Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1189
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Green Myesha R - - 2006
B cell to plasma cell maturation is marked by the loss of MHC class II expression. This loss is due to the silencing of the MHC class II transcriptional coactivator CIITA. In this study, experiments to identify the molecular mechanism responsible for CIITA silencing were conducted. CIITA is expressed from ...
Stallings Christina L - - 2006
The ORF29 gene of varicella-zoster virus encodes a single-stranded DNA binding protein that is predominantly nuclear during lytic infection but appears to be restricted to the cytoplasm of latently infected neurons. Following reactivation, ORF29p accumulates in the nuclei of neurons, suggesting that its confinement to the cytosol may be critical ...
Jiang Haibing - - 2006
Huntington's disease is a neurodegenerative disease caused by an expanded polyglutamine stretch within the huntingtin protein. Transfection of mutant huntingtin causes cell toxicity and depletion of CREB binding protein (CBP) or its recruitment into huntingtin aggregates. However, the role of CBP has been controversial and the relationship between polyglutamine-induced toxicity ...
Okada Takashi - - 2006
Histones are vital structural proteins of chromatin that influence its dynamics and function. The tissue-specific expression of histone variants has been shown to regulate the expression of specific genes and genomic stability in animal systems. Here we report on the characterization of five histone H3 variants expressed in Lilium generative ...
Gerlich Daniel - - 2006
Cohesin is a multisubunit protein complex that links sister chromatids from replication until segregation. The lack of obvious cohesin-targeting-specific sequences on DNA, as well as cohesin's molecular arrangement as a large ring, has led to the working hypothesis that cohesin acts as a direct topological linker. To preserve the identity ...
Shiurba Robert - - 2006
Infrared rays from sunlight permeate the earth's atmosphere, yet little is known about their interactions with living organisms. To learn whether they affect cell structure and function, we tested the ciliated protozoan, Tetrahymena thermophila. These unicellular eukaryotes aggregate in swarms near the surface of freshwater habitats, where direct and diffuse ...
Vanhoutteghem Amandine - - 2006
Basonuclin (bn) 1 possesses three separated pairs of zinc fingers and a nuclear localization signal. It is largely confined to the basal cells of stratified squamous epithelia and to reproductive germ cells. bn1 can shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, and its location is correlated with the proliferative potential ...
Chen Jie - - 2006
Curcumin (Cur), a promising anticancer drug, kills tumor cells through either diminishing or promoting reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In this study, it was investigated whether trichostatin A (TSA), a specific histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and a new anticancer drug, could improve the anticancer activity of low concentrations of Cur ...
Grove Linnette E - - 2006
A range of cellular evidence supporting a G1 tetraploidy checkpoint was obtained from different assay methods including flow cytometry, immunoblotting, and microscopy. Cancer research would benefit if these cellular properties could instead be measured by a single, quantitative, automated assay method, such as high content analysis (HCA). Thus, nocodazole-treated cells ...
Lammerding Jan J Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02139, USA. - - 2006
Mutations in the nuclear envelope proteins lamins A and C cause a broad variety of human diseases, including Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, dilated cardiomyopathy, and Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. Cells lacking lamins A and C have reduced nuclear stiffness and increased nuclear fragility, leading to increased cell death under mechanical strain and ...
Ghosh Maloy - - 2006
The binding of the prereplication complex proteins Orc1, Orc2, Mcm3, Mcm7, and Cdc6 and the novel DNA unwinding element (DUE) binding protein DUE-B to the endogenous human c-myc replicator was studied by chromatin immunoprecipitation. In G(1)-arrested HeLa cells, Mcm3, Mcm7, and DUE-B were prominent near the DUE, while Orc1 and ...
Banerjee Bidisha - - 2006
Local chromatin compaction undergoes dynamic perturbations to regulate genetic processes. To address this, the direct measurement of the fluidity of chromatin structure is carried out in single live cells using steady-state anisotropy imaging and polarization modulation microscopy. Fluorescently tagged core and linker histones are used to probe different structural aspects ...
Dahl Kris Noel - - 2006
The nuclear lamina is a network of structural filaments, the A and B type lamins, located at the nuclear envelope and throughout the nucleus. Lamin filaments provide the nucleus with mechanical stability and support many basic activities, including gene regulation. Mutations in LMNA, the gene encoding A type lamins, cause ...
O'Neill Laura P - - 2006
Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) defines the genomic distribution of proteins and their modifications but is limited by the cell numbers required (ideally >10(7)). Here we describe a protocol that uses carrier chromatin and PCR, 'carrier' ChIP (CChIP), to permit analysis of as few as 100 cells. We assayed histone modifications at ...
Smirlis Despina - - 2006
Episomal expression of Leishmania histone H1 sense mRNAs in Leishmania major promastigotes was found previously to result in overexpression of this molecule and to reduce parasite infectivity in vitro. Herein, we evaluated the in vivo infectivity of these transfectants, in BALB/c mice, and showed that it is dramatically reduced. No ...
Niu Yamei - - 2006
Dok1 is believed to be a mainly cytoplasmic adaptor protein which down-regulates mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, inhibits cell proliferation and transformation, and promotes cell spreading and cell migration. Here we show that Dok1 shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Treatment of cells with leptomycin B (LMB), a specific inhibitor of ...
Fields Michele L - - 2006
Autoreactive B cells may become activated in a T-independent manner via synergistic engagement of the BCR and TLRs. Using the VH3H9 Ig H chain transgene to track anti-chromatin B cells, we demonstrate that VH3H9/Vlambda1 anti-chromatin B cells proliferate in response to stimulatory oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs, suggesting that these autoreactive ...
Catley Laurence - - 2006
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have shown cytotoxicity as single agents in preclinical studies for multiple myeloma (MM) cells. LBH589 is a novel hydroxamic acid derivative that at low nanomolar concentrations induces apoptosis in MM cells resistant to conventional therapies via caspase activation and poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Significant synergistic cytotoxicity ...
Sanchez-Gonzalez Blanca - - 2006
We studied the cellular and molecular effects of the combination of an anthracycline with 2 different histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs): vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid) and valproic acid (VPA). The 10% inhibitory concentration (IC(10)) of idarubicin was 0.5 nM in MOLT4 and 1.5 nM in HL60 cells. Concentrations above 0.675 microM ...
López-Larraza Daniel M - - 2006
Bleomycin (BLM) induces DNA damage in living cells. In this report we analyzed the role of chromatin compactness in the differential response of mosquito (ATC-15) and mammalian (CHO) cells to DNA strand breaks induced by BLM. We used cells unexposed and exposed to sodium butyrate (NaB), which induces chromatin decondensation. ...
Causevic Adisa - - 2006
In order to evaluate the permanent chromatin remodeling in plant allowing their high developmental plasticity, three sugarbeet cell lines (Beta vulgaris L. altissima) originating from the same mother plant and exhibiting graduate states of differentiation were analyzed. Cell differentiation has been estimated by the cell redox state characterized by 36 ...
Dantuma Nico P - - 2006
Protein degradation, chromatin remodeling, and membrane trafficking are critically regulated by ubiquitylation. The presence of several coexisting ubiquitin-dependent processes, each of crucial importance to the cell, is remarkable. This brings up questions on how the usage of this versatile regulator is negotiated between the different cellular processes. During proteotoxic stress, ...
Jirsova K - - 2006
Snake-like chromatin (SLC) is a nuclear alteration occurring under various pathological conditions and in different tissues. The aim of this study was the morphological and immunocytochemical characterization of SLC-positive conjunctival epithelial cells from keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) patients. Impression cytology specimens from the upper bulbar conjunctiva of 10 controls and 10 ...
Valacco Maria Pia - - 2006
p8 is a stress-induced protein, biochemically related to the architectural factor HMG-I/Y, overexpressed in many cancers and required for tumor expansion. The molecular mechanisms by which p8 may exert its effect in aspects of growth is unknown. Using immunocytochemistry, we found that p8 presents nuclear localization in sub-confluent cells, but ...
Liu Yi-Hsiang - - 2006
Low-power laser therapy has become popular in clinical applications including promoting wound healing and pain relief. However, effects of this photoradiation on human hepatoma cells are rarely studied. Previously, we found 808 nm gallium aluminum arsenide (GaAlAs) continuous wave laser had an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of human hepatoma ...
Sanematsu Fumiyuki - - 2006
Asf1 (anti-silencing function 1), a well conserved protein from yeast to humans, acts as a histone chaperone and is predicted to participate in a variety of chromatin-mediated cellular processes. To investigate the physiological role of vertebrate Asf1 in vivo, we generated a conditional Asf1-deficient mutant from chicken DT40 cells. Induction ...
Knowles David W - - 2006
The organization of nuclear proteins is linked to cell and tissue phenotypes. When cells arrest proliferation, undergo apoptosis, or differentiate, distribution of nuclear proteins changes. Conversely, forced alteration of the distribution of nuclear proteins modifies cell phenotype. Immunostaining and fluorescence microscopy have been critical for such findings. However, there is ...
Awaya, Kazuhiko / Tomonaga, ...
The aberrant mitochondrion within the nucleus of reticulum cell of the mouse thymus has been illustrated and described.
Ke Qingdong - - 2006
Although it has been well established that insoluble nickel compounds are potent carcinogens and soluble nickel compounds are less potent, the mechanisms remain unclear. Nickel compounds are weakly mutagenic, but cause epigenetic effects in cells. Previous studies have shown that insoluble nickel compounds enter cells by phagocytosis and silence gene ...
Kuriyama Mitsuhito - - 2006
The activation of the calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T cells cascade during the development of pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy has been previously reported in a number of studies. In addition, numerous pharmacological studies involving calcineurin inhibitors such as FK506 and cyclosporine A have now demonstrated that these agents can prevent such ...
Manskikh V N - - 2006
We studied the relationship between mitotic regimen and incidence of micronuclei in liver and bone marrow cells of tailless amphibians under the effect of genotoxic carcinogen N-nitroso-N-methylcarbamide. Micronuclei appeared in amphibian somatic cells normally and after mutagenic exposure as a result of abnormal mitosis and of "interphase chromatin diminution". This ...
Boyne Michael T MT - - 2006
Top Down analysis revealed that at least fourteen genes encoding histone H2A are coexpressed in HeLa cells. Characterization of these species revealed that all except H2A.Z and H2A.F/Z were alpha-N-acetylated, H2A.O and H2A.C,D,I,N,P were the most abundant, and those exceeding approximately 10% abundance lacked post-translational modifications. This unequivocal identification of ...
Liu, Gin-Yun
The mitosis to interphase transition in higher eukaryotic cells is characterized by reassembly of the nuclear envelope, decondensation of the chromosomes, and reformation of the nucleolus. Coincident with reassembly of the nuclear envelope, nucleocytoplasmic trafficking is also restored, which allows for reestablishment of the nuclear and cytoplamsic compartments. To determine ...
Blazquez Cristina - - 2006
KDR (kinase insert domain receptor) phosphorylation induces several effects which lead eventually to cell proliferation and survival. The precise mechanisms by which KDR, once it is activated, communicates with the nucleus are starting to be understood but have not yet been completely unravelled. Two in vitro studies on animal cell ...
Gurdon J B - - 2006
This is a personal historical account of events leading from the earliest success in vertebrate nuclear transfer to the current hope that nuclear reprogramming may facilitate cell replacement therapy. Early morphological evidence in Amphibia for the toti- or multipotentiality of some nuclei from differentiated cells first established the principle of ...
Håkelien Anne-Mari - - 2006
Directly turning a somatic cell type into another would be beneficial for producing replacement cells for therapeutic purposes. To this end, novel cell reprogramming strategies are being developed. We describe here methods for functionally reprogramming a somatic cell using an extract derived from another somatic cell type. The procedure involves ...
Collas Philippe - - 2006
Recent evidence indicates that nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts from undifferentiated cells can reprogram gene expression and promote pluripotency in otherwise more developmentally restricted cell types. Notably, extracts of embryonal carcinoma cells or embryonic stem cells have been shown to elicit a shift in the transcriptional program of target cells to ...
Hewitson Tim D - - 2006
Monoclonal antibodies to proliferation associated antigens have long been used to histologically localize mitogenesis. However, techniques that distinguish cells in the synthetic or S phase have tended to rely on the in vivo incorporation of tritiated thymidine or thymidine analogs such as bromodeoxyuridine. The necessity to pulse with these labels ...
Håkelien Anne-Mari - - 2006
The direct transformation of one somatic cell type into another somatic cell type would be beneficial for producing isogenic replacement cells for therapeutic use. Various approaches for altering cell fate are being developed, including methods for differentiating stem cells isolated from somatic tissues. This chapter describes a procedure for turning ...
Komatsu Naoki - - 2006
Current chemotherapy of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) produces only a modest increase in survival time. New approaches are needed for this disease. The development of lung cancer is associated with silencing tumor suppressor genes that can occur not only by deletion or mutation, but also by epigenetic changes ...
Smetana K - - 2006
The diameter of nucleoli was measured in human bone marrow early granulocytic precursors after visualization by a simple cytochemical method for demonstration of RNA. Such method facilitated to clearly see nucleolar bodies without perinucleolar chromatin, including those of micronucleoli. The bone marrow of patients suffering from chronic myeloid leukaemia (untreated ...
Moreno-Moreno Olga - - 2006
Centromere identity is determined by the formation of a specialized chromatin structure containing the centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENP-A. The precise molecular mechanism(s) accounting for the specific deposition of CENP-A at centromeres are still poorly understood. Centromeric deposition of CENP-A, which is independent of DNA replication, might involve specific chromatin ...
Grigoryev Sergei A - - 2006
All cells that constitute mature tissues in an eukaryotic organism undergo a multistep process of cell differentiation. At the terminal stage of this process, cells either cease to proliferate forever or rest for a very long period of time. During terminal differentiation, most of the genes that are required for ...
Strahl Thomas T Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, - - 2005
Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase, Pik1, is essential for viability. GFP-Pik1 localized to cytoplasmic puncta and the nucleus. The puncta colocalized with Sec7-DsRed, a marker of trans-Golgi cisternae. Kap95 (importin-beta) was necessary for nuclear entry, but not Kap60 (importin-alpha), and exportin Msn5 was required for nuclear exit. Frq1 (frequenin orthologue) also is essential ...
Laskey Ron - - 2005
Compared to sperm nuclei, nuclei from adult somatic cells replicate inefficiently in frog egg extract. In this issue of Cell, Lemaitre et al. (2005) show that pre-exposure of erythrocyte nuclei to a mitotic extract removes this difference, reorganizes the chromatin into shorter loops, and allows replication at much shorter intervals ...
Marks Paul A - - 2005
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are a new class of targeted anticancer agents. Several HDAC inhibitors are in clinical trials and have shown significant activity against a spectrum of both haematological and solid tumours at doses that are well tolerated by patients. HDACs and histone acetyltransferases can, by reversible acetylation, modify ...
McNairn Adrian J AJ Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, S.U.N.Y. Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York 13210, - - 2005
The origin recognition complex (ORC) is a conserved heterohexamer required for the formation of pre-replication (pre-RC) complexes at origins of DNA replication. Many studies of ORC subunits have been carried out in transformed human cell lines but the properties of ORC in primary cells have not been addressed. Here, we ...
Kipp Benjamin R BR Molecular Cytology and Imaging Laboratory, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic Foundation, Roschester, Minnesota, - - 2005
To determine which nuclear morphologic and background features are most associated with normal and abnormal chromosome patterns in urine cells evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with Vysis UroVysion (Downers Grove, Illinois, USA). One hundred specimens were analyzed and the nuclear morphologic and background features compared between FISH-negative (disomic) ...
Adelfalk Caroline - - 2005
Mutations in the lamin A gene have been shown, among other defects, to give rise to Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) and to atypical Werner syndrome (WS), both of which are progeroid disorders. Here, we have investigated well-characterized WS patient cell strains that are compound heterozygous for mutations in the WRN ...
Hake Sandra B - - 2006
Covalent histone modifications and the incorporation of histone variants bring about changes in chromatin structure that in turn alter gene expression. Interest in non-allelic histone variants has been renewed, in part because of recent work on H3 (and other) histone variants. However, only in mammals do three non-centromeric H3 variants ...
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