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Avalos Ana M - - 2010
Increasing evidence suggests that the excessive accumulation of apoptotic or necrotic cellular debris may contribute to the pathology of systemic autoimmune disease. HMGB1 is a nuclear DNA-associated protein, which can be released from dying cells thereby triggering inflammatory processes. We have previously shown that IgG2a-reactive B cell receptor (BCR) transgenic ...
Chang Ching-Chien - - 2010
Oocytes contain a maternal store of the histone variant MacroH2A, which is eliminated from zygotes shortly after fertilization. Preimplantation embryos then execute three cell divisions without MacroH2A before the onset of embryonic MacroH2A expression at the 16-cell stage. During subsequent development, MacroH2A is expressed in most cells, where it is ...
Radman-Livaja Marta - - 2010
Histone modifications affect DNA-templated processes ranging from transcription to genomic replication. In this study, we examine the cell cycle dynamics of the trimethylated form of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3), a mark of active chromatin that is viewed as "long-lived" and that is involved in memory during cell state inheritance ...
Wang Jordon K JK Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Program in Epithelial Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, - - 2010
Trimethylation of histone H3 on Lys 27 (H3K27me3) is key for cell fate regulation. The H3K27me3 demethylase UTX functions in development and tumor suppression with undefined mechanisms. Here, genome-wide chromatin occupancy analysis of UTX and associated histone modifications reveals distinct classes of UTX target genes, including genes encoding Retinoblastoma (RB)-binding ...
Wong Christine J - - 2010
We have previously reported the existence of a subpopulation of cells from human umbilical cord blood capable of differentiating into oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells, bone, muscle, and endothelial cells despite their origins as CD45-positive cells. These stem cells (called FSFl cells) arise only after a period in vitro in medium containing ...
Ceru Slavko - - 2010
Stefin B (cystatin B) is an endogenous inhibitor of cysteine proteinases localized in the nucleus and the cytosol. Loss-of-function mutations in the stefin B gene (CSTB) gene were reported in patients with Unverricht-Lundborg disease (EPM1). We have identified an interaction between stefin B and nucleosomes, specifically with histones H2A.Z, H2B, ...
Fang Hong-Bo - - 2010
NeuroD, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, is capable of converting embryonic epidermal cells into neuronal cells. However, whether histone deacetylases (HDACs) are involved in the autoregulation of neuroD or not is unclear. In this study, neuroD expression was found to be significantly increased in the all-trans retinoid acid-treated P19 cells. ...
Brand Peter - - 2010
The mammalian cell nucleus contains a variety of organelles or nuclear bodies which contribute to key nuclear functions. Promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML NBs) are involved in the regulation of apoptosis, antiviral responses, the DNA damage response and chromatin structure, but their precise biochemical function in these nuclear pathways is ...
Müller Imke - - 2010
The aim of the current study was to analyze the involvement of methyl-CpG binding proteins (MBDs) and histone modifications on the regulation of CD44, Cyclin D2, GLIPR1 and PTEN in different cellular contexts such as the prostate cancer cells DU145 and LNCaP, and the breast cancer cells MCF-7. Since global ...
Lombardi Maria Lucia - - 2010
In eukaryotic cells, the nucleus is the largest and most rigid organelle. Therefore, its physical properties contribute critically to the biomechanical behavior of cells, e.g., during amoeboid migration or perfusion through narrow capillaries. Furthermore, it has been speculated that nuclear deformations could directly allow cells to sense mechanical stress, e.g., ...
Sugimoto Kenji - - 2010
To follow the cell division cycle in the living state, certain biological activity or morphological changes must be monitored keeping the cells intact. Mitotic events from prophase to telophase are well defined by morphology or movement of chromatin, nuclear envelope, centrosomes, and/or spindles. To paint or simultaneously visualize these mitotic ...
Utani Koh-ichi - - 2010
The presence of micronuclei in mammalian cells is related to several mutagenetic stresses. In order to understand how micronuclei emerge, behave in cells, and affect cell fate, we performed extensive time-lapse microscopy of HeLa H2B-GFP cells in the presence of hydroxyurea at low concentration. Micronuclei formed after mitosis from lagging ...
Beck Hans Christian - - 2010
The inhibition of the histone deacetylase enzymes induces hyperacetylation of the histone proteins. This hyperacetylation causes cell cycle arrest and cell death in cancer cells but not in normal cells. Therefore, the development of histone deacetylase inhibitors for the treatment of various cancers has gained tremendous interest in recent years, ...
Pavlova Penka - - 2010
All cells in a multicellular organism have the same genetic constitution, yet their appearance and function may differ enormously, due to differences in the nuclear program. Central in the establishment of this cell diversity are epigenetic marks, which are largely based on covalent modifications of histones and methylated cytosine residues ...
Mazumder Aprotim - - 2010
The nucleus is maintained in a prestressed state within eukaryotic cells, stabilized mechanically by chromatin structure and other nuclear components on its inside, and cytoskeletal components on its outside. Nuclear architecture is emerging to be critical to the governance of chromatin assembly, regulation of genome function and cellular homeostasis. Elucidating ...
Tan Soo-Yong - - 2010
The detection of genetic abnormalities in paraffin sections by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is widely used in clinical practice to detect amplification of the ERB2 gene in breast carcinoma and various chromosomal translocations in lymphomas and soft tissue tumors. However, interpretation of FISH signals in tissue sections may be ...
Austin Christopher M - - 2010
While the cell nucleus was described for the first time almost two centuries ago, our modern view of the nuclear architecture is primarily based on studies from the last two decades. This surprising late start coincides with the development of new, powerful strategies to probe for the spatial organization of ...
Ahmed Kashif - - 2010
An open chromatin architecture devoid of compact chromatin is thought to be associated with pluripotency in embryonic stem cells. Establishing this distinct epigenetic state may also be required for somatic cell reprogramming. However, there has been little direct examination of global structural domains of chromatin during the founding and loss ...
Koprinarova Miglena - - 2010
Histone deacetylase inhibitors have been proposed as potential enhancers of the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin and other anticancer drugs. Their application would permit the use of lower therapeutic doses and reduction of the adverse side effects of the drugs. However, the molecular mechanisms by which they sensitize the cells towards ...
Chen Hongxi - - 2010
By means of the serial nuclear transplantation technique, the authors obtained a nuclear transplant fish from subcultured cell originated from the blastula cells of the crucian carp (Carassius auratus Linnaeus). This nuclear transplant fish survived for three years, but its sexual glands were undifferentiated. The authors have also obtained a ...
Han Jinnuo - - 2010
Reprogramming of somatic cells to different extents has been reported using different methods. However, this is normally accompanied by the use of exogenous materials, and the overall reprogramming efficiency has been low. Chemicals and small molecules have been used to improve the reprogramming process during somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) ...
Vrba Lukas - - 2010
The microRNA-200 family participates in the maintenance of an epithelial phenotype and loss of its expression can result in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Furthermore, the loss of expression of miR-200 family members is linked to an aggressive cancer phenotype. Regulation of the miR-200 family expression in normal and cancer ...
Oftedal Linn - - 2010
The potential of marine benthic cyanobacteria as a source of anticancer drug candidates was assessed in a screen for induction of cell death (apoptosis) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. Of the 41 marine cyanobacterial strains screened, more than half contained cell death-inducing activity. Several strains contained activity against AML ...
Podhraski Valerie - - 2010
CHD1 is a SNF2-related ATPase that is required for the genome-wide incorporation of variant histone H3.3 in the paternal pronucleus as well as in transcriptionally active nuclei in Drosophila embryos. The S. pombe and vertebrate orthologs of CHD1 have been implicated in the assembly of the centromeric histone H3 variant ...
Pasque V V The Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute and Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QN, United - - 2010
The differentiated state of somatic cells is highly stable, but it can be experimentally reversed. The resulting cells can then be redirected into many different pathways. Nuclear reprogramming has been achieved by nuclear transfer to eggs, cell fusion, and overexpression of transcription factors. The mechanisms of nuclear reprogramming are not ...
Yang Qiwei Q Department of Pediatrics, University of Chicago, 900 Ease 57th Street, KCBD Rm, 5100 Chicago, IL 60637, - - 2010
Epigenetic aberrations and a CpG island methylator phenotype have been shown to be associated with poor outcomes in children with neuroblastoma (NB). Seven cancer related genes (THBS-1, CASP8, HIN-1, TIG-1, BLU, SPARC, and HIC-1) that have been shown to have epigenetic changes in adult cancers and play important roles in ...
van Amerongen Machteld J - - 2010
AIMS: Although the fundamental role of the E2F transcription factor family in cell proliferation is well established, the specific function of E2F4 is unclear. On the basis of findings from cell culture experiments, E2F4 is generally considered as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Accumulating evidence suggests, however, that E2F4 acts ...
Naldi Marina - - 2009
The goal of the present work is to establish a correlation between the degree of histone post-translational modifications and the effects caused by treatment of HT29 colon cancer cells with class I-selective (MS-275 and MC1855), class II-selective (MC1568), and non-selective (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi). This correlation ...
Wang Kai - - 2009
Oct4 and Nanog are crucial for maintaining pluripotency in embryonic stem (ES) cells and early-stage embryos. In the present study, the status of DNA methylation and of histone modifications in the regulatory regions of Oct4 and Nanog in rhesus nuclear transfer-derived ES (ntES) cells was compared with in vitro fertilized ...
França G F - - 2009
Spermatic characteristics were studied in representatives of the families Rhamphichthyidae, Sternopygidae and Apteronotidae, and compared with pre-existent data from Gymnotidae and Hypopomidae. The spermatic characteristics found in Gymnotiformes were also compared with data from other Ostariophysi spermatic cells. The spermatic characteristics as the type of spermiogenesis and the structural pattern ...
Morselli Eugenia - - 2009
Although autophagy has widely been conceived as a self-destructive mechanism that causes cell death, accumulating evidence suggests that autophagy usually mediates cytoprotection, thereby avoiding the apoptotic or necrotic demise of stressed cells. Recent evidence produced by our groups demonstrates that autophagy is also involved in pharmacological manipulations that increase longevity. ...
Ooi Cheng C - - 2010
1. Butyrate is a well known product of starch fermentation by colonic bacteria and is of interest owing to its ability to induce in vitro apoptosis and cell differentiation, as well as to inhibit cell growth in colorectal and other cancer cells. Synthetic analogues of butyrate may also possess cellular ...
Bongiorno-Borbone L L IDI-IRCCS Biochemistry Laboratory, c/o Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Roma, - - 2010
Eucaryotic cell nuclei contain a number of different organelles that are highly dynamic structures and respond to a variety of stimuli. Here we investigated the effect of UV irradiation on a recently identified group of organelles, Histone Locus Bodies. Histone Locus Bodies contain at least two main proteins, FLASH and ...
Gladfelter Amy - - 2009
The many different mechanisms that fungi use to transmit and share genetic material are mediated by a broad range of chromosome and nuclear dynamics. The mechanics underlying nuclear migration are well integrated into detailed models, in which the forces supplied by plus- and minus-end-directed microtubule motors position and move the ...
Burke Brian - - 2009
Eukaryotic cells display considerable morphological plasticity linked to their abilities to carry out a myriad of complex functions. Structural rearrangements associated with cellular activities, from yeast mitosis to cell migration in the mammalian central nervous system, often involve relocation of the cell nucleus. Recent studies have provided insight into how ...
Campas-Moya Clara - - 2009
Aberrant epigenetic gene regulation by deacetylation of histone proteins has been involved in tumorigenesis. Histone deacetilase (HDAC) inhibitors are promising anticancer agents under research and development. Romidepsin is a novel and potent HDAC inhibitor highly efficient in inhibiting HDAC activity even at nanomolar concentrations. It exhibits a considerably stronger direct ...
Wu Qiang Q Wellcome Trust and Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, Cambridge, United - - 2009
Histone H3 methylation at R17 and R26 recently emerged as a novel epigenetic mechanism regulating pluripotency in mouse embryos. Blastomeres of four-cell embryos with high H3 methylation at these sites show unrestricted potential, whereas those with lower levels cannot support development when aggregated in chimeras of like cells. Increasing histone ...
Liu Bo - - 2009
Propionylation has been identified recently as a new type of protein post-translational modification. Bacterial propionyl-CoA synthetase and human histone H4 are propionylated at specific lysine residues that have been known previously to be acetylated. However, other proteins subject to this modification remain to be identified, and the modifying enzymes involved ...
Hwang Jung Jin - - 2009
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are potent anticancer drugs, and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid is used for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma patients. We synthesized a novel hydroxamate-based HDACI, CG0006, and assessed its antiproliferative effects on the NCI-60 cancer cell panel and cell lines from liver and stomach cancers that are ...
Li Mingxi - - 2009
Global histone modifications and their putative relevance to short and long term cellular programming have drawn substantial interest in the study of chromatin. Here we describe the use of reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled to Linear Ion Trap-Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry (RPLC-LTQ-FTMS) to quickly profile post-translationally modified isoforms and variants for ...
Mellor Jane - - 2009
In a recent issue of Molecular Cell, Schulze et al. (2009) described distinct distributions and regulation of Dot1-dependent methylation states at lysine 79 on histone H3 and showed cell-cycle regulation of K79 dimethylation on genes expressed during the G1/S phase.
Shehu-Xhilaga Miranda - - 2009
We investigated the ability of several novel class I histone deacetylase inhibitors to activate HIV-1 transcription in latently infected cell lines. Oxamflatin, metacept-1 and metacept-3 induced high levels of HIV-1 transcription in latently infected T cell and monocytic cells lines, were potent inhibitors of histone deacetylase activity and caused preferential ...
Sasaki Kazuki - - 2009
To visualize histone acetylation in living cells, we developed a genetically encoded fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based indicator. Response of the indicator reflects changes in the acetylation state of both K5 and K8 in histone H4. Using this acetylation indicator, we were able to monitor the dynamic fluctuation of histone ...
Cheng Ming-Fang - - 2009
The relationship between histone methylation and apoptosis, programmed cell death, is beginning to be explored. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of staurosporine, a PKC inhibitor on the methylation of histone H3 in osteosarcoma cells. Following stimulation by staurosporine in vitro of G292 cells, a human ...
Farkas Erzsebet - - 2010
Time lapse video photography was used to follow the movement of individual cells after in vitro treatment with Hg(II) acetate. Cellular changes of mercuric ions were characterized by their properties of causing reduced cellular mobility (10-50microM), and complete lack of cellular movement at higher concentrations (100-1000microM). Results show that after ...
Siripattarapravat Kannika - - 2009
We developed a method for somatic cell nuclear transfer in zebrafish using laser-ablated metaphase II eggs as recipients, the micropyle for transfer of the nucleus and an egg activation protocol after nuclear reconstruction. We produced clones from cells of both embryonic and adult origins, although the latter did not give ...
Davies G F - - 2010
We previously demonstrated that the PPARgamma agonist Troglitazone (TRG), a potent antiproliferative agent, in combination with the anthracycline antibiotic Doxorubicin (DOX), is an effective killer of multiple drug resistant (MDR) human cancer cells. Cell killing was accompanied by increased global histone H3 acetylation. Presently, we investigated the epigenetic and cell ...
Wirth Martina - - 2009
Maintenance of intact heterochromatin structure through epigenetic mechanisms is essential for cell survival. Defects in heterochromatin formation caused by loss of chromatin-modifying enzymes lead to genomic instability and cellular senescence. The NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase SIR-2 and the H1 linker histone are intriguing chromatin elements that are connected to chromatin regulation ...
Tong Wei-Gang - - 2010
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been shown to induce cell cycle arrest, terminal differentiation, and apoptosis in a broad spectrum of human tumors and animal xenograft models. JNJ-26481585 is a hydroxamic acid derivative, second-generation pan-HDAC inhibitor that has demonstrated high potency in preclinical studies. In the current study, we demonstrated ...
Latham John A - - 2009
The discovery of trans-regulation of histone H3K4 methylation by ubiquitination of histone H2BK123 generated much excitement in the field of chromatin biology. Recently, the veracity of this example of cross talk between histone modifications in yeast was challenged (Foster and Downs, 2009. J. Cell Biol. doi:10.1083/jcb.200812088) but ultimately reconfirmed in ...
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