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Trendowski Matthew M Department of Biology, Syracuse University, 107 College Place, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA. - - 2014
Although the amount of progress cancer therapy has made in recent years is commendable, considerable limitations still remain. Most agents preferentially target rapidly proliferating cells, thereby destroying tumorigenic growths. Unfortunately, there are many labile cells in the patient that are also rapidly dividing, ultimately perpetuating significant side effects, including immunosuppression. ...
Gao Jing J Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA, 95817; School of Life Science, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming, Yunnan 650500, - - 2014
Directed migration of corneal epithelial cells (CECs) is critical for maintenance of corneal homeostasis as well as wound healing. Soluble cytoactive factors and the intrinsic chemical attributes of the underlying extracellularmatrix (ECM) participate in stimulating and directing migration. Additionally, numerous publications document the central importance of the intrinsic biophysical attributes ...
Housh Adam A AA California State - - 2014
Head direction (HD) cells, found in the rodent Papez circuit, are thought to form the neural circuitry responsible for directional orientation. Because NMDA transmission has been implicated in spatial tasks requiring directional orientation, we sought to determine if the NMDA antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801) would disrupt the directional signal carried by ...
El-Sherry Taymour M TM Department of Theriogenology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt. - - 2014
We study rheotaxis of bull sperm inside microchannels to characterize the effects of flow and wall shape on sperm swimming behavior. We found that a large percentage of sperm cells, 80 to 84%, exhibited positive rheotaxis (sperm cells swimming against the flow) within flow velocities of 33 to 134 μm ...
Comelles Jordi J Laboratory of Cell Physics ISIS/IGBMC, CNRS UMR 7006 and University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France; Development and Stem Cells Program, IGBMC, CNRS UMR 7104, INSERM (U964) and University of Strasbourg, Illkirch, France; Nanobioengineering Group, Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), Barcelona, - - 2014
Cell migration is a crucial event during development and in disease. Mechanical constraints and chemical gradients can contribute to the establishment of cell direction, but their respective roles remain poorly understood. Using a microfabricated topographical ratchet, we show that the nucleus dictates the direction of cell movement through mechanical guidance ...
Jia Wei W Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, The University of Georgia, College of Pharmacy, 240 W. Green Street, Athens, Georgia - - 2014
The LPA3 receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor that binds extracellular lysophosphatidic acid and mediates intracellular signaling cascades. Although we previously reported that receptor inhibition using siRNA or chemical inhibition obliterates the viability of melanoma cells, the mechanism was unclear. Herein we hypothesized that amino acids comprising the Src homology ...
Varum Sandra S Institute of Anatomy, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich, - - 2014
Aberrant neural crest (NC) development is at the origin of many congenital diseases. Given the limitations in human NC cell isolation and expansion, the development of new strategies for NC generation is crucial. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Kim et al. (2014) report the direct reprogramming of postnatal fibroblasts into ...
Starke Josefine J *Department of Dermatology, University of Würzburg, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 2, 97080 Würzburg, - - 2014
Mobile cells discriminate and adapt to mechanosensory input from extracellular matrix (ECM) topographies to undergo actin-based polarization, shape change and migration. We tested 'cell-intrinsic' and adaptive components of actin-based cell migration in response to widely used in vitro collagen-based substrates, including a continuous 2D surface, discontinuous fibril-based surfaces (2.5D) and fibril-based ...
Laczko Rozalia R John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, - - 2014
Results of the present study support ocular epithelia-specific LOXL1 functions in exfoliation glaucoma that may include both dysregulated extracellular matrix cross-linking activity and cellular mechanisms involving a role for LOXL1, in direct interaction with Snail1, in promoting epithelial to mesenchymal transition and a potential shift towards fibrogenic epithelial cell phenotypes.
Nance Jeremy J Helen L. and Martin S. Kimmel Center for Biology and Medicine, the Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, and Department of Cell Biology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016 Helen L. and Martin S. Kimmel Center for Biology and Medicine, the Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, and Department of Cell Biology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016 - - 2014
Polarization of early embryos along cell contact patterns-referred to in this paper as radial polarization-provides a foundation for the initial cell fate decisions and morphogenetic movements of embryogenesis. Although polarity can be established through distinct upstream mechanisms in Caenorhabditis elegans, Xenopus laevis, and mouse embryos, in each species, it results ...
Lu Jun J FuJian Provincial Key Laboratory of Transplant Biology, Fuzhou General Hospital/ or Dongfang Hospital, Xiamen University, Fuzhou 350025, China. Electronic address: - - 2014
The direct conversion of one cell type to another without an intermediate pluripotent stage is required for regenerative therapies. The ventral pancreas and liver share a common developmental origin. Recent studies have shown that hepatocytes could be induced to transdifferentiate into insulin-producing cells. In this paper, we showed a new ...
Mishra Amaresh A Institute of Organic Chemistry II and Advanced Materials, University of Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89081, Ulm, - - 2014
A new class of acceptor-substituted S,N-heteropentacenes is developed for vacuum-processed organic solar cells, providing encouraging power conversion efficiencies of up to 6.5%. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) investigations give a direct correlation between the blend film morphology and the photovoltaic parameters, such as short-circuit current density (JSC) and fill factor (FF).
Zhao Siwei S Micro-Nano Innovations (MiNI) Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA, USA. - - 2014
Both endogenous and externally applied electrical stimulation can affect a wide range of cellular functions, including growth, migration, differentiation and division. Among those effects, the electrical field (EF)-directed cell migration, also known as electrotaxis, has received broad attention because it holds great potential in facilitating clinical wound healing. Electrotaxis experiment ...
Li Qinghua Q Public Health College, Weifang Medical University, Weifang 261053, - - 2014
Preeclampsia (PE) is the leading cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying placentation facilitates the development of better intervention of this disease. MicroRNAs are strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of this syndrome. In current study, we found that miR-125b-1-3p was elevated in placentas derived ...
Yaffe Etai E The Mina & Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan - - 2014
The kinase Fer and its spermatogenic meiotic variant, FerT, are co-expressed in normal testes and cancerous tumors, but whether they exert related roles in spermatogenic or malignant cells has not been known. Here we show that Fer and FerT reside in the mitochondria of spermatogenic cells and are harnessed to ...
Das Sanskrita S Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi- 110016, India; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), 77 Cheong-Am Ro, Nam-gu, Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-784, South Korea; Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi- 110016, - - 2014
Bioprinting has exciting prospects of printing three dimensional (3D) tissue constructs by delivering living cells with appropriate matrix materials. However, progress of this field is severely slowed down currently due to limited choices of bioink for cell encapsulation and cytocompatible gelation mechanisms. Here we report development of clinically relevant sized ...
Snider Taylor Nicholas TN Department for Biologic and Materials Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, - - 2014
This review provides an overview of the state and future directions of development and pathology in the craniofacial complex in the context of Cranial Neural Crest Cells (CNCC). CNCC are a multipotent cell population that is largely responsible for forming the vertebrate head. We focus on findings that have increased ...
Saadaoui Mehdi M Institut de Biologie de l'École Normale Supérieure, Ecole Normale Supérieure, F-75005 Paris, France Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Medicale, U1024, F-75005 Paris, France Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 8197, F-75005 Paris, - - 2014
Oriented cell divisions are necessary for the development of epithelial structures. Mitotic spindle orientation requires the precise localization of force generators at the cell cortex via the evolutionarily conserved LGN complex. However, polarity cues acting upstream of this complex in vivo in the vertebrate epithelia remain unknown. In this paper, ...
Seifert Stefanie S Department of Neurobiology and Center for Glial Biology in Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, - - 2014
The molecular and cellular mechanisms governing cell motility and directed migration in response to the neuropeptide bradykinin are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that human glioma cells whose migration is guided by bradykinin generate bleb-like protrusions. We found that activation of the B2 receptor leads to a rise in free ...
Lau On Sun OS Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, - - 2014
Lineage-specific stem cells are critical for the production and maintenance of specific cell types and tissues in multicellular organisms. In Arabidopsis, the initiation and proliferation of stomatal lineage cells is controlled by the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor SPEECHLESS (SPCH). SPCH-driven asymmetric and self-renewing divisions allow flexibility in stomatal production and ...
Kornberg Thomas B TB Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, CA, - - 2014
Filopodia are cellular protrusions that have been implicated in many types of mechanosensory activities. Morphogens are signaling proteins that regulate the patterned development of embryos and tissues. Both have long histories that date to the beginnings of cell and developmental biology in the early 20th century, but recent findings tie ...
Wang Fang F Department of Pathophysiology, Key Immunology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, and Center for Neuroscience, Shantou University College of Medicine, 22 Xinling Road, Shantou, Guangdong 515041, - - 2014
Establishment of microtubule polarity is critical for directional cell migration involved in morphogenesis, differentiation, cell division, and metastasis. Current models, involving iterative microtubule capture and inactivation of microtubule depolymerizing mechanisms at the leading edge, cannot account for the biased migration exhibited by cells in culture in the absence of directional ...
Xia Zhigang Z High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences and University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026, People's Republic of - - 2014
In this paper, we provide and demonstrate a design of a unique cell with Pt single crystal bead electrode for electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope (ECSTM) measurements. The active metal Pt electrode can be protected from air contamination during the preparation process. The transparency of the cell allows the tip and ...
Zapanta Rinonos Serendipity S Pathology Department and Cell Biology Program, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA; * St. John's University, New York City, - - 2014
In many organisms, the geometry of encounter of haploid germ cells is arbitrary. In S. cerevisiae, the resulting zygotes have been seen to bud asymmetrically in several directions as they produce diploid progeny. What mechanisms account for the choice of direction and do the mechanisms directing polarity change over time ...
Lawrence Scott A SA Virginia Commonwealth University, United - - 2014
Folylpoly-γ-glutamate synthetase (FPGS) catalyzes the addition of multiple glutamates to tetrahydrofolate derivatives. Two mRNAs for the fpgs gene direct isoforms of FPGS to the cytosol and to mitochondria in mouse and human tissues. We sought to clarify the functions of these two compartmentalized isoforms. Stable cell lines were created that ...
Mähönen Ari Pekka AP 1] Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014, Finland [2] Molecular Genetics, Department of Biology, Utrecht University, Utrecht 3584 CH, the Netherlands [3] Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014, Finland - - 2014
During plant growth, dividing cells in meristems must coordinate transitions from division to expansion and differentiation, thus generating three distinct developmental zones: the meristem, elongation zone and differentiation zone. Simultaneously, plants display tropisms, rapid adjustments of their direction of growth to adapt to environmental conditions. It is unclear how stable ...
Loubéry Sylvain S Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Geneva, Quai Ernest Ansermet 30, 1211 Geneva, - - 2014
Cell fate decision during asymmetric division is mediated by the biased partition of cell fate determinants during mitosis [1-6]. In the case of the asymmetric division of the fly sensory organ precursor cells, directed Notch signaling from pIIb to the pIIa daughter endows pIIa with its distinct fate [1-6]. We ...
Kim Yong Jun YJ Institute for Cell Engineering, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA; Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, - - 2014
Neural crest (NC) generates diverse lineages including peripheral neurons, glia, melanocytes, and mesenchymal derivatives. Isolating multipotent human NC has proven challenging, limiting our ability to understand NC development and model NC-associated disorders. Here, we report direct reprogramming of human fibroblasts into induced neural crest (iNC) cells by overexpression of a ...
Liu Yuwu Y Department of Pathology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008, P.R. - - 2014
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators in cell processes. Emerging evidence has suggested that there is a direct association between miRNAs and cancer. However, the exact regulatory mechanisms of miRNAs in tumorigenesis are poorly understood. In the present study, we showed that miR-145 is able to significantly reduce mRNA and protein ...
Bultman Scott J SJ Department of Genetics and Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27516, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Dietary factors, microbial composition, and metabolism are intimately intertwined into a complex network whose activities influence important intestinal functions. In a recent issue of Cell, Belcheva et al. (2014) show that microbial-derived butyrate promotes proliferation of cancer-initiated intestinal epithelial cells, suggesting that it can act as an oncometabolite.
Ahmadzai Abdullah A AA Centre for Biophotonics, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, - - 2014
The epithelial-cell layer lining the two morphologically and functionally distinct segments of the mammalian intestinal tract, small intestine, and colon is constantly being renewed. This renewal is necessitated by a harsh lumen environment and is hypothesized to be driven by a small population of stem cells (SCs) that are believed ...
Reznikov Elizabeth A EA Division of Nutritional - - 2014
Lactoferrin is a bioactive milk protein that stimulates cell proliferation in vitro; however, limited in vivo evidence exists to allow lactoferrin to be incorporated into infant formula. Herein, the effect of dietary bovine lactoferrin (bLF) on neonatal intestinal growth and maturation was investigated guided by the hypothesis that bLF would ...
Løkka Guro G Department of Basic Sciences and Aquatic Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: - - 2014
The intestinal mucosa is an important port of entry for many pathogens. Information of antigenic uptake mechanisms is essential to understand and to possibly prevent infections. In teleosts, several studies have aimed at investigating particulate uptake in the gastrointestinal system that seems to vary dependent on species and antigen. In ...
Shokoohinia Yalda Y Department of Pharmacognosy and Biotechnology, School of Pharmacy, P.O. Box 671451673, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran; Novel Drug Delivery Research Center, School of Pharmacy, P.O. Box 671451673, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. Electronic address: - - 2015
Since flavonols are antioxidant agents, they could in principle, beneficially affect neurodegenerative diseases where reactive oxygen species are involved. Quercetin derivatives are the most abundant dietary flavonoids, and we have investigated the capacity of quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (Q3G) isolated from Echinophora cinerea to protect PC12 cells from H2O2-induced cytotoxicity. Direct cytotoxic effects ...
Hine Brad B CSIRO, Animal, Food & Health Sciences, Armidale, NSW, 2350, - - 2014
Intestinal uptake of vitamin B12 (hereafter B12) is impaired in a significant proportion of the human population. This impairment is due to inherited or acquired defects in the expression or function of proteins involved in the binding of diet-derived B12 and its uptake into intestinal cells. Bovine milk is an ...
Sheridan Brian S BS Department of Immunology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The intestinal mucosa promotes T cell responses that might be beneficial for effective mucosal vaccines. However, intestinal resident memory T (Trm) cell formation and function are poorly understood. We found that oral infection with Listeria monocytogenes induced a robust intestinal CD8 T cell response and blocking effector T cell migration showed that intestinal ...
Dailey Megan J MJ Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801. Electronic address: - - 2014
Obese and lean individuals respond differently to nutrients with changes in digestion, absorption and hormone release. This may be a result of differences in intestinal epithelial morphology and function driven by the hyperphagia or the type of diet associated with obesity. It is well known that the maintenance and growth ...
Edogawa Shoko S 2nd Department of Internal Medicine, Osaka Medical College, Osaka, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
In contrast to accumulated knowledge about gastroduodenal injury associated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as indomethacin, small intestinal mucosal injuries have been noticed only recently, and the precise mechanism remains to be elucidated. To clarify the mechanism, we performed 2-DE on IEC-6 rat normal intestinal cells that were treated ...
Johansson Malin E V ME Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, - - 2014
Recent reports indicate that both the inflammasome (Wlodarska et al., 2014) and autophagy (Patel et al., 2013) pathways in goblet cells control mucin secretion, defects in which are linked to difficulties in clearing pathogenic bacteria and maintaining intestinal homeostasis and control colitis.
Jiménez Pilar P Dpepartment of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, and CINAD. University of Valladolid, - - 2014
Ribosome-inactivating lectins (RILs) are A-B type toxins like ricin whose molecular target is the large rRNA of eukaryotic ribosome. Administration of lethal doses of the RIL nigrin b isolated from elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) bark triggers specific intestinal derangement. The aim of the present research was to explore the early ...
Song Hou-Pan HP Spleen and Stomach Institute, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, 12 Airport Road, Baiyun District, Guangzhou 510405, PR - - 2014
Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz (AMK) has been used widely as a digestive and tonic in traditional Chinese medicine. AMK has shown noteworthy promoting effect on intestinal epithelial cell migration, which might represent a promising candidate for the treatment of intestinal mucosa injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the ...
Bigorgne Amélie E - - 2014
Multiple intestinal atresia (MIA) is a rare cause of bowel obstruction that is sometimes associated with a combined immunodeficiency (CID), leading to increased susceptibility to infections. The factors underlying this rare disease are poorly understood. We characterized the immunological and intestinal features of 6 unrelated MIA-CID patients. All patients displayed ...
Masahata Kazunori K 1] Laboratory of Immune Regulation, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan [2] Department of Pediatric Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, - - 2014
Gut-associated lymphoid tissues are responsible for the generation of IgA-secreting cells. However, the function of the caecal patch, a lymphoid tissue in the appendix, remains unknown. Here we analyse the role of the caecal patch using germ-free mice colonized with intestinal bacteria after appendectomy. Appendectomized mice show delayed accumulation of ...
Wang Mengshu M National Engineering Laboratory for AIDS Vaccine, School of Life Sciences, Jilin - - 2014
The purpose of this study was to investigate the permeability of exendin-4-loaded chitosan nanoparticles using the Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell monolayer as an in vitro model and the rat intestine as an ex vivo model of the human intestinal barrier. A series of formulations of sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) ...
Kux Kristina K Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cyprus Nicosia, - - 2014
The intestine, as a barrier epithelium, serves in the first line of defense against invading pathogens and damaging agents that enter the body via food ingestion. Maintenance of intestinal homeostasis is therefore key to organismal health. To maintain homeostasis, intestinal stem cells (ISCs) continuously replace lost or damaged intestinal epithelial ...
Grabinger T T Chair of Biochemical Pharmacology, Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, - - 2014
Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) not only have a critical function in the absorption of nutrients, but also act as a physical barrier between our body and the outside world. Damage and death of the epithelial cells lead to the breakdown of this barrier function and inflammation due to access of ...
Lo Sasso Giuseppe G Laboratory of Integrative and Systems Physiology, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, - - 2014
Dysfunction of Paneth and goblet cells in the intestine contributes to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). Here, we report a role for the NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase SIRT1 in the control of anti-bacterial defense. Mice with an intestinal specific Sirt1 deficiency (Sirt1int-/-) have more Paneth and goblet ...
Assunção Ricardo R a Food and Nutrition Department , National Institute of Health Doutor Ricardo Jorge I.P. , Lisboa , - - 2014
In human health risk assessment, ingestion of food is considered a major route of exposure to many contaminants, although the total amount of an ingested contaminant (external dose) does not always reflect the quantity available for the body (internal dose). In this study, two in vitro methods were applied to ...
Boneschansker Leo L 1] Transplant Research Program and The Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] The Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [3] Department of Surgery, BioMEMS Resource Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Shriners Hospitals for Children, Boston, Massachusetts 02129, USA - - 2014
Leukocyte migration into tissues is characteristic of inflammation. It is usually measured in vitro as the average displacement of populations of cells towards a chemokine gradient, not acknowledging other patterns of cell migration. Here, we designed and validated a microfluidic migration platform to simultaneously analyse four qualitative migration patterns: chemoattraction, ...
Xu Wei W Department of Environmental Engineering, Laboratory of Electrochemistry and Energy Storage; State Key laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, P. R. - - 2014
Nickel is an ideal non-noble metal anode catalyst for direct urea fuel cell (DUFC) due to its high activity. However, there exists a large overpotential toward urea electrooxidation. Herein, NiCo/C bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared with various Co contents (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 wt%) to improve the activity. The best ...
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