner surface of the intestines distinguishes the digestive physiology of each region of the intestine and consists of several distinct cell types that are rapidly and continually renewed by intestinal stem ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >