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Maki Nobuyasu - - 2010
The ability to reprogram in vivo a somatic cell after differentiation is quite limited. One of the most impressive examples of such a process is transdifferentiation of pigmented epithelial cells (PECs) to lens cells during lens regeneration in newts. However, very little is known of the molecular events that allow ...
Saad Fawzy A - - 2010
LOX, the principal enzyme involved in crosslinking of collagen, was the first of several lysyl oxidase isotypes to be characterized. Its active form was believed to be exclusively extracellular. Active LOX was later reported to be present in cell nuclei; its function there is unknown. LOX expression opposes the effect ...
Patzlaff Jason S JS Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh, 800 Algoma Blvd, Oshkosh, WI 54901, USA. - - 2010
Histone acetylation is a key modification that regulates chromatin accessibility. Here we show that treatment with butyrate or other histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors does not induce histone hyperacetylation in metaphase-arrested HeLa cells. When compared to similarly treated interphase cells, acetylation levels are significantly decreased in all four core histones and ...
Storch Katja - - 2010
Cell shape and architecture are determined by cell-extracellular matrix interactions and have profound effects on cellular behavior, chromatin condensation, and tumor cell resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. To evaluate the role of chromatin condensation for radiation cell survival, tumor cells grown in three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures as xenografts and monolayer ...
Zhao Jin-Yan - - 2010
Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (1), as well as other histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, are promising, targeted anticancer agents. Curcumin (2), a possible antitumor agent, exhibits a HDAC inhibiting effect but with a different mechanism, and was proposed to synergize with other drugs, including HDAC inhibitors. The present study was undertaken to ...
Fujikawa-Yamamoto Kohzaburo - - 2010
Pentaploid H1 (ES) cells (5H1 cells) were accidentally obtained through one-cell cloning of octaploid H1 (ES) cells (8H1 cells) that were established from tetraploid H1 (ES) cells (4H1 cells) polyploidized using demecolcine. The number of chromosomes of 5H1 cells was 100, unlike the 40 of diploid H1 (ES) cells (2H1 ...
Desvoyes B - - 2010
Eukaryotic chromatin is a highly structured macromolecular complex of which DNA is wrapped around a histone-containing core. DNA can be methylated at specific C residues and each histone molecule can be covalently modified at a large variety of amino acids in both their tail and core domains. Furthermore, nucleosomes are ...
Emonds Elisabeth E Department of Medicine II, Division of Gastroenterology, Medical Faculty, University of Rostock, E.-Heydemann-Strasse 6, Rostock, - - 2010
To gain molecular insights into the action of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI) trichostatin-A (TSA) in pancreatic cancer (PC) cells. Three PC cell lines, BxPC-3, AsPC-1 and CAPAN-1, were treated with various concentrations of TSA for defined periods of time. DNA synthesis was assessed by measuring the incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine. ...
Zhao Ting C TC Department of Surgery, Roger William Medical Center, Boston University Medical School, Providence, RI 02908, USA. - - 2010
We have recently shown that the inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDAC) protects the heart against ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. The mechanism by which HDAC inhibition induces cardioprotection remains unknown. We sought to investigate whether the genetic disruption of gp-91, a subunit of NADPH-oxidase, would mitigate cardioprotection of HDAC inhibition. ...
Jawaid Kiran - - 2010
Defects in epigenetic regulation of gene transcription play an important role in carcinogenesis of the breast and other tissues. The two most widely studied epigenetic changes are DNA methylation and acetylation of histone proteins and inhibition of these processes inhibits growth in breast cancer cell lines. These data coupled with ...
Anuchin Aleksey M - - 2010
The role of histone-like protein (Hlp) in the development of a dormant state in long-incubated stationary-phase Mycobacterium smegmatis cells was studied in two models: (1) adoption of 'nonculturable' (NC) state, which is reversible due to resuscitation with proteinaceous resuscitation-promoting factor (Rpf) and (2) the formation of morphologically distinct, ovoid resting ...
Jamison James M - - 2010
Ascorbate and menadione (Apatone) in a ratio of 100:1 kills tumor cells by autoschizis. In this study, vitamin-induced changes in nucleolar structure were evaluated as markers of autoschizis. Human bladder carcinoma (T24) cells were overlain with vitamins or with culture medium. Supernatants were removed at 1-hr intervals from 1 to ...
Tang Bor Luen - - 2010
Sirt1 is a type III histone deacetylase implicated in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological roles. Acting though a myriad of non-histone substrates, Sirt1 modulates transcriptional regulation of energy metabolism and stress response, with important consequences on cell survival and a myriad of human pathologies. Sirt1 has an apparent ...
Wiesman Kristina C - - 2010
CCN5, a member of the CCN family of growth factors, inhibits the proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells in cell culture and animal models. Expressed in both embryonic and adult tissues, CCN5 exhibits a matricellular localization pattern characteristic of secreted proteins that are closely associated with the cell surface. ...
Campos André Narvaes da Rocha - - 2010
Pisolithus microcarpus (Cooke and Massee) G. Cunn. is a model organism for the studies on the ecology, physiology, and genetics of the ectomycorrhizal associations. However, little is known about the basidiosporogenesis in this species and, in particular, the nuclear behavior after karyogamy. In this work, the events involved in basidiosporogenesis ...
Mandl-Weber Sonja - - 2010
Inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) is a promising mechanism for novel, anti-myeloma agents. We investigated the effects of the novel HDAC inhibitor resminostat on multiple myeloma (MM) cells in vitro. Resminostat is a potent inhibitor of HDACs 1, 3 and 6 [50% inhibitory concentration (IC50)=43-72 nmol/l] representing HDAC classes I ...
Falk Jeffrey - - 2010
The effect of epigenetic modifications on the regulation of gene expression and the concomitant relationship to human diseases has become a key area of biological research in recent years. Studies have suggested that there is direct correlation between epigenetic modifications, such as histone methylation, histone acetylation and DNA methylation, and ...
Hetzer Martin W - - 2010
The nuclear envelope (NE) is a highly regulated membrane barrier that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells. It contains a large number of different proteins that have been implicated in chromatin organization and gene regulation. Although the nuclear membrane enables complex levels of gene expression, it also ...
Yamaguchi Teppei - - 2010
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate gene expression by deacetylating histones and also modulate the acetylation of a number of nonhistone proteins, thus impinging on various cellular processes. Here, we analyzed the major class I enzymes HDAC1 and HDAC2 in primary mouse fibroblasts and in the B-cell lineage. Fibroblasts lacking both enzymes ...
Mass? Julie - - 2010
Toti- or pluripotent cells proliferation and/or differentiation have been shown to be strongly related to nuclear chromatin organization and structure over the last past years. We have recently identified ZFPIP/Zfp462 as a zinc finger nuclear factor necessary for correct cell division during early embryonic developmental steps of vertebrates. We thus ...
Shibata Yukimasa - - 2010
The maintenance of cell fate is important for normal development and tissue homeostasis. Epigenetic mechanisms, including histone modifications, are likely to play crucial roles in cell-fate maintenance. However, in contrast to the established functions of histone methylation, which are mediated by the polycomb proteins, the roles of histone acetylation in ...
Fazzio Thomas G TG Biochemistry and Biophysics Department, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. - - 2010
In an RNA interference screen interrogating regulators of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell chromatin structure, we previously identified 62 genes required for ES cell viability. Among these 62 genes were Smc2 and -4, which are core components of the two mammalian condensin complexes. In this study, we show that for ...
Lebel Emily A - - 2010
Hat1 was the first histone acetyltransferase identified; however, its biological function is still unclear. In this report, it is shown for the first time that human Hat1 has two isoforms. Isoform a has 418 amino acids (aa) and is localized exclusively in the nuclear matrix of normal human keratinocytes (NHKs). ...
Okada Masashi - - 2010
Phospholipase C-delta1 (PLCdelta1) is the most fundamental form of the eukaryotic PLC and thought to play important roles in the regulation of cells. We previously reported that PLCdelta1 shuttles between the cytoplasm and nucleus, and an influx of Ca2+ triggers the nuclear import of PLCdelta1 via Ca2+-dependent interaction with importin ...
Chang Ching-Chien - - 2010
Oocytes contain a maternal store of the histone variant MacroH2A, which is eliminated from zygotes shortly after fertilization. Preimplantation embryos then execute three cell divisions without MacroH2A before the onset of embryonic MacroH2A expression at the 16-cell stage. During subsequent development, MacroH2A is expressed in most cells, where it is ...
Wang Jordon K JK Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Program in Epithelial Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, - - 2010
Trimethylation of histone H3 on Lys 27 (H3K27me3) is key for cell fate regulation. The H3K27me3 demethylase UTX functions in development and tumor suppression with undefined mechanisms. Here, genome-wide chromatin occupancy analysis of UTX and associated histone modifications reveals distinct classes of UTX target genes, including genes encoding Retinoblastoma (RB)-binding ...
Avalos Ana M AM Department of Microbiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, - - 2010
Increasing evidence suggests that the excessive accumulation of apoptotic or necrotic cellular debris may contribute to the pathology of systemic autoimmune disease. HMGB1 is a nuclear DNA-associated protein, which can be released from dying cells thereby triggering inflammatory processes. We have previously shown that IgG2a-reactive B cell receptor (BCR) transgenic ...
Radman-Livaja Marta M Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States of - - 2010
Histone modifications affect DNA-templated processes ranging from transcription to genomic replication. In this study, we examine the cell cycle dynamics of the trimethylated form of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3), a mark of active chromatin that is viewed as "long-lived" and that is involved in memory during cell state inheritance ...
Wong Christine J - - 2010
We have previously reported the existence of a subpopulation of cells from human umbilical cord blood capable of differentiating into oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells, bone, muscle, and endothelial cells despite their origins as CD45-positive cells. These stem cells (called FSFl cells) arise only after a period in vitro in medium containing ...
Ceru Slavko - - 2010
Stefin B (cystatin B) is an endogenous inhibitor of cysteine proteinases localized in the nucleus and the cytosol. Loss-of-function mutations in the stefin B gene (CSTB) gene were reported in patients with Unverricht-Lundborg disease (EPM1). We have identified an interaction between stefin B and nucleosomes, specifically with histones H2A.Z, H2B, ...
Fang Hong-Bo - - 2010
NeuroD, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, is capable of converting embryonic epidermal cells into neuronal cells. However, whether histone deacetylases (HDACs) are involved in the autoregulation of neuroD or not is unclear. In this study, neuroD expression was found to be significantly increased in the all-trans retinoid acid-treated P19 cells. ...
Brand Peter - - 2010
The mammalian cell nucleus contains a variety of organelles or nuclear bodies which contribute to key nuclear functions. Promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML NBs) are involved in the regulation of apoptosis, antiviral responses, the DNA damage response and chromatin structure, but their precise biochemical function in these nuclear pathways is ...
Müller Imke - - 2010
The aim of the current study was to analyze the involvement of methyl-CpG binding proteins (MBDs) and histone modifications on the regulation of CD44, Cyclin D2, GLIPR1 and PTEN in different cellular contexts such as the prostate cancer cells DU145 and LNCaP, and the breast cancer cells MCF-7. Since global ...
Sugimoto Kenji - - 2010
To follow the cell division cycle in the living state, certain biological activity or morphological changes must be monitored keeping the cells intact. Mitotic events from prophase to telophase are well defined by morphology or movement of chromatin, nuclear envelope, centrosomes, and/or spindles. To paint or simultaneously visualize these mitotic ...
Utani Koh-ichi - - 2010
The presence of micronuclei in mammalian cells is related to several mutagenetic stresses. In order to understand how micronuclei emerge, behave in cells, and affect cell fate, we performed extensive time-lapse microscopy of HeLa H2B-GFP cells in the presence of hydroxyurea at low concentration. Micronuclei formed after mitosis from lagging ...
Beck Hans Christian - - 2010
The inhibition of the histone deacetylase enzymes induces hyperacetylation of the histone proteins. This hyperacetylation causes cell cycle arrest and cell death in cancer cells but not in normal cells. Therefore, the development of histone deacetylase inhibitors for the treatment of various cancers has gained tremendous interest in recent years, ...
Pavlova Penka - - 2010
All cells in a multicellular organism have the same genetic constitution, yet their appearance and function may differ enormously, due to differences in the nuclear program. Central in the establishment of this cell diversity are epigenetic marks, which are largely based on covalent modifications of histones and methylated cytosine residues ...
Mazumder Aprotim - - 2010
The nucleus is maintained in a prestressed state within eukaryotic cells, stabilized mechanically by chromatin structure and other nuclear components on its inside, and cytoskeletal components on its outside. Nuclear architecture is emerging to be critical to the governance of chromatin assembly, regulation of genome function and cellular homeostasis. Elucidating ...
Tan Soo-Yong - - 2010
The detection of genetic abnormalities in paraffin sections by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is widely used in clinical practice to detect amplification of the ERB2 gene in breast carcinoma and various chromosomal translocations in lymphomas and soft tissue tumors. However, interpretation of FISH signals in tissue sections may be ...
Austin Christopher M - - 2010
While the cell nucleus was described for the first time almost two centuries ago, our modern view of the nuclear architecture is primarily based on studies from the last two decades. This surprising late start coincides with the development of new, powerful strategies to probe for the spatial organization of ...
Ahmed Kashif - - 2010
An open chromatin architecture devoid of compact chromatin is thought to be associated with pluripotency in embryonic stem cells. Establishing this distinct epigenetic state may also be required for somatic cell reprogramming. However, there has been little direct examination of global structural domains of chromatin during the founding and loss ...
Koprinarova Miglena - - 2010
Histone deacetylase inhibitors have been proposed as potential enhancers of the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin and other anticancer drugs. Their application would permit the use of lower therapeutic doses and reduction of the adverse side effects of the drugs. However, the molecular mechanisms by which they sensitize the cells towards ...
Chen Hongxi - - 2010
By means of the serial nuclear transplantation technique, the authors obtained a nuclear transplant fish from subcultured cell originated from the blastula cells of the crucian carp (Carassius auratus Linnaeus). This nuclear transplant fish survived for three years, but its sexual glands were undifferentiated. The authors have also obtained a ...
Han Jinnuo - - 2010
Reprogramming of somatic cells to different extents has been reported using different methods. However, this is normally accompanied by the use of exogenous materials, and the overall reprogramming efficiency has been low. Chemicals and small molecules have been used to improve the reprogramming process during somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) ...
Oftedal Linn - - 2010
The potential of marine benthic cyanobacteria as a source of anticancer drug candidates was assessed in a screen for induction of cell death (apoptosis) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. Of the 41 marine cyanobacterial strains screened, more than half contained cell death-inducing activity. Several strains contained activity against AML ...
Podhraski Valerie - - 2010
CHD1 is a SNF2-related ATPase that is required for the genome-wide incorporation of variant histone H3.3 in the paternal pronucleus as well as in transcriptionally active nuclei in Drosophila embryos. The S. pombe and vertebrate orthologs of CHD1 have been implicated in the assembly of the centromeric histone H3 variant ...
Pasque V V The Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute and Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QN, United - - 2010
The differentiated state of somatic cells is highly stable, but it can be experimentally reversed. The resulting cells can then be redirected into many different pathways. Nuclear reprogramming has been achieved by nuclear transfer to eggs, cell fusion, and overexpression of transcription factors. The mechanisms of nuclear reprogramming are not ...
Yang Qiwei Q Department of Pediatrics, University of Chicago, 900 Ease 57th Street, KCBD Rm, 5100 Chicago, IL 60637, - - 2010
Epigenetic aberrations and a CpG island methylator phenotype have been shown to be associated with poor outcomes in children with neuroblastoma (NB). Seven cancer related genes (THBS-1, CASP8, HIN-1, TIG-1, BLU, SPARC, and HIC-1) that have been shown to have epigenetic changes in adult cancers and play important roles in ...
Vrba Lukas L Arizona Cancer Center, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, - - 2010
The microRNA-200 family participates in the maintenance of an epithelial phenotype and loss of its expression can result in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Furthermore, the loss of expression of miR-200 family members is linked to an aggressive cancer phenotype. Regulation of the miR-200 family expression in normal and cancer ...
Lombardi Maria Lucia ML Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, - - 2010
In eukaryotic cells, the nucleus is the largest and most rigid organelle. Therefore, its physical properties contribute critically to the biomechanical behavior of cells, e.g., during amoeboid migration or perfusion through narrow capillaries. Furthermore, it has been speculated that nuclear deformations could directly allow cells to sense mechanical stress, e.g., ...
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