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Results 351 - 400 of 1169
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Ito Takashi - - 2007
The covalent modification of histone tails has emerged as a crucial step in controlling the eucaryotic genomes. Eucaryotic cells must possess mechanisms for condensing and decondensing chromatin. Moreover, chromatin condensation is particularly evident during mitosis and apoptotic cell death, whereas chromatin relaxation is necessary for replication, repair, recombination and transcription. ...
Hatayama Hajime - - 2007
The short fatty acid, butyrate, which is produced by intestinal anaerobic bacteria in the colon, has inhibitory activity on histone deacetylases (HDACs). Treatment of the human colon cancer cell line, LS174T, with 1-2 mM sodium butyrate stimulated MUC2 mucin production, as determined by histological PAS staining of carbohydrate chains of ...
Taggart Linda R - - 2007
High frequency ultrasound imaging (20 to 60 MHz) is increasingly being used in small animal imaging, molecular imaging and for the detection of structural changes during cell and tissue death. Ultrasonic tissue characterization techniques were used to measure the speed of sound, attenuation coefficient and integrated backscatter coefficient for (a) ...
Takenaka Yasuhiro - - 2007
Cytoplasmic exchange between conjugating cells of Paramecium caudatum has been implicated by mating experiments using wild-type and behavioral mutant cells. To observe macromolecular transport between mating cells, we cloned and expressed the P. caudatum histone H2B gene as a fusion protein attached to an enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) named ...
Pickard Bryce W - - 2007
The type 1 PTH/PTH-related peptide receptor (PTH1R) is a class B G protein-coupled receptor that demonstrates immunoreactivity in the nucleus as well as cytoplasm of target cells. Our previous studies on the PTH1R have shown that it associates with the importin family of transport regulatory proteins. To investigate the role ...
Freberg Christel T - - 2007
Analyses of molecular events associated with reprogramming somatic nuclei to pluripotency are scarce. We previously reported the reprogramming of epithelial cells by extract of undifferentiated embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells. We now demonstrate reprogramming of DNA methylation and histone modifications on regulatory regions of the developmentally regulated OCT4 and NANOG genes ...
Sanna Elena - - 2007
Caveolin-1 (cav-1), a member of a protein family associated mainly with cell membrane microdomains in many cell types, acts as a tumor suppressor in ovarian carcinoma cells. Biochemical analyses demonstrated that cav-1 was also localized in the nuclei of ovarian carcinoma cells, endogenously (SKOV3) or ectopically (IGtC3) expressing cav-1. By ...
Jiang Shujuan - - 2007
To characterize the molecular pathways involved in apoptosis following administration of histone deacetylase inhibitors to Type I and II endometrial cancer cells. Ark2, Ishikawa, and AN3 cell lines representing both Type I and II endometrial cancers were treated with various concentrations of oxamflatin and HDAC inhibitor-1. Cell apoptosis was determined ...
Hemberger Myriam M Laboratory of Developmental Genetics and Imprinting, The Babraham Institute, Babraham Research Campus, Cambridge CB22 3AT, United - - 2007
Epigenetic modifications of nucleosomal histones are thought to mediate transcriptional states and impose heritable instructions upon differentiation. In a paper of Torres-Padilla and colleagues in Nature, protein modification at arginine residues, namely of core histones, is correlated with cell fate determination at the 4-cell stage in the mouse embryo. This ...
Pan Yong - - 2007
Mature lamin A is formed after post-translational processing of prelamin A, which includes prenylation and carboxymethylation of cysteine 661 in the CaaX motif, followed by two proteolytic cleavages by zinc metalloprotease (ZMPSTE24). We expressed several prelamin A mutants, C661S (defective in prenylation), Y646F (designed to undergo prenylation but not second ...
Paulson James R - - 2007
It is well known that inactivation of Cdk1/Cyclin B is required for cells to exit mitosis. The work reported here tests the hypothesis that Cdk1/Cyclin B inactivation is not only necessary but also sufficient to induce mitotic exit and reestablishment of the interphase state. This hypothesis predicts that inactivation of ...
Hartl Tom - - 2007
We have used gene amplification in Drosophila follicle cells as a model of metazoan DNA replication to address whether changes in histone modifications are associated with replication origin activation. We observe that replication initiation is associated with distinct histone modifications. Acetylated lysines K5, K8, and K12 on histone H4 and ...
Ishihara Kenji - - 2007
EoL-1 cells differentiate into eosinophils in the presence of n-butyrate, but the mechanism has remained to be elucidated. Because n-butyrate can inhibit histone deacetylases, we hypothesized that the inhibition of histone deacetylases induces the differentiation of EoL-1 cells into eosinophils. In this study, using n-butyrate and two other histone deacetylase ...
Gardner Colin R - - 2007
Under the influence of RANKL, in the presence of M-CSF, monocyte/macrophage precursor cells entered the osteoclast lineage and expressed the osteoclast marker tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). These cells were motile and began to differentiate by contacting and fusing together, initially forming cells with several nuclei. All sizes of cells continued ...
Bártová Eva - - 2007
Mammalian heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1alpha, HP1beta, HP1gamma subtypes) and transcriptional intermediary factor TIF1beta play an important role in the regulation of chromatin structure and function. Here, we investigated the nuclear arrangement of these proteins during differentiation of embryonal carcinoma P19 cells into primitive endoderm and into the neural pathway. Additionally, ...
Singleton Stephanie - - 2007
During the process of mammalian spermiogenesis, a significant reorganisation of the chromatin structure occurs involving the sequential substitution of somatic histones with protamines. In the human sperm nucleus, approximately 15% of the basic nuclear protein complement is maintained as histones. Human testis/sperm-specific histone H2B (hTSH2B) is a variant of the ...
Long Fuhui - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The distribution of chromatin-associated proteins plays a key role in directing nuclear function. Previously, we developed an image-based method to quantify the nuclear distributions of proteins and showed that these distributions depended on the phenotype of human mammary epithelial cells. Here we describe a method that creates a hierarchical ...
Lee Soyoung - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The human herpes simplex virus (HSV) host cell factor HCF-1 is a transcriptional coregulator that associates with both histone methyl- and acetyltransferases, and a histone deacetylase and regulates cell proliferation and division. In HSV-infected cells, HCF-1 associates with the viral protein VP16 to promote formation of a multiprotein-DNA transcriptional ...
Latham Keith E - - 2007
The recent successes in producing cloned offspring by somatic cell nuclear transfer are nothing short of remarkable. This process requires the somatic cell chromatin to substitute functionally for both the egg and the sperm genomes, and indeed the processing of the transferred nuclei shares aspects in common with processing of ...
Clough Emily - - 2007
SET domain proteins are histone lysine methyltransferases (HMTs) that play essential roles in development. Here we show for the first time that histone methylation occurs in both the germ cells and somatic cells of the Drosophila ovary, and demonstrate in vivo that an HMT, the product of the eggless (egg) ...
Schulmeister Alexandra - - 2007
Mammalian histone variant H3.3 differs from replication-dependent histone H3.1 by five amino acids, including replacement of alanine 31 by serine. H3.3 is expressed throughout the cell cycle, primarily deposited at transcriptionally active loci independent of S-phase. Data from mammalian cells suggest that phosphorylation of serine 31 (H3.3S31P) plays a role ...
Kaneko Motoko - - 2007
BACKGROUND: EoL-1 cells have a FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion gene which causes the transformation of eosinophilic precursor cells into leukemia cells. Recently, we suggested that the induction of differentiation of EoL-1 cells into eosinophils by the HDAC inhibitors apicidin and n-butyrate is due to the continuous inhibition of HDACs. However, neither apicidin ...
Smetana K - - 2007
The present study was designed to provide complementary information on the effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi's) such as trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium valproate (VAP) on nuclei and nucleoli of leukemic myeloblasts represented by cultured Kasumi-1 cells. The number of apoptotic cells and bodies with characteristic chromatin condensation and ...
Oki Masaya - - 2007
In eukaryotic cells, relaxed interphase chromatin undergoes pronounced changes resulting in formation of highly condensed mitotic chromosomes. Moreover, chromatin condensation is particularly evident during mitosis and apoptotic cell death, whereas chromatin relaxation is necessary for replication, repair, recombination and transcription. The post-translational modifications of histone tails such as reversible acetylation, ...
Egger Gerda - - 2007
Epigenetic drugs are in use in clinical trials of various human cancers and are potent at reactivating genes silenced by DNA methylation and chromatin modifications. We report here the analysis of a set of normal fibroblast and cancer cell lines after combination treatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) ...
Yang Hui - - 2006
When starved of essential nutrients, yeast cells cease mitotic division and enter an alternative state called the 'stationary phase'. In this paper, we report that stationary cells enter two major pathways: meiosis and apoptosis. Using transmission electron microscopy, five types of cell were identified in the stationary phase: (1) cells ...
Sampathkumar Srinivasa-Gopalan - - 2006
Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-carbohydrate hybrid molecules that target both histone deacetylation and glycosylation pathways to achieve sugar-dependent activity against cancer cells are described in this article. Specifically, n-butyrate esters of N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (But4ManNAc, 1) induced apoptosis, whereas corresponding N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (But4GlcNAc, 2), D-mannose (But5Man, 3), or glycerol (tributryin, 4) derivatives only provided ...
Neeli Indira - - 2007
Specificity for double-stranded DNA can arise due to somatic mutations within one of the branches of an autoreactive B cell clone. However, it is not known whether a different autospecificity predates anti-dsDNA and whether separate offshoots of an expanding B cell clone retain or evolve alternative specificities. We compared 3H9, ...
Romeo Melissa - - 2006
We discuss the causes contributing to the variance of the spectra of individual human epithelial cells. This aspect has largely been ignored in previous studies, but needs to be understood for diagnostic applications of infrared micro-spectroscopy. We attribute the spectral variance to Mie scattering, and to variations of nuclear contributions ...
Junaid Asad - - 2007
Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted phosphoprotein involved in cellular proliferation and associated with tumor progression. Although an intracellular form of OPN has been described, its function remains unknown. In this study, a novel nuclear location for intracellular OPN and a correlation with cell division were demonstrated. OPN distinctly localized to ...
Green Myesha R - - 2006
B cell to plasma cell maturation is marked by the loss of MHC class II expression. This loss is due to the silencing of the MHC class II transcriptional coactivator CIITA. In this study, experiments to identify the molecular mechanism responsible for CIITA silencing were conducted. CIITA is expressed from ...
Stallings Christina L - - 2006
The ORF29 gene of varicella-zoster virus encodes a single-stranded DNA binding protein that is predominantly nuclear during lytic infection but appears to be restricted to the cytoplasm of latently infected neurons. Following reactivation, ORF29p accumulates in the nuclei of neurons, suggesting that its confinement to the cytosol may be critical ...
Jiang Haibing - - 2006
Huntington's disease is a neurodegenerative disease caused by an expanded polyglutamine stretch within the huntingtin protein. Transfection of mutant huntingtin causes cell toxicity and depletion of CREB binding protein (CBP) or its recruitment into huntingtin aggregates. However, the role of CBP has been controversial and the relationship between polyglutamine-induced toxicity ...
Okada Takashi - - 2006
Histones are vital structural proteins of chromatin that influence its dynamics and function. The tissue-specific expression of histone variants has been shown to regulate the expression of specific genes and genomic stability in animal systems. Here we report on the characterization of five histone H3 variants expressed in Lilium generative ...
Gerlich Daniel - - 2006
Cohesin is a multisubunit protein complex that links sister chromatids from replication until segregation. The lack of obvious cohesin-targeting-specific sequences on DNA, as well as cohesin's molecular arrangement as a large ring, has led to the working hypothesis that cohesin acts as a direct topological linker. To preserve the identity ...
Shiurba Robert - - 2006
Infrared rays from sunlight permeate the earth's atmosphere, yet little is known about their interactions with living organisms. To learn whether they affect cell structure and function, we tested the ciliated protozoan, Tetrahymena thermophila. These unicellular eukaryotes aggregate in swarms near the surface of freshwater habitats, where direct and diffuse ...
Vanhoutteghem Amandine - - 2006
Basonuclin (bn) 1 possesses three separated pairs of zinc fingers and a nuclear localization signal. It is largely confined to the basal cells of stratified squamous epithelia and to reproductive germ cells. bn1 can shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, and its location is correlated with the proliferative potential ...
Chen Jie - - 2006
Curcumin (Cur), a promising anticancer drug, kills tumor cells through either diminishing or promoting reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In this study, it was investigated whether trichostatin A (TSA), a specific histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and a new anticancer drug, could improve the anticancer activity of low concentrations of Cur ...
Grove Linnette E - - 2006
A range of cellular evidence supporting a G1 tetraploidy checkpoint was obtained from different assay methods including flow cytometry, immunoblotting, and microscopy. Cancer research would benefit if these cellular properties could instead be measured by a single, quantitative, automated assay method, such as high content analysis (HCA). Thus, nocodazole-treated cells ...
Lammerding Jan - - 2006
Mutations in the nuclear envelope proteins lamins A and C cause a broad variety of human diseases, including Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, dilated cardiomyopathy, and Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. Cells lacking lamins A and C have reduced nuclear stiffness and increased nuclear fragility, leading to increased cell death under mechanical strain and ...
Ghosh Maloy - - 2006
The binding of the prereplication complex proteins Orc1, Orc2, Mcm3, Mcm7, and Cdc6 and the novel DNA unwinding element (DUE) binding protein DUE-B to the endogenous human c-myc replicator was studied by chromatin immunoprecipitation. In G(1)-arrested HeLa cells, Mcm3, Mcm7, and DUE-B were prominent near the DUE, while Orc1 and ...
Banerjee Bidisha - - 2006
Local chromatin compaction undergoes dynamic perturbations to regulate genetic processes. To address this, the direct measurement of the fluidity of chromatin structure is carried out in single live cells using steady-state anisotropy imaging and polarization modulation microscopy. Fluorescently tagged core and linker histones are used to probe different structural aspects ...
Dahl Kris Noel - - 2006
The nuclear lamina is a network of structural filaments, the A and B type lamins, located at the nuclear envelope and throughout the nucleus. Lamin filaments provide the nucleus with mechanical stability and support many basic activities, including gene regulation. Mutations in LMNA, the gene encoding A type lamins, cause ...
O'Neill Laura P - - 2006
Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) defines the genomic distribution of proteins and their modifications but is limited by the cell numbers required (ideally >10(7)). Here we describe a protocol that uses carrier chromatin and PCR, 'carrier' ChIP (CChIP), to permit analysis of as few as 100 cells. We assayed histone modifications at ...
Smirlis Despina - - 2006
Episomal expression of Leishmania histone H1 sense mRNAs in Leishmania major promastigotes was found previously to result in overexpression of this molecule and to reduce parasite infectivity in vitro. Herein, we evaluated the in vivo infectivity of these transfectants, in BALB/c mice, and showed that it is dramatically reduced. No ...
Niu Yamei - - 2006
Dok1 is believed to be a mainly cytoplasmic adaptor protein which down-regulates mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, inhibits cell proliferation and transformation, and promotes cell spreading and cell migration. Here we show that Dok1 shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Treatment of cells with leptomycin B (LMB), a specific inhibitor of ...
Fields Michele L - - 2006
Autoreactive B cells may become activated in a T-independent manner via synergistic engagement of the BCR and TLRs. Using the VH3H9 Ig H chain transgene to track anti-chromatin B cells, we demonstrate that VH3H9/Vlambda1 anti-chromatin B cells proliferate in response to stimulatory oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs, suggesting that these autoreactive ...
Catley Laurence - - 2006
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have shown cytotoxicity as single agents in preclinical studies for multiple myeloma (MM) cells. LBH589 is a novel hydroxamic acid derivative that at low nanomolar concentrations induces apoptosis in MM cells resistant to conventional therapies via caspase activation and poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Significant synergistic cytotoxicity ...
Sanchez-Gonzalez Blanca - - 2006
We studied the cellular and molecular effects of the combination of an anthracycline with 2 different histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs): vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid) and valproic acid (VPA). The 10% inhibitory concentration (IC(10)) of idarubicin was 0.5 nM in MOLT4 and 1.5 nM in HL60 cells. Concentrations above 0.675 microM ...
López-Larraza Daniel M - - 2006
Bleomycin (BLM) induces DNA damage in living cells. In this report we analyzed the role of chromatin compactness in the differential response of mosquito (ATC-15) and mammalian (CHO) cells to DNA strand breaks induced by BLM. We used cells unexposed and exposed to sodium butyrate (NaB), which induces chromatin decondensation. ...
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