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Results 251 - 300 of 1159
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Dominguez Maria - - 2008
At the end of June 2008, researchers from diverse fields, ranging from chromatin remodeling to cell cycle control, gathered in Madrid at a Cantoblanco Workshop entitled 'Chromatin at the Nexus of Cell Division and Differentiation'. The work discussed at this meeting, which was co-organized by Crisanto Gutierrez, Ben Scheres and ...
Ghule Prachi N - - 2008
Human embryonic stem (hES) cells have an abbreviated G(1) phase of the cell cycle. How cells expedite G(1) events that are required for the initiation of S phase has not been resolved. One key regulatory pathway that controls G(1)/S-phase transition is the cyclin E/CDK2-dependent activation of the coactivator protein nuclear ...
Nicklay Joshua J - - 2009
Epigenetic information is hypothesized to be encoded in histone variants and post-translational modifications. Varied cell- and locus-specific combinations of these epigenetic marks are likely contributors to regulation of chromatin-templated transactions, including transcription, replication, recombination, and repair. Therefore, the relative abundance of histone modifications in a given cell type is a ...
Houben F - - 2009
The nuclear lamina and the cytoskeleton form an integrated structure that warrants proper mechanical functioning of cells. We have studied the correlation between structural alterations and migrational behaviour in fibroblasts with and without A-type lamins. We show that loss of A-type lamins causes loss of emerin and nesprin-3 from the ...
Hansen Klaus H - - 2008
Organization of chromatin by epigenetic mechanisms is essential for establishing and maintaining cellular identity in developing and adult organisms. A key question that remains unresolved about this process is how epigenetic marks are transmitted to the next cell generation during cell division. Here we provide a model to explain how ...
Hasegawa Hiroshi - - 2008
Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) converts diacylglycerol (DG) to phosphatidic acid, both of which act as second messengers to mediate a variety of cellular mechanisms. Therefore, DGK contributes to the regulation of these messengers in cellular signal transduction. Of DGK isozymes cloned, DGKzeta is characterized by a nuclear localization signal that overlaps ...
Naetar Nana - - 2008
Lamina-associated polypeptide (LAP) 2alpha is a chromatin-associated protein that binds A-type lamins. Mutations in both LAP2alpha and A-type lamins are linked to human diseases called laminopathies, but the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. The A-type lamin-LAP2alpha complex interacts with and regulates retinoblastoma protein (pRb), but the significance of this interaction ...
Yamada Kentaro - - 2008
ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers (ADCRs) convert local chromatin structure into both transcriptional active and repressive state. Recent studies have revealed that ADCRs play diverse regulatory roles in chromosomal events such as DNA repair and recombination. Here we have newly identified a fission yeast gene encoding a Swi2/Snf2 family ADCR. The amino ...
Sancho Mónica - - 2008
At least six histone H1 variants exist in somatic mammalian cells that bind to the linker DNA and stabilize the nucleosome particle contributing to higher order chromatin compaction. In addition, H1 seems to be actively involved in the regulation of gene expression. However, it is not well known whether the ...
Lee Eun Ju - - 2008
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are involved in cell growth, apoptosis and differentiation. This study aimed to investigate the effects of HDACI scriptaid on histone modification, demethylation, cell growth, cell cycle and apoptosis in the RKO colorectal cancer cell line and screening for scriptaid-induced genes. RKO cells were treated with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine ...
Martyushev L M - - 2008
The entropy production in the problem of the radial displacement of a fluid in the Hele-Shaw cell is determined. The morphological stability of the interface between the displaced and displacing fluids is studied using the linear analysis for stability and the maximum entropy production principle. Regions, in which different forms ...
Shaw Peter - - 2008
During development cells transit through different states as they pass from stem cell to terminally differentiated cell. There is evidence that the transition from one state to another can be accompanied by changes in epigenetic state of genes, which is embodied in chromatin state. Here we give an overview of ...
Wang Chun-Ting - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Sodium 4-phenylbutanoate (NaPB) can induce cellular differentiation and cell cycle arrest. However, its potential anticancer properties in hepatocellular carcinoma and influence on normal liver cell are still unclear. We observed the effects of NaPB on growth inhibition, including differentiation and phase growth arrest in normal liver cell line L-02 ...
McDonel Patrick P University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JQ, - - 2009
Gene inactivation studies of mammalian histone and DNA-modifying proteins have demonstrated a role for many such proteins in embryonic development. Post-implantation embryonic lethality implies a role for epigenetic factors in differentiation and in development of specific lineages or tissues. However a handful of chromatin-modifying enzymes have been found to be ...
Villa Olaya - - 2008
We report three cases of acute myeloid leukemia without maturation [AML-M1 subtype according to the French-American-British classification (FAB)] with the presence of MYC oncogene amplification in form of double minutes (dmin) or homogeneously staining region (hsr). Blasts cells showed a particular morphology with extrusion of chromatin material. We observed by ...
Kawamoto Ken - - 2008
Secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2) is a negative modulator of the Wingless-type (Wnt) signaling pathway, and shown to be inactivated in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, the molecular mechanism of silencing of sFRP2 is not fully understood. Our study was designed to elucidate the silencing mechanism of sFRP2 in RCC. ...
Sanchez María de la Paz Mde - - 2008
Cell cycle progression depends on a highly regulated series of events of which transcriptional control plays a major role. In addition, during the S-phase not only DNA but chromatin as a whole needs to be faithfully duplicated. Therefore, both nucleosome dynamics as well as local changes in chromatin organization, including ...
Kawasaki Hiroaki - - 2008
Previous studies have led to the isolation of histone H2B with antibacterial properties from an extract of the skin of the Schlegel's green tree frog Rhacophorus schlegelii and it is now demonstrated that the intact peptide is released into norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions. In order to investigate the mechanism of action ...
Chen Tsoching - - 2008
Infrared spectroscopy identifies molecules by detection of vibrational patterns characteristic of molecular bonds. We apply this approach to measure protein acetylation after treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors. The anticancer activity of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) is ascribed to the hyperacetylation of both core nucleosomal histones and nonhistone proteins critical to ...
Li Lin - - 2008
Histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate (NaBu) can induce G(0)/G(1) arrest and erythroid differentiation in K562 cells, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are unclear. Here we show that both p18( INK4C ) mRNA and protein levels were upregulated during K562 cell erythroid differentiation induced by NaBu. Moreover, the NaBu ...
Miyanaga Akihiko - - 2008
To ascertain the potential for histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor-based treatment in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we analyzed the antitumor effects of trichostatin A (TSA) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (vorinostat) in a panel of 16 NSCLC cell lines via 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. TSA and vorinostat both displayed strong antitumor activities ...
de Lumen Ben O - - 2008
Lunasin is a novel cancer preventive peptide whose efficacy against chemical carcinogens and oncogenes has been demonstrated in mammalian cells and a skin cancer mouse model. In contrast, constitutive expression of the lunasin gene in mammalian cells leads to arrest of cell division and cell death. Isolated and characterized in ...
Thomas Tim - - 2008
Acetylation of histone tails is a hallmark of transcriptionally active chromatin. Mof (males absent on the first; also called MYST1 or KAT8) is a member of the MYST family of histone acetyltransferases and was originally discovered as an essential component of the X chromosome dosage compensation system in Drosophila. In ...
Bongiorno-Borbone Lucilla L Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Roma, - - 2008
Cajal Bodies are one of many specialised organelles contained in the eukaryotic cell nucleus, and are involved in a number of functions, including regulation of replication-dependent histone gene transcription. In normal diploid cells their number varies between 0 and 4 depending on the cell cycle phase, although in cancer cell ...
Grummt Ingrid - - 2008
The synthesis of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is carefully tuned to match nutritional conditions. In this issue, Murayama et al. (2008) describe a mechanism that couples the energy status of the cell to heterochromatin formation and silencing of rRNA genes. They show that an altered NAD(+)/NADH ratio in response to glucose ...
Valenzuela-Fernández Agustín - - 2008
Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is a cytoplasmic enzyme that regulates many important biological processes, including cell migration, immune synapse formation, viral infection, and the degradation of misfolded proteins. HDAC6 deacetylates tubulin, Hsp90 and cortactin, and forms complexes with other partner proteins. Although HDAC6 enzymatic activity seems to be required for ...
Aoto Takahiro - - 2008
Polycomb group (PcG) proteins form two distinct complexes, PRC1 and PRC2, to regulate developmental target genes by maintaining the epigenetic state in cells. PRC2 methylates histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27), and PRC1 then recognizes methyl-H3K27 to form repressive chromatin. However, it remains unknown how PcG proteins maintain stable and ...
Marsoni Silvia - - 2008
It has been widely recognized that histone deacetylases (HDAC) are promising targets in the field of oncology. An impressive body of preclinical research points to the ability of HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs) to modulate a wide variety of cellular functions, including cell differentiation, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, cytoskeletal modifications and angiogenesis. ...
Nagai Kaoru - - 2008
Some epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation and histone deacetylation, act as transcriptional repression signals. In this study, we examined whether DNA methylation dependent transcriptional control regulates glial cell growth. Primary cultured mouse cortical glial cells were treated with the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-deoxycytidine (5adC) or the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium ...
Goren Alon - - 2008
The human beta-globin genes constitute a large chromosomal domain that is developmentally regulated. In nonerythroid cells, these genes replicate late in S phase, while in erythroid cells, replication is early. The replication origin is packaged with acetylated histones in erythroid cells, yet is associated with deacetylated histones in nonerythroid cells. ...
Nagamine Toshihiro - - 2008
Chromatin structure is strictly regulated during the cell cycle. DNA viruses occasionally disturb the spatial organization of the host cell chromatin due to formation of the viral DNA replication compartment. To examine chromatin behavior in baculovirus-infected cells, we constructed recombinant plasmids expressing fluorescent protein-tagged histone H4 molecules and visualized the ...
Grande Maribel - - 2008
The nucleosome assembly protein Nap1 has been implicated in various cellular functions such as histone shuttling into the nucleus, nucleosome assembly, chromatin remodelling, transcriptional control and cell-cycle regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe nap1 null mutant cells are viable but they showed a delay in the onset of mitosis ...
Erlich Rafael B - - 2009
PURPOSES: Here we investigate if valproic acid (VA) can enhance the efficacy of commonly used therapies for head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) and the molecular mechanisms that may be related to its anticancer effects. METHODS: Proliferation and viability of distinct cell types subjected to VA treatment alone or ...
Lee Jaehyouk - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Our study was designed to demonstrate that DICKKOPF-1 (DKK-1), encoding a secreted Wnt antagonist, is transcriptionally repressed by epigenetic alterations in cervical carcinoma cell lines. METHODS: Methylation-specific PCR for 8 human cervical cancer cell lines and bisulfite sequencing for 4 cell lines exhibiting significant difference in methylation levels were ...
Walsby Elisabeth - - 2008
Aurora kinases play an essential role in the orchestration of chromosome separation and cytokinesis during mitosis. Small-molecule inhibition of the aurora kinases has been shown to result in inhibition of cell division, phosphorylation of histone H3 and the induction of apoptosis in a number of cell systems. These characteristics have ...
Candelario Jose - - 2008
Mutations in the lamin A/C gene cause the rare genetic disorder Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS). The prevalent mutation results in the production of a mutant lamin A protein with an internal 50 amino acid deletion which causes a cellular aging phenotype characterized by growth defects, limited replicative lifespan, and nuclear ...
Kappes F - - 2008
DEK is a nuclear phosphoprotein implicated in oncogenesis and autoimmunity and a major component of metazoan chromatin. The intracellular cues that control the binding of DEK to DNA and its pleiotropic functions in DNA- and RNA-dependent processes have remained mainly elusive so far. Our recent finding that the phosphorylation status ...
Trubiani Oriana - - 2008
CD38 is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein found mainly on the plasma membrane involved in the metabolism of cADPR and NAADP, two nucleotides with calcium mobilizing activity independent of inositol trisphosphate. Recent data report the presence of CD38 in different cellular compartments raising new questions about its effective role in ...
Ng Ray K - - 2008
Epigenetic modifications influence gene expression pattern and provide a unique signature of a cell differentiation status. Without external stimuli or signalling events, this cell identity remains stable and unlikely to change over many cell divisions. The epigenetic signature of a particular cell fate therefore needs to be replicated faithfully in ...
Ehlers A - - 2008
A unique feature of the tumor cells (Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg (HRS)) of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is the loss of their B-cell phenotype despite their B-cell origin. Several lines of evidence suggest that epigenomic events, especially promoter DNA methylation, are involved in this silencing of many B-cell-associated genes. Here, we show that ...
Sasaki Ko - - 2008
Disturbance of the normal functions of wild-type RUNX1 resulting from chromosomal translocations or gene mutations is one of the major molecular mechanisms in human leukemogenesis. RUNX1-related chimeras generated by the chromosomal translocations repress transcriptional activity of wild-type RUNX1 by recruiting the co-repressor/histone deacetylase complex. Thus, histone deacetylase inhibitors are expected ...
Spurling Colleen C - - 2008
An immunohistochemical analysis of human colorectal adenocarcinomas showed that cancer cells express widely varying levels of HDAC3. The SW480 colon cancer cell line was found to express high levels of HDAC3 compared to other colon cancer cell lines. p21 was poorly induced in SW480 cells relative to the lower HDAC3-expressing ...
Dahl John Arne - - 2008
Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a powerful technique for studying protein-DNA interactions. Drawbacks of current ChIP assays however are a requirement for large cell numbers, which limits applicability of ChIP to rare cell samples, and/or lengthy procedures with limited applications. There are to date no protocols for fast and parallel ChIPs ...
Eberlin Adrien - - 2008
Condensation of chromatin, mediated in part by posttranslational modifications of histones, is essential for cell division during mitosis. Histone H3 tails are dimethylated on lysine (Kme2) and become phosphorylated on serine (Sp) residues during mitosis. We have explored the possibility that these double modifications are involved in the establishment of ...
Pisetsky David S - - 2008
High-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) is a non-histone nuclear protein that has a dual function. Inside the cell, HMGB1 binds DNA, regulating transcription and determining chromosomal architecture. Outside the cell, HMGB1 can serve as an alarmin to activate the innate system and mediate a wide range of physiological and ...
Kanger Johannes S - - 2008
Magnetic tweezers are widely used for manipulating small magnetic beads inside the cell cytoplasm in order to gain insight into the structural and mechanical properties of the cytoskeleton. Here we discuss the use of magnetic tweezers for the study of nuclear architecture and the mechanical properties of chromatin in living ...
Jacobberger James W - - 2008
Many epitopes are phosphorylated during mitosis. These epitopes are useful biomarkers for mitotic cells. The most commonly used are MPM-2 and serine 10 of histone H3. Here we investigated the use of an antibody generated against a phospho peptide matching residues 774-788 of the human retinoblastoma protein 1 (Rb) to ...
Orciani M - - 2008
Human CD38 antigen is a 42-45 kDa type II transmembrane glycoprotein with a short N-terminal cytoplasmic domain and a long C-terminal extracellular region. It is widely expressed in different cell types including thymocytes, activated T cells, and terminally differentiated B cells (plasma cells) and it is involved in cellular proliferation ...
Dahl John Arne - - 2008
Interactions of proteins with DNA mediate many critical nuclear functions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a robust technique for studying protein-DNA interactions. Current ChIP assays, however, either require large cell numbers, which prevent their application to rare cell samples or small-tissue biopsies, or involve lengthy procedures. We describe here a 1-day ...
Takai Noriyuki - - 2008
We investigated the effect of five histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) on the choriocarcinoma cell line, BeWo. BeWo cells were treated with various concentrations of five HDACIs, and their effects on cell growth, cell cycle, apoptosis, and related measurements were investigated. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assays showed that the BeWo choriocarcinoma cell line ...
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