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Results 251 - 300 of 1207
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Smith Alexander E - - 2009
We investigated functional epigenetic changes that occur in primary human T lymphocytes during entry into the cell cycle and mapped these at the single-nucleosome level by ChIP-chip on tiling arrays for chromosomes 1 and 6. We show that nucleosome loss and flanking active histone marks define active transcriptional start sites ...
Osborne Erin A EA Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, - - 2009
The establishment of silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is similar to heterochromatin formation in multicellular eukaryotes. Previous batch culture studies determined that the de novo establishment of silencing initiates during S phase and continues for up to five cell divisions for completion. To track silencing phenotypically, we developed an assay that ...
Jiao Jie - - 2009
A novel series of N-hydroxy-4-(3-phenylpropanamido)benzamide (HPPB) derivatives comprising N-hydroxybenzamide group as zinc-chelating moiety were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their ability to inhibit histone deacetylases. These compounds possessed inhibitory activity against the enzymes with IC(50) values as low as 4.0 microM. Among them, the thiophene substituted derivative 5j (IC(50)=0.3 microM) ...
Mello Maria Luiza S - - 2009
MCF-10F human breast epithelial cells when transformed with 17-beta-estradiol (E2) give rise to highly invasive C5 cells that generate adenocarcinomas in SCID mice. From these tumors, cell lines such as C5-A6-T6 and C5-A8-T8 have been derived. Variable patterns of chromatin supraorganization have been demonstrated for these cells during the transformation/tumorigenesis ...
Wood Christopher - - 2009
In recent years, a considerable amount of research has been focused on establishing the epigenetic mechanisms associated with DNA and the core histones. This effort is driven by the fact that epigenetics is intimately involved with genomics in a whole range of molecular processes. However, there is now a consensus ...
Kausar Afifa - - 2009
Genotoxicity is one of the important endpoints for risk assessment of various lifestyle factors. The study is the first report on the genotoxic effect associated with sadagura, a unique smokeless tobacco prepared in southern Assam province of North-East India. Sadagura is consumed with or without betel quid and/or smoking. In ...
Naetar Nana - - 2009
Lamins are components of the peripheral nuclear lamina that has important mechanical roles in nuclear architecture. Lamins have increasingly been implicated in nuclear processes, including DNA replication, chromatin organization and transcription. Recent data highlight the specific functions of a small pool of lamina-independent A-type lamins, located throughout the nucleoplasm, in ...
Kang Moo Rim - - 2009
In this study, we investigated the anti-tumor activity of KBH-A42 [N-hydroxy-3-(2-oxo-1-(3-phenylpropyl)-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-3-yl)propanamide], a novel synthetic histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. KBH-A42 inhibited a variety of HDAC isoforms in enzyme assays and suppressed growth of various cancer cell lines. Among the cell lines examined, colon cancer cells, including SW620, SW480 and HCT-15, were ...
Bhattacharya Dipanjan - - 2009
Cellular differentiation and developmental programs require changing patterns of gene expression. Recent experiments have revealed that chromatin organization is highly dynamic within living cells, suggesting possible mechanisms to alter gene expression programs, yet the physical basis of this organization is unclear. In this article, we contrast the differences in the ...
Rexach Michael - - 2009
All nucleocytoplasmic traffic of macromolecules occurs through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), which function as stents in the nuclear envelope to keep nuclear pores open but gated. Three studies in this issue (Flemming, D., P. Sarges, P. Stelter, A. Hellwig, B. Böttcher, and E. Hurt. 2009. J. Cell Biol. 185:387-395; Makio, ...
Glover Dominic J - - 2009
Compartmentalization within eukaryotic cells hinders the efficient delivery of therapeutic agents to the cell nucleus. Here we describe novel multifunctional DNA carriers (MDCs) that self-assemble with DNA to form structured nanoparticles that possess virus-like functions for cellular trafficking. MDCs contain, in fusion, the DNA-compacting sperm chromatin component protamine, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone ...
Scharlau Daniel - - 2009
Dietary fibres are indigestible food ingredients that reach the colon and are then fermented by colonic bacteria, resulting mainly in the formation of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) such as acetate, propionate, and butyrate. Those SCFA, especially butyrate, are recognised for their potential to act on secondary chemoprevention by slowing growth ...
Li Qin - - 2009
In the present study, we examined the effects of CoCl(2) on multiple histone modifications at the global level. We found that in both human lung carcinoma A549 cells and human bronchial epithelial Beas-2B cells, exposure to CoCl(2) (>/=200 muM) for 24 h increased H3K4me3, H3K9me2, H3K9me3, H3K27me3, H3K36me3, uH2A and ...
Ondrej Vladan - - 2009
This paper reports on the structural rearrangement of satellite DNA type I repeats and heterochromatin during the dedifferentiation and cell cycling of mesophyll protoplasts of cucumber (Cucumis sativus). These repeats were localized in the telomeric heterochromatin of cucumber chromosomes and in the chromocenters of interphase nuclei. The dramatic reduction of ...
Ikeda Shuntaro - - 2009
Histone acetylation is one of the major mechanisms of epigenetic reprogramming of gamete genomes after fertilization to establish a totipotent state for normal development. In the present study, the effects of trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, during in vitro fertilization (IVF) of bovine oocytes on subsequent embryonic ...
Fidlerová Helena - - 2009
Recently, we described the cold-dependent detection of an epitope, epiC, that was selectively recognized by a monoclonal anti-actin antibody at 4 degrees C, but not at RT, in the early replicating chromatin domains of human fibroblast cell nuclei and chromosomes. EpiC was present in a distinct cell cycle window extending ...
Cunneen Thomas S - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of mitomycin C and the histone deacetylase inhibitors sodium butyrate and trichostatin on the viability and growth of conjunctival melanoma cell lines and Tenon capsule fibroblasts. METHODS: Cells were treated with a range of concentrations of sodium butyrate, trichostatin, and mitomycin C. The MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 ...
Bian Yuhong Y Division of Animal Sciences, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough, - - 2009
Reprogramming pluripotency after nuclear transplantation shows that molecules in oocytes can remodel somatic chromatin to a stem cell state. Here we report on an ex-ovo system using axolotl oocyte extracts to remodel epigenetic marks of somatic chromatin. Molecules present in axolotl oocyte extracts induce the reduction of the overall levels ...
Akoumianaki Tonia - - 2009
We have investigated the subcellular distribution and dynamics of soluble tubulin in unperturbed and transfected HeLa cells. Under normal culture conditions, endogenous alpha/beta tubulin is confined to the cytoplasm. However, when the soluble pool of subunits is elevated by combined cold-nocodazole treatment and when constitutive nuclear export is inhibited by ...
Seo Jungwon - - 2009
Stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) regulates neovascularization, which is coordinately controlled by endothelial cells (EC) and their surrounding cells, pericytes or smooth muscle cells. In the basal state, SDF-1 expression is much lower in EC than in their surrounding cells. In this study, we evaluated epigenetic regulation to determine if ...
Pifarré Paula - - 2009
NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (GC(NO)), the major NO target, is involved in important regulatory functions in the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and central nervous systems. GC(NO) exists as heterodimers of alpha(1/2) and beta1 subunits. Deletion of the obligate beta1 dimerizing partner abrogates NO/cGMP signaling and shortens the life span of KO mice. Localization ...
Baetz N W NW Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, - - 2009
Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) channels are expressed by trabecular meshwork (TM) and Schlemm's canal cells of the conventional outflow pathway where fluid movement is predominantly paracellular, suggesting a non-canonical role for AQP1. We hypothesized that AQP1 functions to protect TM cells during periods of mechanical strain. To test this idea, primary cultures ...
Fu Lingchen - - 2009
BLyS and its major receptor BAFF-R have been shown to be critical for development and homeostasis of normal B lymphocytes, and for cell growth and survival of neoplastic B lymphocytes, but the biologic mechanisms of this ligand/receptor-derived intracellular signaling pathway(s) have not been completely defined. We have discovered that the ...
Wu Angela R AR Dept. of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, CA 94305, - - 2009
Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a powerful assay used to probe DNA-protein interactions. Traditional methods of implementing this assay are lengthy, cumbersome and require a large number of cells, making it difficult to study rare cell types such as certain cancer and stem cells. We have designed a microfluidic device to ...
Cheng Fan - - 2009
The opioid growth factor receptor (OGFr) mediates the inhibitory action of OGF on cell replication of normal and neoplastic cells. The spatiotemporal course of OGFr nucleocytoplasmic trafficking was determined with a probe of full-length OGFr fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP). Translation of OGFr required 8.5 hours, and transit ...
Santenard Angèle - - 2009
Development of the mammalian embryo is, by definition, epigenetic. At the level of the nucleosome, the building block of the chromatin, changes in chromatin structure can be regulated through histone content. Apart from the canonical histones whose synthesis is restricted to S-phase, different histone variants have been identified. Histone variants ...
Majid Shahana - - 2009
BTG3/ANA/APRO4 has been reported to be a tumor suppressor gene in some malignancies. It constitutes important negative regulatory mechanism for Src-mediated signaling, a negative regulator of the cell cycle and inhibits transcription factor E2F1. We report that BTG3 is downregulated in renal cancer and that the mechanism of inactivation is ...
Heider Ulrike - - 2009
Proteasome inhibitors and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are novel targeted therapies being evaluated in clinical trials for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). However, data in regard to tumor biology are limited with these agents. In the present study we analyzed the effects of the HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and ...
Hernández Agustín - - 2009
Human securin regulates correct chromatid separation. However, there are conflicting reports on the aneugenic effects of its gene deletion. Here we show that PTTG1/securin gene expression is dramatically repressed when Hsp90 or histone deacetylases are inhibited. However, these treatments do not increase the proportion of aneuploid cells. This was also ...
Miller Claudia P - - 2009
Combination studies of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) and proteasome inhibitors are providing preclinical framework to build better strategies against hematologic malignancies. Our previous work found that a novel proteasome inhibitor, NPI-0052, and HDACi synergistically induce apoptosis in leukemia cells in a caspase-8- and oxidant-dependent manner. Here we extend those observations ...
Chen Fu-Quan - - 2009
Post-translational modification of histones is an important form of chromatin regulation impacting transcriptional activation. Histone acetyltransferases, for example, acetylate lysine residues on histone tails thereby enhancing gene transcription, while histone deacetylases (HDACs) remove those acetyl groups and repress gene transcription. Deficient histone acetylation is associated with pathologies, and histone deacetylase ...
D'Angelo Maximiliano A MA Salk Institute for Biological Studies, Molecular and Cell Biology Laboratory, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, - - 2009
In dividing cells, nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) disassemble during mitosis and reassemble into the newly forming nuclei. However, the fate of nuclear pores in postmitotic cells is unknown. Here, we show that NPCs, unlike other nuclear structures, do not turn over in differentiated cells. While a subset of NPC components, ...
Shen Xiaohua - - 2009
In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Cui et al. (2009) provide snapshots of histone modification maps for two different stages of human blood cell development. Revealing chromatin-state maps in model cell types will provide an important framework in which to consider epigenetic controls at molecular and systematic levels.
Cervera Ana M - - 2009
Remodelling of mitochondrial metabolism is a hallmark of cancer. Mutations in the genes encoding succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), a key Krebs cycle component, are associated with hereditary predisposition to pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma, through mechanisms which are largely unknown. Recently, the jumonji-domain histone demethylases have emerged as a novel family of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent ...
Dahl John Arne - - 2009
Genome-wide location analysis of histone modifications and transcription factor binding relies on chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. These assays are, however, time-consuming and require large numbers of cells, hindering their application to the analysis of many interesting cell types. We report here a fast microChIP (muChIP) assay for 1,000 cells in ...
Moralli Daniela - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Human artificial chromosomes (HAC) are small functional extrachromosomal elements, which segregate correctly during each cell division. In human cells, they are mitotically stable, however when the HAC are transferred to murine cells they show an increased and variable rate of loss. In some cell lines the HAC are lost ...
Iarovaia O V - - 2009
The spatial organization of a 250 Kb region of chicken chromosome 14, which includes the alpha globin gene cluster, was studied using in situ hybridization of a corresponding BAC probe with nuclear halos. It was found that in non-erythroid cells (DT40) and cultured erythroid cells of definite lineage (HD3) the ...
Kishigami Satoshi - - 2009
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has become a unique and powerful tool for epigenetic reprogramming research and gene manipulation in animals since "Dolly," the first animal cloned from an adult cell was reported in 1997. Although the success rates of somatic cloning have been inefficient and the mechanism of reprogramming ...
Zienkiewicz K - - 2009
The aim of the present work was the characterization of nuclear bodies in the microspore and developing pollen cells of Hyacinthus orientalis L.. The combination of Ag-NOR, immunofluorescence and immunogold techniques was used in this study. The obtained results showed the presence of highly agyrophylic extranucleolar bodies in microspore and ...
Dross Nicolas - - 2009
Movement of particles in cell nuclei can be affected by viscosity, directed flows, active transport, or the presence of obstacles such as the chromatin network. Here we investigate whether the mobility of small fluorescent proteins is affected by the chromatin density. Diffusion of inert fluorescent proteins was studied in living ...
Dahl John Arne - - 2009
Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a technique of choice for studying protein-DNA interactions. ChIP has been used for mapping the location of modified histones on DNA, often in relation to transcription or differentiation. Conventional ChIP protocols, however, require large number of cells, which limits the applicability of ChIP to rare cell ...
Kato Hiromi - - 2009
Here, we report the recovery of cell nuclei from 14,000-15,000 years old mammoth tissues and the injection of those nuclei into mouse enucleated matured oocytes by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). From both skin and muscle tissues, cell nucleus-like structures were successfully recovered. Those nuclei were then injected into enucleated ...
Starheim Kristian K KK Department of Molecular Biology, University of Bergen, N-5020 Bergen, Norway. - - 2009
Protein Nalpha-terminal acetylation is one of the most common protein modifications in eukaryotic cells, occurring on approximately 80% of soluble human proteins. An increasing number of studies links Nalpha-terminal acetylation to cell differentiation, cell cycle, cell survival, and cancer. Thus, Nalpha-terminal acetylation is an essential modification for normal cell function ...
Kim Jong Kyong - - 2009
UHRF1 (ubiquitin-like, containing PHD and RING finger domains 1) is a multi-domain protein associated with cellular proliferation and epigenetic regulation. The UHRF1 binds to methylated CpG dinucleotides and recruits transcriptional repressors DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) through its distinct domains. However, the molecular basis of UHRF1-mediated ...
Wu Xinjiang - - 2008
Menin is a tumor suppressor encoded by the MEN1 gene that is mutated in patients with an inherited syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). Loss of menin has potent impact on proliferation of endocrine and non-endocrine cells. However, until recently little has been known as to how menin regulates ...
Kutay Ulrike U Institute of Biochemistry, ETH Zurich, HPM F11.1, Schafmattstr.18, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland. - - 2008
The nuclear envelope (NE) provides a selective barrier between the nuclear interior and the cytoplasm and constitutes a central component of intracellular architecture. During mitosis in metazoa, the NE breaks down leading to the complete mixing of the nuclear content with the cytosol. Interestingly, many NE components actively participate in ...
Dominguez Maria - - 2008
At the end of June 2008, researchers from diverse fields, ranging from chromatin remodeling to cell cycle control, gathered in Madrid at a Cantoblanco Workshop entitled 'Chromatin at the Nexus of Cell Division and Differentiation'. The work discussed at this meeting, which was co-organized by Crisanto Gutierrez, Ben Scheres and ...
Song Suisui S Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Radiation and Cancer Biology, Stanford University of School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305-5152, - - 2008
Deletion of genes for proteins involved in histone H4 acetylation produces sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents in both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mammalian cells. In the present studies, we show that treating wild-type yeast cells with histone acetyl transferase (HAT) inhibitors, which are chemicals that cause a global decrease in histone H4 ...
Nicklay Joshua J JJ Laboratory of Chromatin Biology, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10065, - - 2009
Epigenetic information is hypothesized to be encoded in histone variants and post-translational modifications. Varied cell- and locus-specific combinations of these epigenetic marks are likely contributors to regulation of chromatin-templated transactions, including transcription, replication, recombination, and repair. Therefore, the relative abundance of histone modifications in a given cell type is a ...
Ghule Prachi N PN Center for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Department of Cell Biology and Cancer Center, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Avenue North, Worcester, MA 01655, - - 2008
Human embryonic stem (hES) cells have an abbreviated G(1) phase of the cell cycle. How cells expedite G(1) events that are required for the initiation of S phase has not been resolved. One key regulatory pathway that controls G(1)/S-phase transition is the cyclin E/CDK2-dependent activation of the coactivator protein nuclear ...
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