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Results 251 - 300 of 1189
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Bian Yuhong Y Division of Animal Sciences, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough, - - 2009
Reprogramming pluripotency after nuclear transplantation shows that molecules in oocytes can remodel somatic chromatin to a stem cell state. Here we report on an ex-ovo system using axolotl oocyte extracts to remodel epigenetic marks of somatic chromatin. Molecules present in axolotl oocyte extracts induce the reduction of the overall levels ...
Akoumianaki Tonia - - 2009
We have investigated the subcellular distribution and dynamics of soluble tubulin in unperturbed and transfected HeLa cells. Under normal culture conditions, endogenous alpha/beta tubulin is confined to the cytoplasm. However, when the soluble pool of subunits is elevated by combined cold-nocodazole treatment and when constitutive nuclear export is inhibited by ...
Seo Jungwon - - 2009
Stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) regulates neovascularization, which is coordinately controlled by endothelial cells (EC) and their surrounding cells, pericytes or smooth muscle cells. In the basal state, SDF-1 expression is much lower in EC than in their surrounding cells. In this study, we evaluated epigenetic regulation to determine if ...
Pifarré Paula - - 2009
NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (GC(NO)), the major NO target, is involved in important regulatory functions in the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and central nervous systems. GC(NO) exists as heterodimers of alpha(1/2) and beta1 subunits. Deletion of the obligate beta1 dimerizing partner abrogates NO/cGMP signaling and shortens the life span of KO mice. Localization ...
Baetz N W NW Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, - - 2009
Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) channels are expressed by trabecular meshwork (TM) and Schlemm's canal cells of the conventional outflow pathway where fluid movement is predominantly paracellular, suggesting a non-canonical role for AQP1. We hypothesized that AQP1 functions to protect TM cells during periods of mechanical strain. To test this idea, primary cultures ...
Fu Lingchen - - 2009
BLyS and its major receptor BAFF-R have been shown to be critical for development and homeostasis of normal B lymphocytes, and for cell growth and survival of neoplastic B lymphocytes, but the biologic mechanisms of this ligand/receptor-derived intracellular signaling pathway(s) have not been completely defined. We have discovered that the ...
Wu Angela R AR Dept. of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, CA 94305, - - 2009
Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a powerful assay used to probe DNA-protein interactions. Traditional methods of implementing this assay are lengthy, cumbersome and require a large number of cells, making it difficult to study rare cell types such as certain cancer and stem cells. We have designed a microfluidic device to ...
Cheng Fan - - 2009
The opioid growth factor receptor (OGFr) mediates the inhibitory action of OGF on cell replication of normal and neoplastic cells. The spatiotemporal course of OGFr nucleocytoplasmic trafficking was determined with a probe of full-length OGFr fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP). Translation of OGFr required 8.5 hours, and transit ...
Santenard Angèle - - 2009
Development of the mammalian embryo is, by definition, epigenetic. At the level of the nucleosome, the building block of the chromatin, changes in chromatin structure can be regulated through histone content. Apart from the canonical histones whose synthesis is restricted to S-phase, different histone variants have been identified. Histone variants ...
Majid Shahana - - 2009
BTG3/ANA/APRO4 has been reported to be a tumor suppressor gene in some malignancies. It constitutes important negative regulatory mechanism for Src-mediated signaling, a negative regulator of the cell cycle and inhibits transcription factor E2F1. We report that BTG3 is downregulated in renal cancer and that the mechanism of inactivation is ...
Heider Ulrike - - 2009
Proteasome inhibitors and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are novel targeted therapies being evaluated in clinical trials for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). However, data in regard to tumor biology are limited with these agents. In the present study we analyzed the effects of the HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and ...
Hernández Agustín - - 2009
Human securin regulates correct chromatid separation. However, there are conflicting reports on the aneugenic effects of its gene deletion. Here we show that PTTG1/securin gene expression is dramatically repressed when Hsp90 or histone deacetylases are inhibited. However, these treatments do not increase the proportion of aneuploid cells. This was also ...
Miller Claudia P - - 2009
Combination studies of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) and proteasome inhibitors are providing preclinical framework to build better strategies against hematologic malignancies. Our previous work found that a novel proteasome inhibitor, NPI-0052, and HDACi synergistically induce apoptosis in leukemia cells in a caspase-8- and oxidant-dependent manner. Here we extend those observations ...
Chen Fu-Quan - - 2009
Post-translational modification of histones is an important form of chromatin regulation impacting transcriptional activation. Histone acetyltransferases, for example, acetylate lysine residues on histone tails thereby enhancing gene transcription, while histone deacetylases (HDACs) remove those acetyl groups and repress gene transcription. Deficient histone acetylation is associated with pathologies, and histone deacetylase ...
D'Angelo Maximiliano A MA Salk Institute for Biological Studies, Molecular and Cell Biology Laboratory, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, - - 2009
In dividing cells, nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) disassemble during mitosis and reassemble into the newly forming nuclei. However, the fate of nuclear pores in postmitotic cells is unknown. Here, we show that NPCs, unlike other nuclear structures, do not turn over in differentiated cells. While a subset of NPC components, ...
Shen Xiaohua - - 2009
In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Cui et al. (2009) provide snapshots of histone modification maps for two different stages of human blood cell development. Revealing chromatin-state maps in model cell types will provide an important framework in which to consider epigenetic controls at molecular and systematic levels.
Cervera Ana M - - 2009
Remodelling of mitochondrial metabolism is a hallmark of cancer. Mutations in the genes encoding succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), a key Krebs cycle component, are associated with hereditary predisposition to pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma, through mechanisms which are largely unknown. Recently, the jumonji-domain histone demethylases have emerged as a novel family of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent ...
Dahl John Arne - - 2009
Genome-wide location analysis of histone modifications and transcription factor binding relies on chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. These assays are, however, time-consuming and require large numbers of cells, hindering their application to the analysis of many interesting cell types. We report here a fast microChIP (muChIP) assay for 1,000 cells in ...
Moralli Daniela - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Human artificial chromosomes (HAC) are small functional extrachromosomal elements, which segregate correctly during each cell division. In human cells, they are mitotically stable, however when the HAC are transferred to murine cells they show an increased and variable rate of loss. In some cell lines the HAC are lost ...
Iarovaia O V - - 2009
The spatial organization of a 250 Kb region of chicken chromosome 14, which includes the alpha globin gene cluster, was studied using in situ hybridization of a corresponding BAC probe with nuclear halos. It was found that in non-erythroid cells (DT40) and cultured erythroid cells of definite lineage (HD3) the ...
Kishigami Satoshi - - 2009
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has become a unique and powerful tool for epigenetic reprogramming research and gene manipulation in animals since "Dolly," the first animal cloned from an adult cell was reported in 1997. Although the success rates of somatic cloning have been inefficient and the mechanism of reprogramming ...
Zienkiewicz K - - 2009
The aim of the present work was the characterization of nuclear bodies in the microspore and developing pollen cells of Hyacinthus orientalis L.. The combination of Ag-NOR, immunofluorescence and immunogold techniques was used in this study. The obtained results showed the presence of highly agyrophylic extranucleolar bodies in microspore and ...
Dross Nicolas - - 2009
Movement of particles in cell nuclei can be affected by viscosity, directed flows, active transport, or the presence of obstacles such as the chromatin network. Here we investigate whether the mobility of small fluorescent proteins is affected by the chromatin density. Diffusion of inert fluorescent proteins was studied in living ...
Dahl John Arne - - 2009
Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a technique of choice for studying protein-DNA interactions. ChIP has been used for mapping the location of modified histones on DNA, often in relation to transcription or differentiation. Conventional ChIP protocols, however, require large number of cells, which limits the applicability of ChIP to rare cell ...
Kato Hiromi - - 2009
Here, we report the recovery of cell nuclei from 14,000-15,000 years old mammoth tissues and the injection of those nuclei into mouse enucleated matured oocytes by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). From both skin and muscle tissues, cell nucleus-like structures were successfully recovered. Those nuclei were then injected into enucleated ...
Starheim Kristian K KK Department of Molecular Biology, University of Bergen, N-5020 Bergen, Norway. - - 2009
Protein Nalpha-terminal acetylation is one of the most common protein modifications in eukaryotic cells, occurring on approximately 80% of soluble human proteins. An increasing number of studies links Nalpha-terminal acetylation to cell differentiation, cell cycle, cell survival, and cancer. Thus, Nalpha-terminal acetylation is an essential modification for normal cell function ...
Kim Jong Kyong - - 2009
UHRF1 (ubiquitin-like, containing PHD and RING finger domains 1) is a multi-domain protein associated with cellular proliferation and epigenetic regulation. The UHRF1 binds to methylated CpG dinucleotides and recruits transcriptional repressors DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) through its distinct domains. However, the molecular basis of UHRF1-mediated ...
Wu Xinjiang - - 2008
Menin is a tumor suppressor encoded by the MEN1 gene that is mutated in patients with an inherited syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). Loss of menin has potent impact on proliferation of endocrine and non-endocrine cells. However, until recently little has been known as to how menin regulates ...
Kutay Ulrike U Institute of Biochemistry, ETH Zurich, HPM F11.1, Schafmattstr.18, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland. - - 2008
The nuclear envelope (NE) provides a selective barrier between the nuclear interior and the cytoplasm and constitutes a central component of intracellular architecture. During mitosis in metazoa, the NE breaks down leading to the complete mixing of the nuclear content with the cytosol. Interestingly, many NE components actively participate in ...
Dominguez Maria - - 2008
At the end of June 2008, researchers from diverse fields, ranging from chromatin remodeling to cell cycle control, gathered in Madrid at a Cantoblanco Workshop entitled 'Chromatin at the Nexus of Cell Division and Differentiation'. The work discussed at this meeting, which was co-organized by Crisanto Gutierrez, Ben Scheres and ...
Song Suisui S Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Radiation and Cancer Biology, Stanford University of School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305-5152, - - 2008
Deletion of genes for proteins involved in histone H4 acetylation produces sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents in both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mammalian cells. In the present studies, we show that treating wild-type yeast cells with histone acetyl transferase (HAT) inhibitors, which are chemicals that cause a global decrease in histone H4 ...
Nicklay Joshua J JJ Laboratory of Chromatin Biology, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10065, - - 2009
Epigenetic information is hypothesized to be encoded in histone variants and post-translational modifications. Varied cell- and locus-specific combinations of these epigenetic marks are likely contributors to regulation of chromatin-templated transactions, including transcription, replication, recombination, and repair. Therefore, the relative abundance of histone modifications in a given cell type is a ...
Ghule Prachi N PN Center for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Department of Cell Biology and Cancer Center, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Avenue North, Worcester, MA 01655, - - 2008
Human embryonic stem (hES) cells have an abbreviated G(1) phase of the cell cycle. How cells expedite G(1) events that are required for the initiation of S phase has not been resolved. One key regulatory pathway that controls G(1)/S-phase transition is the cyclin E/CDK2-dependent activation of the coactivator protein nuclear ...
Houben F - - 2009
The nuclear lamina and the cytoskeleton form an integrated structure that warrants proper mechanical functioning of cells. We have studied the correlation between structural alterations and migrational behaviour in fibroblasts with and without A-type lamins. We show that loss of A-type lamins causes loss of emerin and nesprin-3 from the ...
Hansen Klaus H - - 2008
Organization of chromatin by epigenetic mechanisms is essential for establishing and maintaining cellular identity in developing and adult organisms. A key question that remains unresolved about this process is how epigenetic marks are transmitted to the next cell generation during cell division. Here we provide a model to explain how ...
Hasegawa Hiroshi - - 2008
Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) converts diacylglycerol (DG) to phosphatidic acid, both of which act as second messengers to mediate a variety of cellular mechanisms. Therefore, DGK contributes to the regulation of these messengers in cellular signal transduction. Of DGK isozymes cloned, DGKzeta is characterized by a nuclear localization signal that overlaps ...
Naetar Nana - - 2008
Lamina-associated polypeptide (LAP) 2alpha is a chromatin-associated protein that binds A-type lamins. Mutations in both LAP2alpha and A-type lamins are linked to human diseases called laminopathies, but the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. The A-type lamin-LAP2alpha complex interacts with and regulates retinoblastoma protein (pRb), but the significance of this interaction ...
Yamada Kentaro - - 2008
ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers (ADCRs) convert local chromatin structure into both transcriptional active and repressive state. Recent studies have revealed that ADCRs play diverse regulatory roles in chromosomal events such as DNA repair and recombination. Here we have newly identified a fission yeast gene encoding a Swi2/Snf2 family ADCR. The amino ...
Sancho Mónica - - 2008
At least six histone H1 variants exist in somatic mammalian cells that bind to the linker DNA and stabilize the nucleosome particle contributing to higher order chromatin compaction. In addition, H1 seems to be actively involved in the regulation of gene expression. However, it is not well known whether the ...
Lee Eun Ju - - 2008
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are involved in cell growth, apoptosis and differentiation. This study aimed to investigate the effects of HDACI scriptaid on histone modification, demethylation, cell growth, cell cycle and apoptosis in the RKO colorectal cancer cell line and screening for scriptaid-induced genes. RKO cells were treated with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine ...
Martyushev L M - - 2008
The entropy production in the problem of the radial displacement of a fluid in the Hele-Shaw cell is determined. The morphological stability of the interface between the displaced and displacing fluids is studied using the linear analysis for stability and the maximum entropy production principle. Regions, in which different forms ...
Shaw Peter - - 2008
During development cells transit through different states as they pass from stem cell to terminally differentiated cell. There is evidence that the transition from one state to another can be accompanied by changes in epigenetic state of genes, which is embodied in chromatin state. Here we give an overview of ...
Wang Chun-Ting - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Sodium 4-phenylbutanoate (NaPB) can induce cellular differentiation and cell cycle arrest. However, its potential anticancer properties in hepatocellular carcinoma and influence on normal liver cell are still unclear. We observed the effects of NaPB on growth inhibition, including differentiation and phase growth arrest in normal liver cell line L-02 ...
McDonel Patrick P University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JQ, - - 2009
Gene inactivation studies of mammalian histone and DNA-modifying proteins have demonstrated a role for many such proteins in embryonic development. Post-implantation embryonic lethality implies a role for epigenetic factors in differentiation and in development of specific lineages or tissues. However a handful of chromatin-modifying enzymes have been found to be ...
Villa Olaya - - 2008
We report three cases of acute myeloid leukemia without maturation [AML-M1 subtype according to the French-American-British classification (FAB)] with the presence of MYC oncogene amplification in form of double minutes (dmin) or homogeneously staining region (hsr). Blasts cells showed a particular morphology with extrusion of chromatin material. We observed by ...
Kawamoto Ken K Department of Urology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center and University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA 94121, - - 2008
Secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2) is a negative modulator of the Wingless-type (Wnt) signaling pathway, and shown to be inactivated in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, the molecular mechanism of silencing of sFRP2 is not fully understood. Our study was designed to elucidate the silencing mechanism of sFRP2 in RCC. ...
Sanchez María de la Paz Mde - - 2008
Cell cycle progression depends on a highly regulated series of events of which transcriptional control plays a major role. In addition, during the S-phase not only DNA but chromatin as a whole needs to be faithfully duplicated. Therefore, both nucleosome dynamics as well as local changes in chromatin organization, including ...
Kawasaki Hiroaki - - 2008
Previous studies have led to the isolation of histone H2B with antibacterial properties from an extract of the skin of the Schlegel's green tree frog Rhacophorus schlegelii and it is now demonstrated that the intact peptide is released into norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions. In order to investigate the mechanism of action ...
Chen Tsoching - - 2008
Infrared spectroscopy identifies molecules by detection of vibrational patterns characteristic of molecular bonds. We apply this approach to measure protein acetylation after treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors. The anticancer activity of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) is ascribed to the hyperacetylation of both core nucleosomal histones and nonhistone proteins critical to ...
Li Lin - - 2008
Histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate (NaBu) can induce G(0)/G(1) arrest and erythroid differentiation in K562 cells, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are unclear. Here we show that both p18( INK4C ) mRNA and protein levels were upregulated during K562 cell erythroid differentiation induced by NaBu. Moreover, the NaBu ...
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