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Gerlitz Gabi - - 2007
Directed cell migration is a property central to multiple basic biological processes. Here, we show that directed cell migration is associated with global changes in the chromatin fiber. Polarized posttranslational changes in histone H1 along with a transient decrease in H1 mobility were detected in cells facing the scratch in ...
Gillespie Peter J - - 2007
Xenopus egg extract supports all the major cell-cycle transitions in vitro. We have used a proteomics approach to identify proteins whose abundance on chromatin changes during the course of an in vitro cell cycle. One of the proteins we identified was ELYS/MEL-28, which has recently been described as the earliest-acting ...
Kim You Sun - - 2007
The function of eukaryotic histone deacetylase (HDAC) has been extensively studied for its critical role in transcriptional regulation and carcinogenesis. However that of the prokaryotic counterpart remains largely unknown. Recently, we cloned HDAC-like protein in Thermus caldophilus GK24 (Tca HDAC) from a genomic library of the microorganism based on homology ...
Sokol Agnieszka - - 2007
Animal cells react to mitogenic or stress stimuli by rapid up-regulation of immediate-early (IE) genes and a parallel increase in characteristic modifications of core histones: chromatin changes, collectively termed the nucleosomal response. With regard to plants little is known about the accompanying changes at the chromatin level. We have used ...
Ciossek Thomas - - 2008
Most cellular assays that quantify the efficacy of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors measure hyperacetylation of core histone proteins H3 and H4. Here we describe a new approach, directly measuring cellular HDAC enzymatic activity using the substrate Boc-K(Ac)-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin (AMC). After penetration into HeLa cervical carcinoma or K562 chronic myeloid leukemia cells, ...
Bonenfant Débora - - 2007
The N-terminal tails of the four core histones are subject to several types of covalent post-translational modifications that have specific roles in regulating chromatin structure and function. Here we present an extensive analysis of the core histone modifications occurring through the cell cycle. Our MS experiments characterized the modification patterns ...
Eiblmaier Martin - - 2007
64Cu radiopharmaceuticals have shown tumor growth inhibition in tumor-bearing animal models with a relatively low radiation dose that may be related to nuclear localization of the 64Cu in tumor cells. Here we address whether the nuclear localization of 64Cu from a 64Cu-labeled chelator-somatostatin conjugate is related to the dissociation of ...
Platta Christopher S - - 2007
BACKGROUND: An estimated 162,460 people will die of lung cancer in the United States in 2006, making it the leading cause of cancer deaths. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) accounts for 20% of all lung cancers and exhibits aggressive behavior with early metastases. Current treatments yield five-year survival rates of ...
Bártová Eva - - 2008
Human embryonic stem cells (hES) are unique in their pluripotency and capacity for self-renewal. Therefore, we have studied the differences in the level of chromatin condensation in pluripotent and all-trans retinoic acid-differentiated hES cells. Nuclear patterns of the Oct4 (6p21.33) gene, responsible for hES cell pluripotency, the C-myc (8q24.21) gene, ...
Seki Yoshiyuki - - 2007
We previously reported that primordial germ cells (PGCs) in mice erase genome-wide DNA methylation and histone H3 lysine9 dimethylation (H3K9me2), and instead acquire high levels of tri-methylation of H3K27 (H3K27me3) during their migration, a process that might be crucial for the re-establishment of potential totipotency in the germline. We here ...
Ercan, Sevinc
Mating-type switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is directional. MATa cells choose HMLα for recombination and MATα cells choose HMRa. This is called donor preference and controlled by the recombination enhancer (RE). Donor preference during mating-type switching has been attributed to differences in chromatin structure for the left arm of chromosome III. ...
Kosman Jeffrey - - 2007
SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine), although primarily known as a secreted, matricellular protein, has also been identified in urothelial cell nuclei. Many biological activities, including inhibition of cell adhesion and repression of DNA synthesis, have been ascribed to SPARC, but the influence of its intracellular localization on ...
Feierl Eva - - 2007
The LE cell has been one of the first immunological signs of active systemic lupus erythematosus, included into the ACR criteria. LE cells consist of a phagocyte engulfing material of disputed origin, which was interpreted as either cellular remnants from necrotic cells or as early apoptotic cells. It is well ...
Schwechter Brandon R BR Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, Wisconsin 53792, - - 2007
The acetylation state of histones is modulated by histone deacetylase (HDAC) and histone acetyltransferase and is an important component in regulating gene transcription, including neuronal differentiation. The authors studied the relationship between histone acetylation and the differentiation and survival of the RGC-5 cell line and compared it with nontranscriptional-dependent differentiation ...
Richard Melanie N - - 2007
Although it is known that mechanical stretching of cells can induce significant increases in cell growth and shape, the intracellular signaling pathways that induce this response at the level of the cell nucleus is unknown. The transport of molecules from the cell cytoplasm to the nucleoplasm through the nuclear pore ...
Mazumder Aprotim - - 2007
Chromatin organization within the nucleus is a vital regulator of genome function, yet its mechanical coupling to the nuclear architecture has remained elusive. To directly investigate this coupling, we locally modulated chromatin structure in living cells using nanoparticle-based laser perturbation. Unusual differences in the response of the cell nucleus were ...
Cecconi Daniela - - 2007
Effects of the histone-deacetylases inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) on the growth of three different human pancreatic endocrine carcinoma cell lines (CM, BON, and QGP-1) have been assessed via dosage-dependent growth inhibition curves. TSA determined strong inhibition of cell growth with similar IC(50) values for the different cell lines: 80.5 nM ...
Chen Wen - - 2007
The thyroid hormone receptor (THR) is a member of the nuclear transcription factor and plays a central role in regulating anuran metamorphosis. Previous studies with mammalian cells have suggested that THR is involved in chromatin remodeling through histone methylation. In the present study, we cloned cDNA of lysine-specific demethylase gene, ...
Senese Silvia - - 2007
Posttranslational modifications of core histones are central to the regulation of gene expression. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) repress transcription by deacetylating histones, and class I HDACs have a crucial role in mouse, Xenopus laevis, zebra fish, and Caenorhabditis elegans development. The role of individual class I HDACs in tumor cell proliferation ...
Le Beyec Johanne J Centre de recherche des Cordeliers, Université Piere et Marie Curie-Paris 6, ULMRS872, Paris F-75006, - - 2007
Extracellular matrix (ECM) regulates cell morphology and gene expression in vivo; these relationships are maintained in three-dimensional (3D) cultures of mammary epithelial cells. In the presence of laminin-rich ECM (lrECM), mammary epithelial cells round up and undergo global histone deacetylation, a process critical for their functional differentiation. However, it remains ...
Vlcek Sylvia - - 2007
Lamins, together with the lamin-associated proteins of the inner nuclear membrane, are structural proteins in the nucleus that mediate mechanical stress resistance. Novel findings show that lamin complexes also have scaffolding functions in the formation and regulation of higher order chromatin and in epigenetic regulatory pathways. Furthermore, lamins serve as ...
Ito Takashi - - 2007
The covalent modification of histone tails has emerged as a crucial step in controlling the eucaryotic genomes. Eucaryotic cells must possess mechanisms for condensing and decondensing chromatin. Moreover, chromatin condensation is particularly evident during mitosis and apoptotic cell death, whereas chromatin relaxation is necessary for replication, repair, recombination and transcription. ...
Hatayama Hajime - - 2007
The short fatty acid, butyrate, which is produced by intestinal anaerobic bacteria in the colon, has inhibitory activity on histone deacetylases (HDACs). Treatment of the human colon cancer cell line, LS174T, with 1-2 mM sodium butyrate stimulated MUC2 mucin production, as determined by histological PAS staining of carbohydrate chains of ...
Taggart Linda R - - 2007
High frequency ultrasound imaging (20 to 60 MHz) is increasingly being used in small animal imaging, molecular imaging and for the detection of structural changes during cell and tissue death. Ultrasonic tissue characterization techniques were used to measure the speed of sound, attenuation coefficient and integrated backscatter coefficient for (a) ...
Takenaka Yasuhiro - - 2007
Cytoplasmic exchange between conjugating cells of Paramecium caudatum has been implicated by mating experiments using wild-type and behavioral mutant cells. To observe macromolecular transport between mating cells, we cloned and expressed the P. caudatum histone H2B gene as a fusion protein attached to an enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) named ...
Pickard Bryce W - - 2007
The type 1 PTH/PTH-related peptide receptor (PTH1R) is a class B G protein-coupled receptor that demonstrates immunoreactivity in the nucleus as well as cytoplasm of target cells. Our previous studies on the PTH1R have shown that it associates with the importin family of transport regulatory proteins. To investigate the role ...
Freberg Christel T - - 2007
Analyses of molecular events associated with reprogramming somatic nuclei to pluripotency are scarce. We previously reported the reprogramming of epithelial cells by extract of undifferentiated embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells. We now demonstrate reprogramming of DNA methylation and histone modifications on regulatory regions of the developmentally regulated OCT4 and NANOG genes ...
Sanna Elena - - 2007
Caveolin-1 (cav-1), a member of a protein family associated mainly with cell membrane microdomains in many cell types, acts as a tumor suppressor in ovarian carcinoma cells. Biochemical analyses demonstrated that cav-1 was also localized in the nuclei of ovarian carcinoma cells, endogenously (SKOV3) or ectopically (IGtC3) expressing cav-1. By ...
Jiang Shujuan S Shandong Provincial Hospital, Jinan, P.R. - - 2007
To characterize the molecular pathways involved in apoptosis following administration of histone deacetylase inhibitors to Type I and II endometrial cancer cells. Ark2, Ishikawa, and AN3 cell lines representing both Type I and II endometrial cancers were treated with various concentrations of oxamflatin and HDAC inhibitor-1. Cell apoptosis was determined ...
Hemberger Myriam M Laboratory of Developmental Genetics and Imprinting, The Babraham Institute, Babraham Research Campus, Cambridge CB22 3AT, United - - 2007
Epigenetic modifications of nucleosomal histones are thought to mediate transcriptional states and impose heritable instructions upon differentiation. In a paper of Torres-Padilla and colleagues in Nature, protein modification at arginine residues, namely of core histones, is correlated with cell fate determination at the 4-cell stage in the mouse embryo. This ...
Pan Yong Y Department of Internal Medicine and Center for Human Nutrition, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390, - - 2007
Mature lamin A is formed after post-translational processing of prelamin A, which includes prenylation and carboxymethylation of cysteine 661 in the CaaX motif, followed by two proteolytic cleavages by zinc metalloprotease (ZMPSTE24). We expressed several prelamin A mutants, C661S (defective in prenylation), Y646F (designed to undergo prenylation but not second ...
Paulson James R - - 2007
It is well known that inactivation of Cdk1/Cyclin B is required for cells to exit mitosis. The work reported here tests the hypothesis that Cdk1/Cyclin B inactivation is not only necessary but also sufficient to induce mitotic exit and reestablishment of the interphase state. This hypothesis predicts that inactivation of ...
Hartl Tom - - 2007
We have used gene amplification in Drosophila follicle cells as a model of metazoan DNA replication to address whether changes in histone modifications are associated with replication origin activation. We observe that replication initiation is associated with distinct histone modifications. Acetylated lysines K5, K8, and K12 on histone H4 and ...
Ishihara Kenji - - 2007
EoL-1 cells differentiate into eosinophils in the presence of n-butyrate, but the mechanism has remained to be elucidated. Because n-butyrate can inhibit histone deacetylases, we hypothesized that the inhibition of histone deacetylases induces the differentiation of EoL-1 cells into eosinophils. In this study, using n-butyrate and two other histone deacetylase ...
Gardner Colin R - - 2007
Under the influence of RANKL, in the presence of M-CSF, monocyte/macrophage precursor cells entered the osteoclast lineage and expressed the osteoclast marker tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). These cells were motile and began to differentiate by contacting and fusing together, initially forming cells with several nuclei. All sizes of cells continued ...
Bártová Eva - - 2007
Mammalian heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1alpha, HP1beta, HP1gamma subtypes) and transcriptional intermediary factor TIF1beta play an important role in the regulation of chromatin structure and function. Here, we investigated the nuclear arrangement of these proteins during differentiation of embryonal carcinoma P19 cells into primitive endoderm and into the neural pathway. Additionally, ...
Singleton Stephanie - - 2007
During the process of mammalian spermiogenesis, a significant reorganisation of the chromatin structure occurs involving the sequential substitution of somatic histones with protamines. In the human sperm nucleus, approximately 15% of the basic nuclear protein complement is maintained as histones. Human testis/sperm-specific histone H2B (hTSH2B) is a variant of the ...
Long Fuhui - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The distribution of chromatin-associated proteins plays a key role in directing nuclear function. Previously, we developed an image-based method to quantify the nuclear distributions of proteins and showed that these distributions depended on the phenotype of human mammary epithelial cells. Here we describe a method that creates a hierarchical ...
Lee Soyoung - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The human herpes simplex virus (HSV) host cell factor HCF-1 is a transcriptional coregulator that associates with both histone methyl- and acetyltransferases, and a histone deacetylase and regulates cell proliferation and division. In HSV-infected cells, HCF-1 associates with the viral protein VP16 to promote formation of a multiprotein-DNA transcriptional ...
Latham Keith E - - 2007
The recent successes in producing cloned offspring by somatic cell nuclear transfer are nothing short of remarkable. This process requires the somatic cell chromatin to substitute functionally for both the egg and the sperm genomes, and indeed the processing of the transferred nuclei shares aspects in common with processing of ...
Clough Emily - - 2007
SET domain proteins are histone lysine methyltransferases (HMTs) that play essential roles in development. Here we show for the first time that histone methylation occurs in both the germ cells and somatic cells of the Drosophila ovary, and demonstrate in vivo that an HMT, the product of the eggless (egg) ...
Schulmeister Alexandra - - 2007
Mammalian histone variant H3.3 differs from replication-dependent histone H3.1 by five amino acids, including replacement of alanine 31 by serine. H3.3 is expressed throughout the cell cycle, primarily deposited at transcriptionally active loci independent of S-phase. Data from mammalian cells suggest that phosphorylation of serine 31 (H3.3S31P) plays a role ...
Kaneko Motoko - - 2007
BACKGROUND: EoL-1 cells have a FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion gene which causes the transformation of eosinophilic precursor cells into leukemia cells. Recently, we suggested that the induction of differentiation of EoL-1 cells into eosinophils by the HDAC inhibitors apicidin and n-butyrate is due to the continuous inhibition of HDACs. However, neither apicidin ...
Smetana K - - 2007
The present study was designed to provide complementary information on the effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi's) such as trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium valproate (VAP) on nuclei and nucleoli of leukemic myeloblasts represented by cultured Kasumi-1 cells. The number of apoptotic cells and bodies with characteristic chromatin condensation and ...
Oki Masaya - - 2007
In eukaryotic cells, relaxed interphase chromatin undergoes pronounced changes resulting in formation of highly condensed mitotic chromosomes. Moreover, chromatin condensation is particularly evident during mitosis and apoptotic cell death, whereas chromatin relaxation is necessary for replication, repair, recombination and transcription. The post-translational modifications of histone tails such as reversible acetylation, ...
Egger Gerda - - 2007
Epigenetic drugs are in use in clinical trials of various human cancers and are potent at reactivating genes silenced by DNA methylation and chromatin modifications. We report here the analysis of a set of normal fibroblast and cancer cell lines after combination treatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) ...
Yang Hui - - 2006
When starved of essential nutrients, yeast cells cease mitotic division and enter an alternative state called the 'stationary phase'. In this paper, we report that stationary cells enter two major pathways: meiosis and apoptosis. Using transmission electron microscopy, five types of cell were identified in the stationary phase: (1) cells ...
Sampathkumar Srinivasa-Gopalan - - 2006
Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-carbohydrate hybrid molecules that target both histone deacetylation and glycosylation pathways to achieve sugar-dependent activity against cancer cells are described in this article. Specifically, n-butyrate esters of N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (But4ManNAc, 1) induced apoptosis, whereas corresponding N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (But4GlcNAc, 2), D-mannose (But5Man, 3), or glycerol (tributryin, 4) derivatives only provided ...
Neeli Indira - - 2007
Specificity for double-stranded DNA can arise due to somatic mutations within one of the branches of an autoreactive B cell clone. However, it is not known whether a different autospecificity predates anti-dsDNA and whether separate offshoots of an expanding B cell clone retain or evolve alternative specificities. We compared 3H9, ...
Romeo Melissa - - 2006
We discuss the causes contributing to the variance of the spectra of individual human epithelial cells. This aspect has largely been ignored in previous studies, but needs to be understood for diagnostic applications of infrared micro-spectroscopy. We attribute the spectral variance to Mie scattering, and to variations of nuclear contributions ...
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