Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1170
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Davies G F - - 2010
We previously demonstrated that the PPARgamma agonist Troglitazone (TRG), a potent antiproliferative agent, in combination with the anthracycline antibiotic Doxorubicin (DOX), is an effective killer of multiple drug resistant (MDR) human cancer cells. Cell killing was accompanied by increased global histone H3 acetylation. Presently, we investigated the epigenetic and cell ...
Wirth Martina - - 2009
Maintenance of intact heterochromatin structure through epigenetic mechanisms is essential for cell survival. Defects in heterochromatin formation caused by loss of chromatin-modifying enzymes lead to genomic instability and cellular senescence. The NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase SIR-2 and the H1 linker histone are intriguing chromatin elements that are connected to chromatin regulation ...
Tong Wei-Gang - - 2010
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been shown to induce cell cycle arrest, terminal differentiation, and apoptosis in a broad spectrum of human tumors and animal xenograft models. JNJ-26481585 is a hydroxamic acid derivative, second-generation pan-HDAC inhibitor that has demonstrated high potency in preclinical studies. In the current study, we demonstrated ...
Latham John A - - 2009
The discovery of trans-regulation of histone H3K4 methylation by ubiquitination of histone H2BK123 generated much excitement in the field of chromatin biology. Recently, the veracity of this example of cross talk between histone modifications in yeast was challenged (Foster and Downs, 2009. J. Cell Biol. doi:10.1083/jcb.200812088) but ultimately reconfirmed in ...
Clelland Allyson K - - 2009
The cell nucleus contains two closely related structures, Cajal bodies (CBs) and gems. CBs are the first site of accumulation of newly assembled splicing snRNPs (small nuclear ribonucleoproteins) following their import into the nucleus, before they form their steady-state localization in nuclear splicing speckles. Gems are the nuclear site of ...
Ghizzoni Massimo - - 2009
Development of small molecule inhibitors of the histone acetyltransferase p300/CBP associated factor (PCAF) is relevant for oncology. The inhibition of the enzyme PCAF and proliferation of the cancer cell line HEP G2 by a series of 5-chloroisothiazolones was compared to a series of 5-chloroisothiazolone-1-oxides. The PCAF inhibitory potency of 5-chloroisothiazolones ...
Komorowsky Claudiu - - 2009
Regulation of the profibrotic and angiogenesis modulating cytokine connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) occurs primarily at the transcriptional level. Therefore, we hypothesized that histone deacetylating enzymes (HDAC), which modulate the accessibility of transcriptionally active promoter regions, might play a role in the regulation of CTGF gene expression. We analyzed microvascular ...
Hwang William W - - 2009
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the conserved phosphatase Cdc14 is required for the exit from mitosis. It is anchored on nucleolar chromatin by the Cfi1/Net1 protein until early anaphase, at which time it is released into the nucleoplasm. Two poorly understood, redundant pathways promote Cdc14 release, the FEAR (Cdc fourteen early release) ...
Park Young-Eun - - 2009
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved intracellular mechanism for the degradation of organelles and proteins. Here we demonstrate the presence of perinuclear autophagosomes/autolysosomes containing nuclear components in nuclear envelopathies caused by mutations in the genes encoding A-type lamins (LMNA) and emerin (EMD). These autophagosomes/autolysosomes were sometimes bigger than a nucleus. The ...
Watson Jenny A - - 2010
Histone acetylation is a fundamental mechanism in the regulation of local chromatin conformation and gene expression. Research has focused on the impact of altered epigenetic environments on the expression of specific genes and their pathways. However, changes in histone acetylation also have a global impact on the cell. In this ...
Gao Jing - - 2009
Nectin-like molecule 1 (NECL1)/CADM3/IGSF4B/TSLL1/SynCAM3 is a neural tissue-specific immunoglobulin-like cell-cell adhesion molecule downregulated at the mRNA level in 12 human glioma cell lines. Here we found that the expression of NECL1 was lost in six glioma cell lines and 15 primary glioma tissues at both RNA and protein levels. Re-expression ...
Butler John T - - 2009
The complex nuclear structure of somatic cells is important to epigenomic regulation, yet little is known about nuclear organization of human embryonic stem cells (hESC). Here we surveyed several nuclear structures in pluripotent and transitioning hESC. Observations of centromeres, telomeres, SC35 speckles, Cajal Bodies, lamin A/C and emerin, nuclear shape ...
Marks P A PA Sloan-Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA. - - 2009
The role of histone deacetylases (HDAC) and the potential of these enzymes as therapeutic targets for cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and a number of other disorders is an area of rapidly expanding investigation. There are 18 HDACs in humans. These enzymes are not redundant in function. Eleven of the HDACs are ...
McLean Cameron A - - 2010
If the full potential of chromatin transfer (CT) technology is to be realized for both animal production and biomedical applications it is imperative that the efficiency of the reprogramming process be improved, and the potential for deleterious development be eliminated. Generation of the first cloned animals from adult somatic cells ...
Smith Alexander E - - 2009
We investigated functional epigenetic changes that occur in primary human T lymphocytes during entry into the cell cycle and mapped these at the single-nucleosome level by ChIP-chip on tiling arrays for chromosomes 1 and 6. We show that nucleosome loss and flanking active histone marks define active transcriptional start sites ...
Osborne Erin A - - 2009
The establishment of silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is similar to heterochromatin formation in multicellular eukaryotes. Previous batch culture studies determined that the de novo establishment of silencing initiates during S phase and continues for up to five cell divisions for completion. To track silencing phenotypically, we developed an assay that ...
Jiao Jie - - 2009
A novel series of N-hydroxy-4-(3-phenylpropanamido)benzamide (HPPB) derivatives comprising N-hydroxybenzamide group as zinc-chelating moiety were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their ability to inhibit histone deacetylases. These compounds possessed inhibitory activity against the enzymes with IC(50) values as low as 4.0 microM. Among them, the thiophene substituted derivative 5j (IC(50)=0.3 microM) ...
Mello Maria Luiza S - - 2009
MCF-10F human breast epithelial cells when transformed with 17-beta-estradiol (E2) give rise to highly invasive C5 cells that generate adenocarcinomas in SCID mice. From these tumors, cell lines such as C5-A6-T6 and C5-A8-T8 have been derived. Variable patterns of chromatin supraorganization have been demonstrated for these cells during the transformation/tumorigenesis ...
Wood Christopher - - 2009
In recent years, a considerable amount of research has been focused on establishing the epigenetic mechanisms associated with DNA and the core histones. This effort is driven by the fact that epigenetics is intimately involved with genomics in a whole range of molecular processes. However, there is now a consensus ...
Kausar Afifa - - 2009
Genotoxicity is one of the important endpoints for risk assessment of various lifestyle factors. The study is the first report on the genotoxic effect associated with sadagura, a unique smokeless tobacco prepared in southern Assam province of North-East India. Sadagura is consumed with or without betel quid and/or smoking. In ...
Naetar Nana - - 2009
Lamins are components of the peripheral nuclear lamina that has important mechanical roles in nuclear architecture. Lamins have increasingly been implicated in nuclear processes, including DNA replication, chromatin organization and transcription. Recent data highlight the specific functions of a small pool of lamina-independent A-type lamins, located throughout the nucleoplasm, in ...
Kang Moo Rim - - 2009
In this study, we investigated the anti-tumor activity of KBH-A42 [N-hydroxy-3-(2-oxo-1-(3-phenylpropyl)-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-3-yl)propanamide], a novel synthetic histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. KBH-A42 inhibited a variety of HDAC isoforms in enzyme assays and suppressed growth of various cancer cell lines. Among the cell lines examined, colon cancer cells, including SW620, SW480 and HCT-15, were ...
Bhattacharya Dipanjan - - 2009
Cellular differentiation and developmental programs require changing patterns of gene expression. Recent experiments have revealed that chromatin organization is highly dynamic within living cells, suggesting possible mechanisms to alter gene expression programs, yet the physical basis of this organization is unclear. In this article, we contrast the differences in the ...
Rexach Michael - - 2009
All nucleocytoplasmic traffic of macromolecules occurs through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), which function as stents in the nuclear envelope to keep nuclear pores open but gated. Three studies in this issue (Flemming, D., P. Sarges, P. Stelter, A. Hellwig, B. Böttcher, and E. Hurt. 2009. J. Cell Biol. 185:387-395; Makio, ...
Glover Dominic J - - 2009
Compartmentalization within eukaryotic cells hinders the efficient delivery of therapeutic agents to the cell nucleus. Here we describe novel multifunctional DNA carriers (MDCs) that self-assemble with DNA to form structured nanoparticles that possess virus-like functions for cellular trafficking. MDCs contain, in fusion, the DNA-compacting sperm chromatin component protamine, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone ...
Scharlau Daniel - - 2009
Dietary fibres are indigestible food ingredients that reach the colon and are then fermented by colonic bacteria, resulting mainly in the formation of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) such as acetate, propionate, and butyrate. Those SCFA, especially butyrate, are recognised for their potential to act on secondary chemoprevention by slowing growth ...
Li Qin - - 2009
In the present study, we examined the effects of CoCl(2) on multiple histone modifications at the global level. We found that in both human lung carcinoma A549 cells and human bronchial epithelial Beas-2B cells, exposure to CoCl(2) (>/=200 muM) for 24 h increased H3K4me3, H3K9me2, H3K9me3, H3K27me3, H3K36me3, uH2A and ...
Ondrej Vladan - - 2009
This paper reports on the structural rearrangement of satellite DNA type I repeats and heterochromatin during the dedifferentiation and cell cycling of mesophyll protoplasts of cucumber (Cucumis sativus). These repeats were localized in the telomeric heterochromatin of cucumber chromosomes and in the chromocenters of interphase nuclei. The dramatic reduction of ...
Ikeda Shuntaro - - 2009
Histone acetylation is one of the major mechanisms of epigenetic reprogramming of gamete genomes after fertilization to establish a totipotent state for normal development. In the present study, the effects of trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, during in vitro fertilization (IVF) of bovine oocytes on subsequent embryonic ...
Fidlerová Helena - - 2009
Recently, we described the cold-dependent detection of an epitope, epiC, that was selectively recognized by a monoclonal anti-actin antibody at 4 degrees C, but not at RT, in the early replicating chromatin domains of human fibroblast cell nuclei and chromosomes. EpiC was present in a distinct cell cycle window extending ...
Cunneen Thomas S - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of mitomycin C and the histone deacetylase inhibitors sodium butyrate and trichostatin on the viability and growth of conjunctival melanoma cell lines and Tenon capsule fibroblasts. METHODS: Cells were treated with a range of concentrations of sodium butyrate, trichostatin, and mitomycin C. The MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 ...
Bian Yuhong Y Division of Animal Sciences, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough, - - 2009
Reprogramming pluripotency after nuclear transplantation shows that molecules in oocytes can remodel somatic chromatin to a stem cell state. Here we report on an ex-ovo system using axolotl oocyte extracts to remodel epigenetic marks of somatic chromatin. Molecules present in axolotl oocyte extracts induce the reduction of the overall levels ...
Akoumianaki Tonia - - 2009
We have investigated the subcellular distribution and dynamics of soluble tubulin in unperturbed and transfected HeLa cells. Under normal culture conditions, endogenous alpha/beta tubulin is confined to the cytoplasm. However, when the soluble pool of subunits is elevated by combined cold-nocodazole treatment and when constitutive nuclear export is inhibited by ...
Seo Jungwon - - 2009
Stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) regulates neovascularization, which is coordinately controlled by endothelial cells (EC) and their surrounding cells, pericytes or smooth muscle cells. In the basal state, SDF-1 expression is much lower in EC than in their surrounding cells. In this study, we evaluated epigenetic regulation to determine if ...
Pifarré Paula - - 2009
NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (GC(NO)), the major NO target, is involved in important regulatory functions in the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and central nervous systems. GC(NO) exists as heterodimers of alpha(1/2) and beta1 subunits. Deletion of the obligate beta1 dimerizing partner abrogates NO/cGMP signaling and shortens the life span of KO mice. Localization ...
Baetz N W - - 2009
Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) channels are expressed by trabecular meshwork (TM) and Schlemm's canal cells of the conventional outflow pathway where fluid movement is predominantly paracellular, suggesting a non-canonical role for AQP1. We hypothesized that AQP1 functions to protect TM cells during periods of mechanical strain. To test this idea, primary cultures ...
Fu Lingchen - - 2009
BLyS and its major receptor BAFF-R have been shown to be critical for development and homeostasis of normal B lymphocytes, and for cell growth and survival of neoplastic B lymphocytes, but the biologic mechanisms of this ligand/receptor-derived intracellular signaling pathway(s) have not been completely defined. We have discovered that the ...
Wu Angela R AR Dept. of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, CA 94305, - - 2009
Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a powerful assay used to probe DNA-protein interactions. Traditional methods of implementing this assay are lengthy, cumbersome and require a large number of cells, making it difficult to study rare cell types such as certain cancer and stem cells. We have designed a microfluidic device to ...
Cheng Fan - - 2009
The opioid growth factor receptor (OGFr) mediates the inhibitory action of OGF on cell replication of normal and neoplastic cells. The spatiotemporal course of OGFr nucleocytoplasmic trafficking was determined with a probe of full-length OGFr fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP). Translation of OGFr required 8.5 hours, and transit ...
Santenard Angèle - - 2009
Development of the mammalian embryo is, by definition, epigenetic. At the level of the nucleosome, the building block of the chromatin, changes in chromatin structure can be regulated through histone content. Apart from the canonical histones whose synthesis is restricted to S-phase, different histone variants have been identified. Histone variants ...
Majid Shahana - - 2009
BTG3/ANA/APRO4 has been reported to be a tumor suppressor gene in some malignancies. It constitutes important negative regulatory mechanism for Src-mediated signaling, a negative regulator of the cell cycle and inhibits transcription factor E2F1. We report that BTG3 is downregulated in renal cancer and that the mechanism of inactivation is ...
Heider Ulrike - - 2009
Proteasome inhibitors and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are novel targeted therapies being evaluated in clinical trials for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). However, data in regard to tumor biology are limited with these agents. In the present study we analyzed the effects of the HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and ...
Hernández Agustín - - 2009
Human securin regulates correct chromatid separation. However, there are conflicting reports on the aneugenic effects of its gene deletion. Here we show that PTTG1/securin gene expression is dramatically repressed when Hsp90 or histone deacetylases are inhibited. However, these treatments do not increase the proportion of aneuploid cells. This was also ...
Miller Claudia P - - 2009
Combination studies of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) and proteasome inhibitors are providing preclinical framework to build better strategies against hematologic malignancies. Our previous work found that a novel proteasome inhibitor, NPI-0052, and HDACi synergistically induce apoptosis in leukemia cells in a caspase-8- and oxidant-dependent manner. Here we extend those observations ...
Chen Fu-Quan - - 2009
Post-translational modification of histones is an important form of chromatin regulation impacting transcriptional activation. Histone acetyltransferases, for example, acetylate lysine residues on histone tails thereby enhancing gene transcription, while histone deacetylases (HDACs) remove those acetyl groups and repress gene transcription. Deficient histone acetylation is associated with pathologies, and histone deacetylase ...
D'Angelo Maximiliano A - - 2009
In dividing cells, nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) disassemble during mitosis and reassemble into the newly forming nuclei. However, the fate of nuclear pores in postmitotic cells is unknown. Here, we show that NPCs, unlike other nuclear structures, do not turn over in differentiated cells. While a subset of NPC components, ...
Shen Xiaohua - - 2009
In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Cui et al. (2009) provide snapshots of histone modification maps for two different stages of human blood cell development. Revealing chromatin-state maps in model cell types will provide an important framework in which to consider epigenetic controls at molecular and systematic levels.
Cervera Ana M - - 2009
Remodelling of mitochondrial metabolism is a hallmark of cancer. Mutations in the genes encoding succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), a key Krebs cycle component, are associated with hereditary predisposition to pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma, through mechanisms which are largely unknown. Recently, the jumonji-domain histone demethylases have emerged as a novel family of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent ...
Dahl John Arne - - 2009
Genome-wide location analysis of histone modifications and transcription factor binding relies on chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. These assays are, however, time-consuming and require large numbers of cells, hindering their application to the analysis of many interesting cell types. We report here a fast microChIP (muChIP) assay for 1,000 cells in ...
Moralli Daniela - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Human artificial chromosomes (HAC) are small functional extrachromosomal elements, which segregate correctly during each cell division. In human cells, they are mitotically stable, however when the HAC are transferred to murine cells they show an increased and variable rate of loss. In some cell lines the HAC are lost ...
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