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Results 201 - 250 of 1195
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Podhraski Valerie - - 2010
CHD1 is a SNF2-related ATPase that is required for the genome-wide incorporation of variant histone H3.3 in the paternal pronucleus as well as in transcriptionally active nuclei in Drosophila embryos. The S. pombe and vertebrate orthologs of CHD1 have been implicated in the assembly of the centromeric histone H3 variant ...
Pasque V V The Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute and Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QN, United - - 2010
The differentiated state of somatic cells is highly stable, but it can be experimentally reversed. The resulting cells can then be redirected into many different pathways. Nuclear reprogramming has been achieved by nuclear transfer to eggs, cell fusion, and overexpression of transcription factors. The mechanisms of nuclear reprogramming are not ...
Yang Qiwei Q Department of Pediatrics, University of Chicago, 900 Ease 57th Street, KCBD Rm, 5100 Chicago, IL 60637, - - 2010
Epigenetic aberrations and a CpG island methylator phenotype have been shown to be associated with poor outcomes in children with neuroblastoma (NB). Seven cancer related genes (THBS-1, CASP8, HIN-1, TIG-1, BLU, SPARC, and HIC-1) that have been shown to have epigenetic changes in adult cancers and play important roles in ...
Vrba Lukas L Arizona Cancer Center, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, - - 2010
The microRNA-200 family participates in the maintenance of an epithelial phenotype and loss of its expression can result in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Furthermore, the loss of expression of miR-200 family members is linked to an aggressive cancer phenotype. Regulation of the miR-200 family expression in normal and cancer ...
Lombardi Maria Lucia ML Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, - - 2010
In eukaryotic cells, the nucleus is the largest and most rigid organelle. Therefore, its physical properties contribute critically to the biomechanical behavior of cells, e.g., during amoeboid migration or perfusion through narrow capillaries. Furthermore, it has been speculated that nuclear deformations could directly allow cells to sense mechanical stress, e.g., ...
van Amerongen Machteld J - - 2010
AIMS: Although the fundamental role of the E2F transcription factor family in cell proliferation is well established, the specific function of E2F4 is unclear. On the basis of findings from cell culture experiments, E2F4 is generally considered as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Accumulating evidence suggests, however, that E2F4 acts ...
Naldi Marina - - 2009
The goal of the present work is to establish a correlation between the degree of histone post-translational modifications and the effects caused by treatment of HT29 colon cancer cells with class I-selective (MS-275 and MC1855), class II-selective (MC1568), and non-selective (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi). This correlation ...
Wang Kai - - 2009
Oct4 and Nanog are crucial for maintaining pluripotency in embryonic stem (ES) cells and early-stage embryos. In the present study, the status of DNA methylation and of histone modifications in the regulatory regions of Oct4 and Nanog in rhesus nuclear transfer-derived ES (ntES) cells was compared with in vitro fertilized ...
França G F - - 2009
Spermatic characteristics were studied in representatives of the families Rhamphichthyidae, Sternopygidae and Apteronotidae, and compared with pre-existent data from Gymnotidae and Hypopomidae. The spermatic characteristics found in Gymnotiformes were also compared with data from other Ostariophysi spermatic cells. The spermatic characteristics as the type of spermiogenesis and the structural pattern ...
Morselli Eugenia - - 2009
Although autophagy has widely been conceived as a self-destructive mechanism that causes cell death, accumulating evidence suggests that autophagy usually mediates cytoprotection, thereby avoiding the apoptotic or necrotic demise of stressed cells. Recent evidence produced by our groups demonstrates that autophagy is also involved in pharmacological manipulations that increase longevity. ...
Ooi Cheng C - - 2010
1. Butyrate is a well known product of starch fermentation by colonic bacteria and is of interest owing to its ability to induce in vitro apoptosis and cell differentiation, as well as to inhibit cell growth in colorectal and other cancer cells. Synthetic analogues of butyrate may also possess cellular ...
Bongiorno-Borbone L L IDI-IRCCS Biochemistry Laboratory, c/o Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Roma, - - 2010
Eucaryotic cell nuclei contain a number of different organelles that are highly dynamic structures and respond to a variety of stimuli. Here we investigated the effect of UV irradiation on a recently identified group of organelles, Histone Locus Bodies. Histone Locus Bodies contain at least two main proteins, FLASH and ...
Gladfelter Amy A Department of Biological Sciences, Gillman Hall, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755, - - 2009
The many different mechanisms that fungi use to transmit and share genetic material are mediated by a broad range of chromosome and nuclear dynamics. The mechanics underlying nuclear migration are well integrated into detailed models, in which the forces supplied by plus- and minus-end-directed microtubule motors position and move the ...
Burke Brian - - 2009
Eukaryotic cells display considerable morphological plasticity linked to their abilities to carry out a myriad of complex functions. Structural rearrangements associated with cellular activities, from yeast mitosis to cell migration in the mammalian central nervous system, often involve relocation of the cell nucleus. Recent studies have provided insight into how ...
Campas-Moya Clara - - 2009
Aberrant epigenetic gene regulation by deacetylation of histone proteins has been involved in tumorigenesis. Histone deacetilase (HDAC) inhibitors are promising anticancer agents under research and development. Romidepsin is a novel and potent HDAC inhibitor highly efficient in inhibiting HDAC activity even at nanomolar concentrations. It exhibits a considerably stronger direct ...
Wu Qiang Q Wellcome Trust and Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, Cambridge, United - - 2009
Histone H3 methylation at R17 and R26 recently emerged as a novel epigenetic mechanism regulating pluripotency in mouse embryos. Blastomeres of four-cell embryos with high H3 methylation at these sites show unrestricted potential, whereas those with lower levels cannot support development when aggregated in chimeras of like cells. Increasing histone ...
Liu Bo - - 2009
Propionylation has been identified recently as a new type of protein post-translational modification. Bacterial propionyl-CoA synthetase and human histone H4 are propionylated at specific lysine residues that have been known previously to be acetylated. However, other proteins subject to this modification remain to be identified, and the modifying enzymes involved ...
Hwang Jung Jin - - 2009
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are potent anticancer drugs, and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid is used for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma patients. We synthesized a novel hydroxamate-based HDACI, CG0006, and assessed its antiproliferative effects on the NCI-60 cancer cell panel and cell lines from liver and stomach cancers that are ...
Li Mingxi M Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, - - 2009
Global histone modifications and their putative relevance to short and long term cellular programming have drawn substantial interest in the study of chromatin. Here we describe the use of reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled to Linear Ion Trap-Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry (RPLC-LTQ-FTMS) to quickly profile post-translationally modified isoforms and variants for ...
Mellor Jane - - 2009
In a recent issue of Molecular Cell, Schulze et al. (2009) described distinct distributions and regulation of Dot1-dependent methylation states at lysine 79 on histone H3 and showed cell-cycle regulation of K79 dimethylation on genes expressed during the G1/S phase.
Shehu-Xhilaga Miranda - - 2009
We investigated the ability of several novel class I histone deacetylase inhibitors to activate HIV-1 transcription in latently infected cell lines. Oxamflatin, metacept-1 and metacept-3 induced high levels of HIV-1 transcription in latently infected T cell and monocytic cells lines, were potent inhibitors of histone deacetylase activity and caused preferential ...
Sasaki Kazuki - - 2009
To visualize histone acetylation in living cells, we developed a genetically encoded fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based indicator. Response of the indicator reflects changes in the acetylation state of both K5 and K8 in histone H4. Using this acetylation indicator, we were able to monitor the dynamic fluctuation of histone ...
Cheng Ming-Fang - - 2009
The relationship between histone methylation and apoptosis, programmed cell death, is beginning to be explored. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of staurosporine, a PKC inhibitor on the methylation of histone H3 in osteosarcoma cells. Following stimulation by staurosporine in vitro of G292 cells, a human ...
Farkas Erzsebet - - 2010
Time lapse video photography was used to follow the movement of individual cells after in vitro treatment with Hg(II) acetate. Cellular changes of mercuric ions were characterized by their properties of causing reduced cellular mobility (10-50microM), and complete lack of cellular movement at higher concentrations (100-1000microM). Results show that after ...
Siripattarapravat Kannika - - 2009
We developed a method for somatic cell nuclear transfer in zebrafish using laser-ablated metaphase II eggs as recipients, the micropyle for transfer of the nucleus and an egg activation protocol after nuclear reconstruction. We produced clones from cells of both embryonic and adult origins, although the latter did not give ...
Davies G F - - 2010
We previously demonstrated that the PPARgamma agonist Troglitazone (TRG), a potent antiproliferative agent, in combination with the anthracycline antibiotic Doxorubicin (DOX), is an effective killer of multiple drug resistant (MDR) human cancer cells. Cell killing was accompanied by increased global histone H3 acetylation. Presently, we investigated the epigenetic and cell ...
Wirth Martina - - 2009
Maintenance of intact heterochromatin structure through epigenetic mechanisms is essential for cell survival. Defects in heterochromatin formation caused by loss of chromatin-modifying enzymes lead to genomic instability and cellular senescence. The NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase SIR-2 and the H1 linker histone are intriguing chromatin elements that are connected to chromatin regulation ...
Tong Wei-Gang WG Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, United - - 2010
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been shown to induce cell cycle arrest, terminal differentiation, and apoptosis in a broad spectrum of human tumors and animal xenograft models. JNJ-26481585 is a hydroxamic acid derivative, second-generation pan-HDAC inhibitor that has demonstrated high potency in preclinical studies. In the current study, we demonstrated ...
Latham John A - - 2009
The discovery of trans-regulation of histone H3K4 methylation by ubiquitination of histone H2BK123 generated much excitement in the field of chromatin biology. Recently, the veracity of this example of cross talk between histone modifications in yeast was challenged (Foster and Downs, 2009. J. Cell Biol. doi:10.1083/jcb.200812088) but ultimately reconfirmed in ...
Clelland Allyson K - - 2009
The cell nucleus contains two closely related structures, Cajal bodies (CBs) and gems. CBs are the first site of accumulation of newly assembled splicing snRNPs (small nuclear ribonucleoproteins) following their import into the nucleus, before they form their steady-state localization in nuclear splicing speckles. Gems are the nuclear site of ...
Ghizzoni Massimo - - 2009
Development of small molecule inhibitors of the histone acetyltransferase p300/CBP associated factor (PCAF) is relevant for oncology. The inhibition of the enzyme PCAF and proliferation of the cancer cell line HEP G2 by a series of 5-chloroisothiazolones was compared to a series of 5-chloroisothiazolone-1-oxides. The PCAF inhibitory potency of 5-chloroisothiazolones ...
Komorowsky Claudiu - - 2009
Regulation of the profibrotic and angiogenesis modulating cytokine connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) occurs primarily at the transcriptional level. Therefore, we hypothesized that histone deacetylating enzymes (HDAC), which modulate the accessibility of transcriptionally active promoter regions, might play a role in the regulation of CTGF gene expression. We analyzed microvascular ...
Hwang William W - - 2009
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the conserved phosphatase Cdc14 is required for the exit from mitosis. It is anchored on nucleolar chromatin by the Cfi1/Net1 protein until early anaphase, at which time it is released into the nucleoplasm. Two poorly understood, redundant pathways promote Cdc14 release, the FEAR (Cdc fourteen early release) ...
Park Young-Eun - - 2009
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved intracellular mechanism for the degradation of organelles and proteins. Here we demonstrate the presence of perinuclear autophagosomes/autolysosomes containing nuclear components in nuclear envelopathies caused by mutations in the genes encoding A-type lamins (LMNA) and emerin (EMD). These autophagosomes/autolysosomes were sometimes bigger than a nucleus. The ...
Watson Jenny A - - 2010
Histone acetylation is a fundamental mechanism in the regulation of local chromatin conformation and gene expression. Research has focused on the impact of altered epigenetic environments on the expression of specific genes and their pathways. However, changes in histone acetylation also have a global impact on the cell. In this ...
Gao Jing - - 2009
Nectin-like molecule 1 (NECL1)/CADM3/IGSF4B/TSLL1/SynCAM3 is a neural tissue-specific immunoglobulin-like cell-cell adhesion molecule downregulated at the mRNA level in 12 human glioma cell lines. Here we found that the expression of NECL1 was lost in six glioma cell lines and 15 primary glioma tissues at both RNA and protein levels. Re-expression ...
Marks P A PA Sloan-Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA. - - 2009
The role of histone deacetylases (HDAC) and the potential of these enzymes as therapeutic targets for cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and a number of other disorders is an area of rapidly expanding investigation. There are 18 HDACs in humans. These enzymes are not redundant in function. Eleven of the HDACs are ...
Butler John T JT Department of Cell Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, 01655, - - 2009
The complex nuclear structure of somatic cells is important to epigenomic regulation, yet little is known about nuclear organization of human embryonic stem cells (hESC). Here we surveyed several nuclear structures in pluripotent and transitioning hESC. Observations of centromeres, telomeres, SC35 speckles, Cajal Bodies, lamin A/C and emerin, nuclear shape ...
McLean Cameron A - - 2010
If the full potential of chromatin transfer (CT) technology is to be realized for both animal production and biomedical applications it is imperative that the efficiency of the reprogramming process be improved, and the potential for deleterious development be eliminated. Generation of the first cloned animals from adult somatic cells ...
Smith Alexander E - - 2009
We investigated functional epigenetic changes that occur in primary human T lymphocytes during entry into the cell cycle and mapped these at the single-nucleosome level by ChIP-chip on tiling arrays for chromosomes 1 and 6. We show that nucleosome loss and flanking active histone marks define active transcriptional start sites ...
Osborne Erin A EA Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, - - 2009
The establishment of silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is similar to heterochromatin formation in multicellular eukaryotes. Previous batch culture studies determined that the de novo establishment of silencing initiates during S phase and continues for up to five cell divisions for completion. To track silencing phenotypically, we developed an assay that ...
Jiao Jie - - 2009
A novel series of N-hydroxy-4-(3-phenylpropanamido)benzamide (HPPB) derivatives comprising N-hydroxybenzamide group as zinc-chelating moiety were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their ability to inhibit histone deacetylases. These compounds possessed inhibitory activity against the enzymes with IC(50) values as low as 4.0 microM. Among them, the thiophene substituted derivative 5j (IC(50)=0.3 microM) ...
Mello Maria Luiza S - - 2009
MCF-10F human breast epithelial cells when transformed with 17-beta-estradiol (E2) give rise to highly invasive C5 cells that generate adenocarcinomas in SCID mice. From these tumors, cell lines such as C5-A6-T6 and C5-A8-T8 have been derived. Variable patterns of chromatin supraorganization have been demonstrated for these cells during the transformation/tumorigenesis ...
Wood Christopher - - 2009
In recent years, a considerable amount of research has been focused on establishing the epigenetic mechanisms associated with DNA and the core histones. This effort is driven by the fact that epigenetics is intimately involved with genomics in a whole range of molecular processes. However, there is now a consensus ...
Kausar Afifa - - 2009
Genotoxicity is one of the important endpoints for risk assessment of various lifestyle factors. The study is the first report on the genotoxic effect associated with sadagura, a unique smokeless tobacco prepared in southern Assam province of North-East India. Sadagura is consumed with or without betel quid and/or smoking. In ...
Naetar Nana - - 2009
Lamins are components of the peripheral nuclear lamina that has important mechanical roles in nuclear architecture. Lamins have increasingly been implicated in nuclear processes, including DNA replication, chromatin organization and transcription. Recent data highlight the specific functions of a small pool of lamina-independent A-type lamins, located throughout the nucleoplasm, in ...
Kang Moo Rim - - 2009
In this study, we investigated the anti-tumor activity of KBH-A42 [N-hydroxy-3-(2-oxo-1-(3-phenylpropyl)-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-3-yl)propanamide], a novel synthetic histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. KBH-A42 inhibited a variety of HDAC isoforms in enzyme assays and suppressed growth of various cancer cell lines. Among the cell lines examined, colon cancer cells, including SW620, SW480 and HCT-15, were ...
Bhattacharya Dipanjan - - 2009
Cellular differentiation and developmental programs require changing patterns of gene expression. Recent experiments have revealed that chromatin organization is highly dynamic within living cells, suggesting possible mechanisms to alter gene expression programs, yet the physical basis of this organization is unclear. In this article, we contrast the differences in the ...
Rexach Michael - - 2009
All nucleocytoplasmic traffic of macromolecules occurs through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), which function as stents in the nuclear envelope to keep nuclear pores open but gated. Three studies in this issue (Flemming, D., P. Sarges, P. Stelter, A. Hellwig, B. Böttcher, and E. Hurt. 2009. J. Cell Biol. 185:387-395; Makio, ...
Glover Dominic J - - 2009
Compartmentalization within eukaryotic cells hinders the efficient delivery of therapeutic agents to the cell nucleus. Here we describe novel multifunctional DNA carriers (MDCs) that self-assemble with DNA to form structured nanoparticles that possess virus-like functions for cellular trafficking. MDCs contain, in fusion, the DNA-compacting sperm chromatin component protamine, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone ...
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