Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1169
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Sasaki Ko - - 2008
Disturbance of the normal functions of wild-type RUNX1 resulting from chromosomal translocations or gene mutations is one of the major molecular mechanisms in human leukemogenesis. RUNX1-related chimeras generated by the chromosomal translocations repress transcriptional activity of wild-type RUNX1 by recruiting the co-repressor/histone deacetylase complex. Thus, histone deacetylase inhibitors are expected ...
Spurling Colleen C - - 2008
An immunohistochemical analysis of human colorectal adenocarcinomas showed that cancer cells express widely varying levels of HDAC3. The SW480 colon cancer cell line was found to express high levels of HDAC3 compared to other colon cancer cell lines. p21 was poorly induced in SW480 cells relative to the lower HDAC3-expressing ...
Dahl John Arne - - 2008
Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a powerful technique for studying protein-DNA interactions. Drawbacks of current ChIP assays however are a requirement for large cell numbers, which limits applicability of ChIP to rare cell samples, and/or lengthy procedures with limited applications. There are to date no protocols for fast and parallel ChIPs ...
Eberlin Adrien - - 2008
Condensation of chromatin, mediated in part by posttranslational modifications of histones, is essential for cell division during mitosis. Histone H3 tails are dimethylated on lysine (Kme2) and become phosphorylated on serine (Sp) residues during mitosis. We have explored the possibility that these double modifications are involved in the establishment of ...
Pisetsky David S - - 2008
High-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) is a non-histone nuclear protein that has a dual function. Inside the cell, HMGB1 binds DNA, regulating transcription and determining chromosomal architecture. Outside the cell, HMGB1 can serve as an alarmin to activate the innate system and mediate a wide range of physiological and ...
Kanger Johannes S - - 2008
Magnetic tweezers are widely used for manipulating small magnetic beads inside the cell cytoplasm in order to gain insight into the structural and mechanical properties of the cytoskeleton. Here we discuss the use of magnetic tweezers for the study of nuclear architecture and the mechanical properties of chromatin in living ...
Orciani M - - 2008
Human CD38 antigen is a 42-45 kDa type II transmembrane glycoprotein with a short N-terminal cytoplasmic domain and a long C-terminal extracellular region. It is widely expressed in different cell types including thymocytes, activated T cells, and terminally differentiated B cells (plasma cells) and it is involved in cellular proliferation ...
Dahl John Arne - - 2008
Interactions of proteins with DNA mediate many critical nuclear functions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a robust technique for studying protein-DNA interactions. Current ChIP assays, however, either require large cell numbers, which prevent their application to rare cell samples or small-tissue biopsies, or involve lengthy procedures. We describe here a 1-day ...
Takai Noriyuki - - 2008
We investigated the effect of five histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) on the choriocarcinoma cell line, BeWo. BeWo cells were treated with various concentrations of five HDACIs, and their effects on cell growth, cell cycle, apoptosis, and related measurements were investigated. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assays showed that the BeWo choriocarcinoma cell line ...
Andrake Mark D - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Integration of retroviral DNA into the host cell genome is an obligatory step in the virus life cycle. In previous reports we identified a sequence (amino acids 201-236) in the linker region between the catalytic core and C-terminal domains of the avian sarcoma virus (ASV) integrase protein that functions ...
Lu Quanyi - - 2008
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are a new class of chemotherapeutic agents. Our laboratory has recently reported that phenylhexyl isothiocyanate (PHI), a synthetic isothiocyanate, is an inhibitor of HDAC. In this study we examined whether PHI is a hypomethylating agent and its effects on myeloma cells. RPMI8226, a myeloma cell line, ...
To Kenneth K W - - 2008
ABCG2 is a ubiquitous ATP-binding cassette transmembrane protein that is important in pharmacology and may play a role in stem cell biology and clinical drug resistance. To study the mechanism(s) regulating ABCG2 expression, we used ChIP to investigate the levels of acetylated histone H3, histone deacetylases (HDAC), histone acetyltransferases, and ...
Jacobberger James W JW Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA. - - 2008
Many epitopes are phosphorylated during mitosis. These epitopes are useful biomarkers for mitotic cells. The most commonly used are MPM-2 and serine 10 of histone H3. Here we investigated the use of an antibody generated against a phospho peptide matching residues 774-788 of the human retinoblastoma protein 1 (Rb) to ...
Heckl Stefan - - 2008
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of 2,4,6-tribromophenyl isocyanate (TBPI) on the cellular and nuclear uptake of the fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled SV 40 T antigen nuclear localization sequence in human LN18 and U373 glioma cells. Therefore, the FITC-labeled nuclear localization sequence (NLS) of the ...
Guerini V - - 2008
We investigated the activity of ITF2357, a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) with antitumor activity, on cells carrying the JAK2(V617F) mutation obtained from polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythemia (ET) patients as well as the HEL cell line. The clonogenic activity of JAK2(V617F) mutated cells was inhibited by low concentrations ...
Takayama Yuko - - 2008
CENP-A is a centromere-specific histone H3 variant that is essential for kinetochore formation. Here, we report that the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe has at least two distinct CENP-A deposition phases across the cell cycle: S and G2. The S phase deposition requires Ams2 GATA factor, which promotes histone gene activation. ...
Susick L - - 2008
Histone (de)acetylases control gene transcription via modification of the chromatin structure. Herein, we investigated potential roles for histone deacetylation (or hypoacetylation) in interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta)-mediated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) release in insulin-secreting INS 832/13 (INS) cells. Western blot analysis suggested localization of members of Class 1 ...
Kovács P - - 2007
Histone deacetylases can also influence acetylation of tubulin. In the present experiments, after 60 min of 10 microM trichostatin (TSA) treatment the structure and amount of tubulin and acetylated-tubulin were studied immunocytochemically, by using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. In TSA-treated Tetrahymena cells deep fibres were never labeled with antibody ...
Acevedo Luis G - - 2007
The technique of chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a powerful method for identifying in vivo DNA binding sites of transcription factors and for studying chromatin modifications. Unfortunately, the large number of cells needed for the standard ChIP protocol has hindered the analysis of many biologically interesting cell populations that are difficult ...
Neumann Frank R - - 2007
A long-standing biological question is how a eukaryotic cell controls the size of its nucleus. We report here that in fission yeast, nuclear size is proportional to cell size over a 35-fold range, and use mutants to show that a 16-fold change in nuclear DNA content does not influence the ...
Kuwajima Akiko - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have anticancer effects. Their effects on expression of cell adhesion molecules might be related to their effects on tumor cell invasion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Murine B16-BL6 cells were treated with the HDAC inhibitors, butyrate or trichostatin A. Melanoma cell invasion of the artificial basement membrane, ...
Pesavento James J - - 2008
Methylation of histone H4 at lysine 20 (K20) has been implicated in transcriptional activation, gene silencing, heterochromatin formation, mitosis, and DNA repair. However, little is known about how this modification is regulated or how it contributes to these diverse processes. Metabolic labeling and top-down mass spectrometry reveal that newly synthesized ...
Vaillant Dominique C - - 2008
Mammalian cell-free systems are very useful for the biochemical and structural study of nuclear disassembly and assembly. Through experimental manipulations, the role of specific proteins in these processes can be studied. Recently, we intended to examine the involvement of integral and peripheral inner nuclear membrane proteins in nuclear disassembly and ...
Miyamoto Kei - - 2007
It is known that differentiated cells can be reprogrammed to an undifferentiated state in oocyte cytoplasm after nuclear transfer. Recently, some reports suggested that Xenopus egg extracts have the ability to reprogram mammalian somatic cells. Reprogramming events of mammalian cells after Xenopus egg extract treatment and after cell culture of ...
Ghule Prachi N - - 2007
Human embryonic stem (ES) cells have an expedited cell cycle ( approximately 15 h) due to an abbreviated G1 phase ( approximately 2.5 h) relative to somatic cells. One principal regulatory event during cell cycle progression is the G1/S phase induction of histone biosynthesis to package newly replicated DNA. In ...
Dokmanovic Milos - - 2007
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) comprise structurally diverse compounds that are a group of targeted anticancer agents. The first of these new HDACi, vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid), has received Food and Drug Administration approval for treating patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. This review focuses on the activities of the 11 zinc-containing ...
Smetana Karel - - 2007
Mean diameter of nucleolar bodies (nucleoli without the perinucleolar chromatin) per cell was studied in human leukemic myeloblasts represented by K 562 and Kasumi 1 cell lines which originated from chronic and acute myeloid leukaemia. The measurement of mean diameter of nucleolar bodies in specimens stained for RNA was very ...
Gralla Michael - - 2008
The sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT) is essential for mediating and regulating biotin entry into mammalian cells. In cells, biotin is covalently linked to histones in a reaction catalyzed by holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS); biotinylation of lysine 12-biotinylated histone H4 (K12Bio H4) causes gene silencing. Here, we propose a novel role for ...
Kandert Sebastian - - 2007
The S143F lamin A/C point mutation causes a phenotype combining features of myopathy and progeria. We demonstrate here that patient dermal fibroblast cells have dysmorphic nuclei containing numerous blebs and lobulations, which progressively accumulate as cells age in culture. The lamin A/C organization is altered, showing intranuclear and nuclear envelope ...
Gerlitz Gabi - - 2007
Directed cell migration is a property central to multiple basic biological processes. Here, we show that directed cell migration is associated with global changes in the chromatin fiber. Polarized posttranslational changes in histone H1 along with a transient decrease in H1 mobility were detected in cells facing the scratch in ...
Gillespie Peter J - - 2007
Xenopus egg extract supports all the major cell-cycle transitions in vitro. We have used a proteomics approach to identify proteins whose abundance on chromatin changes during the course of an in vitro cell cycle. One of the proteins we identified was ELYS/MEL-28, which has recently been described as the earliest-acting ...
Kim You Sun - - 2007
The function of eukaryotic histone deacetylase (HDAC) has been extensively studied for its critical role in transcriptional regulation and carcinogenesis. However that of the prokaryotic counterpart remains largely unknown. Recently, we cloned HDAC-like protein in Thermus caldophilus GK24 (Tca HDAC) from a genomic library of the microorganism based on homology ...
Sokol Agnieszka - - 2007
Animal cells react to mitogenic or stress stimuli by rapid up-regulation of immediate-early (IE) genes and a parallel increase in characteristic modifications of core histones: chromatin changes, collectively termed the nucleosomal response. With regard to plants little is known about the accompanying changes at the chromatin level. We have used ...
Ciossek Thomas - - 2008
Most cellular assays that quantify the efficacy of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors measure hyperacetylation of core histone proteins H3 and H4. Here we describe a new approach, directly measuring cellular HDAC enzymatic activity using the substrate Boc-K(Ac)-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin (AMC). After penetration into HeLa cervical carcinoma or K562 chronic myeloid leukemia cells, ...
Bonenfant Débora - - 2007
The N-terminal tails of the four core histones are subject to several types of covalent post-translational modifications that have specific roles in regulating chromatin structure and function. Here we present an extensive analysis of the core histone modifications occurring through the cell cycle. Our MS experiments characterized the modification patterns ...
Eiblmaier Martin - - 2007
64Cu radiopharmaceuticals have shown tumor growth inhibition in tumor-bearing animal models with a relatively low radiation dose that may be related to nuclear localization of the 64Cu in tumor cells. Here we address whether the nuclear localization of 64Cu from a 64Cu-labeled chelator-somatostatin conjugate is related to the dissociation of ...
Platta Christopher S - - 2007
BACKGROUND: An estimated 162,460 people will die of lung cancer in the United States in 2006, making it the leading cause of cancer deaths. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) accounts for 20% of all lung cancers and exhibits aggressive behavior with early metastases. Current treatments yield five-year survival rates of ...
Bártová Eva - - 2008
Human embryonic stem cells (hES) are unique in their pluripotency and capacity for self-renewal. Therefore, we have studied the differences in the level of chromatin condensation in pluripotent and all-trans retinoic acid-differentiated hES cells. Nuclear patterns of the Oct4 (6p21.33) gene, responsible for hES cell pluripotency, the C-myc (8q24.21) gene, ...
Seki Yoshiyuki - - 2007
We previously reported that primordial germ cells (PGCs) in mice erase genome-wide DNA methylation and histone H3 lysine9 dimethylation (H3K9me2), and instead acquire high levels of tri-methylation of H3K27 (H3K27me3) during their migration, a process that might be crucial for the re-establishment of potential totipotency in the germline. We here ...
Ercan, Sevinc
Mating-type switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is directional. MATa cells choose HMLα for recombination and MATα cells choose HMRa. This is called donor preference and controlled by the recombination enhancer (RE). Donor preference during mating-type switching has been attributed to differences in chromatin structure for the left arm of chromosome III. ...
Kosman Jeffrey - - 2007
SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine), although primarily known as a secreted, matricellular protein, has also been identified in urothelial cell nuclei. Many biological activities, including inhibition of cell adhesion and repression of DNA synthesis, have been ascribed to SPARC, but the influence of its intracellular localization on ...
Schwechter Brandon R - - 2007
The acetylation state of histones is modulated by histone deacetylase (HDAC) and histone acetyltransferase and is an important component in regulating gene transcription, including neuronal differentiation. The authors studied the relationship between histone acetylation and the differentiation and survival of the RGC-5 cell line and compared it with nontranscriptional-dependent differentiation ...
Feierl Eva - - 2007
The LE cell has been one of the first immunological signs of active systemic lupus erythematosus, included into the ACR criteria. LE cells consist of a phagocyte engulfing material of disputed origin, which was interpreted as either cellular remnants from necrotic cells or as early apoptotic cells. It is well ...
Richard Melanie N - - 2007
Although it is known that mechanical stretching of cells can induce significant increases in cell growth and shape, the intracellular signaling pathways that induce this response at the level of the cell nucleus is unknown. The transport of molecules from the cell cytoplasm to the nucleoplasm through the nuclear pore ...
Mazumder Aprotim - - 2007
Chromatin organization within the nucleus is a vital regulator of genome function, yet its mechanical coupling to the nuclear architecture has remained elusive. To directly investigate this coupling, we locally modulated chromatin structure in living cells using nanoparticle-based laser perturbation. Unusual differences in the response of the cell nucleus were ...
Cecconi Daniela - - 2007
Effects of the histone-deacetylases inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) on the growth of three different human pancreatic endocrine carcinoma cell lines (CM, BON, and QGP-1) have been assessed via dosage-dependent growth inhibition curves. TSA determined strong inhibition of cell growth with similar IC(50) values for the different cell lines: 80.5 nM ...
Chen Wen - - 2007
The thyroid hormone receptor (THR) is a member of the nuclear transcription factor and plays a central role in regulating anuran metamorphosis. Previous studies with mammalian cells have suggested that THR is involved in chromatin remodeling through histone methylation. In the present study, we cloned cDNA of lysine-specific demethylase gene, ...
Senese Silvia - - 2007
Posttranslational modifications of core histones are central to the regulation of gene expression. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) repress transcription by deacetylating histones, and class I HDACs have a crucial role in mouse, Xenopus laevis, zebra fish, and Caenorhabditis elegans development. The role of individual class I HDACs in tumor cell proliferation ...
Le Beyec Johanne - - 2007
Extracellular matrix (ECM) regulates cell morphology and gene expression in vivo; these relationships are maintained in three-dimensional (3D) cultures of mammary epithelial cells. In the presence of laminin-rich ECM (lrECM), mammary epithelial cells round up and undergo global histone deacetylation, a process critical for their functional differentiation. However, it remains ...
Vlcek Sylvia - - 2007
Lamins, together with the lamin-associated proteins of the inner nuclear membrane, are structural proteins in the nucleus that mediate mechanical stress resistance. Novel findings show that lamin complexes also have scaffolding functions in the formation and regulation of higher order chromatin and in epigenetic regulatory pathways. Furthermore, lamins serve as ...
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