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Woods Mae L ML Centre for Mathematics and Physics in the Life Sciences and Experimental Biology, University College London, London, United Kingdom; Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University College London, London, United Kingdom; Department of Mathematics, University College London, London, United - - 2014
Collective cell migration is a fundamental process, occurring during embryogenesis and cancer metastasis. Neural crest cells exhibit such coordinated migration, where aberrant motion can lead to fatality or dysfunction of the embryo. Migration involves at least two complementary mechanisms: contact inhibition of locomotion (a repulsive interaction corresponding to a directional ...
Zhu Xiaoying X Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore, Singapore; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of - - 2014
Chemotactic signaling and the associated directed cell migration have been extensively studied owing to their importance in emergent processes of cellular aggregation. In contrast, mechanotactic signaling has been relatively overlooked despite its potential for unique ways to artificially signal cells with the aim to effectively gain control over their motile ...
Chaves Carolina de Andrade Lima Cde A Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Araraquara Dental School, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rua Humaitá 1680, 14801-903 Araraquara, SP, - - 2014
The effects of six soft liners (Ufi Gel P (UG), Sofreliner S (SR), Durabase Soft (D), Trusoft (T), Coe Comfort (CC), and Softone (ST)) on L929, HaCat, and RAW 264.7 cells were investigated. Eluates (24 and 48 h) from the materials were applied on the cells and the viability, type of ...
Qu Dongfeng D 1University of Oklahoma Health Sciences - - 2013
We have previously reported that doublecortin-like kinase 1 (Dclk1) is a putative intestinal stem cell (ISC) marker. In this report, we evaluated the use of Dclk1 as a marker of surviving ISCs in response to treatment with high-dose total body irradiation (TBI). Both apoptotic and mitotic Dclk1+ cells were observed ...
Metcalfe Ciara C Molecular Oncology Department, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA 94080, - - 2013
The intestinal epithelium continually self-renews and can rapidly regenerate after damage. Lgr5 marks mitotically active intestinal stem cells (ISCs). Importantly, intestinal homeostasis can be maintained after depletion of Lgr5(+) cells due to the activation of Lgr5(-) reserve ISCs. The Lgr5(-) ISC populations are thought to play a similar role during ...
Vázquez-Carretero María D - - 2013
The myofibroblasts placed underneath the epithelium of the rodent small intestine express reelin and the reelin absence modifies both, the morphology and the cell renewal processes of the crypt-villus unit. In the developing central nervous system the reelin effects are mediated by the disabled-1 (Dab1) protein. The present work explores ...
Bollrath Julia - - 2013
The intestine represents one of the most challenging sites for the immune system as immune cells must be able to mount an efficient response to invading pathogens while tolerating the large number and diverse array of resident commensal bacteria. Foxp3(+) regulatory T-cells (Tregs) play a non-redundant role at maintaining this ...
Rossi Oriana - - 2013
In the intestinal mucosa, several adaptations of TLR signalling have evolved to avoid chronic inflammatory responses to the presence of commensal microbes. Here we investigated whether polarized monolayers of intestinal epithelial cells might regulate inflammatory responses by secreting IL-8 in a vectorial fashion (i.e. apical versus basolateral) depending on the ...
Shabafrooz Vahid - - 2013
The creation of engineered intestinal tissue has recently stimulated new endeavors with the ultimate goal of intestinal replacement for massive resections of bowel. In this context, we investigated the effect of hyaluronic acid (HA) on the physicochemical characteristics of gelatin-collagen scaffolds and its cytocompatibilty to the human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 ...
Kimura Rino - - 2013
It is known that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα), whose activation reduces hyperlipidemia, is highly expressed in intestinal epithelial cells. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) could improve postprandial hyperlipidemia, however, its relationship with intestinal PPARα activation is not revealed. In this study, we investigated whether DHA can affect postprandial hyperlipidemia by activating intestinal ...
Musatti Alida - - 2013
a glutathione (GSH) yeast-based biomass (S. cerevisiae) was used to investigate GSH stability, solubilization during gastrointestinal digestion and GSH intestinal transport. a post-growing procedure was applied to improve intracellular GSH yeast content. The presence of adenine (ADE) in the biotransformation solution (CYS-GLY-GLU mixture) and alternatively, a glucose shot after 4 ...
Milcheva Rositsa - - 2013
Trichinella spiralis actively passes through the epithelial cells of the intestinal mucosa but morphologically, these cells do not manifest apparent damage. The possible activation of apoptotic mechanisms in the small intestine mucosa after infection with larvae and adults of Trichinella spiralis was explored by immunohistochemistry. Sporadic individual cells of normal ...
Fischer Jared M JM Department of Molecular and Medical Genetics, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239, - - 2014
Although Apc mutation is widely considered an initiating event in colorectal cancer, little is known about the earliest stages of tumorigenesis following sporadic Apc loss. Therefore, we have utilized a novel mouse model that facilitates the sporadic inactivation of Apc via frameshift reversion of Cre in single, isolated cells and ...
Nakajima Kohei - - 2013
Intestinal intraepithelial T cells contribute to the regulation of inflammatory responses in the intestine; however, the molecular basis for their development and maintenance is unknown. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor complexes with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) and senses environmental factors, including gut microbiota. Here, we identify ARNT as ...
Kim Hyun Jung - - 2013
Existing in vitro models of human intestinal function commonly rely on use of established epithelial cell lines, such as Caco-2 cells, which form polarized epithelial monolayers but fail to mimic more complex intestinal functions that are required for drug development and disease research. We show here that a microfluidic 'Gut-on-a-Chip' ...
Nik Ali Moussavi - - 2013
Current protocols for separating adult intestinal epithelial cells from the underlying muscular and mesenchymal tissues typically involve extended incubations, harsh mechanical treatment, and exposure to either proteases or chelating agents. The drawbacks of these approaches include fragmentation, contamination with other cell types, reduced viability, and under-representation of crypt cells. Here ...
Melendez Jaime J Division of Experimental Hematology and Cancer Biology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio; Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Chemistry, P. Catholic University of Chile, Santiago, - - 2013
Cdc42 is a Rho GTPase that regulates diverse cellular functions, including proliferation, differentiation, migration, and polarity. In the intestinal epithelium, a balance among these events maintains homeostasis. We used genetic techniques to investigate the role of Cdc42 in intestinal homeostasis and its mechanisms. We disrupted Cdc42 specifically in intestinal epithelial cells by ...
Cadwell Ken - - 2013
While intestinal epithelial cells are known for secreting antimicrobial molecules, cell intrinsic defense mechanisms are less characterized. In this issue, Benjamin et al. (2013) demonstrate that MyD88 and autophagy within the intestinal epithelium detect invasive bacteria and prevent dissemination.
Ishida Kazuya - - 2013
  We previously reported that renal function is partly responsible for the interindividual variability of the pharmacokinetics of bisoprolol. The aim of the present study was to examine the variability of bioavailability (F) of bisoprolol in routinely treated Japanese patients and intestinal absorption characteristics of the drug. We first analyzed the ...
Hase Koji - - 2013
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In epithelial cells, protein sorting mechanisms regulate localization of plasma membrane proteins that generate and maintain cell polarity. The clathrin-adaptor protein (AP) complex AP-1B is expressed specifically in polarized epithelial cells, where it regulates basolateral sorting of membrane proteins. However, little is known about its physiological significance. ...
Kolf-Clauw Martine - - 2013
Enniatins, the most prevalent emerging mycotoxins, represent an emerging food safety issue, because of their common co-occurrence with other fusariotoxins such as trichothecenes co-produced by Fusarium spp on field grains and because of their extensive prevalence in grains. In this study, the intestinal toxicity of enniatin B1 (ENN) alone and ...
Monir M M - - 2013
The influence of restricted feeding on the distribution of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-containing endocrine cells in the chicken small intestine was investigated using immunohistochemical and morphometrical techniques. This study demonstrated that the restricted feeding had an influence on the activity of GLP-1-immunoreactive cells in the chicken small intestine. There were differences ...
McCann C J CJ Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV - - 2013
Loss or disruption of Kit(+) -interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) capable of generating pacemaker activity has been implicated in the development of numerous gastrointestinal motility disorders. We sought to develop a model where ICC could be allotransplanted into intestines naturally devoid of these cells. Enzymatically dispersed cells from the intestinal ...
Rubio Carlos A - - 2013
AIMS: To assess synaptophysin expression in columnar-lined oesophageal mucosa showing either goblet cells, known as intestinal metaplasia, or with accompanying oxyntic glands or pyloric glands. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of 159 biopsies, 53 were oesophageal (19 had intestinal metaplasia, 13 oxyntic glands, and 21 pyloric glands), 77 gastric (12 had goblet ...
Yang Yongzhi - - 2013
Although epithelial barrier dysfunction in the gut has been extensively reported in ulcerative colitis (UC), the pathogenesis of this disease is not completely understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of miR-21 in regulating intestinal epithelial barrier function in UC. Colonic biopsies were obtained from 30 chronic UC ...
De Mey Jan R JR CNRS, UMR 7213; Laboratoire de Biophotonique et Pharmacologie; Illkirch, France ; Université de Strasbourg; Strasbourg, - - 2013
The intestinal epithelium constitutes the barrier between the gut lumen and the rest of the body and a very actively renewing cell population. The crypt/villus and crypt/cuff units of the mouse small intestine and colon are its basic functional units. The field is confronted with competing concepts with regard to ...
Castellanos-Gonzalez Alejandro A Infectious Diseases Division, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA. - - 2013
The study of human intestinal pathogens has been limited by the lack of methods for the long-term culture of primary human intestinal epithelial cells (PECs). The development of infection models with PECs would allow a better understanding of host-parasite interactions. The objective of this study was to develop a novel ...
Torashima Yasuhiro - - 2013
Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a morbid and mortal condition characterized in most patients by insufficient intestinal surface area. Current management strategies are inadequate, but tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) offers a potential therapy. A barrier to translation of TESI is the generation of scalable mucosal surface area to significantly increase ...
Mantani Youhei - - 2013
The relationship between the invasion of indigenous bacteria into intestinal crypts and the proliferation of epithelial cells was histoplanimetrically investigated in the rat ascending colon. Indigenous bacteria preferentially adhered to the intestinal superficial epithelial cells in the mesenterium-attached mucosa (MAM) compared to those in the mesenterium-non-attached mucosa (MNM). Intestinal crypts ...
Liévin-Le Moal Vanessa - - 2013
Some water-borne protozoan parasites induce diseases through their membrane-associated functional structures and virulence factors that hijack the host cellular molecules and signaling pathways leading to structural and functional lesions in the intestinal barrier. In this MicroReview we analyze the insights on the mechanisms of pathogenesis of Entamoeba intestinalis, Giardia, and ...
Fan Zhuoyang - - 2013
The purpose of this study was to examine whether Vitamin E-TPGS had a function in promoting the secretion of chylomicrons in enterocytes. Therefore, we simulated the human intestinal epithelial cells by Caco-2 cell model to study the effect of Vitamin E-TPGS on the chylomicron secretion in vitro. Meanwhile, Chylomicron flow ...
Roach Gillian G Department of Biology, Clarkson University, 8 Clarkson Ave., Potsdam, NY 13699, - - 2013
The vertebrate intestinal epithelium is renewed continuously from stem cells at the base of the crypt in mammals or base of the fold in fish over the life of the organism. As stem cells divide, newly formed epithelial cells make an initial choice between a secretory or enterocyte fate. This ...
Levin Daniel E - - 2013
Tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) represents a potential cure for short bowel syndrome (SBS). We previously reported full-thickness intestine formation using an organoid units-on-scaffold approach in rodent and swine models. Transplanted intestinal xenografts have been documented to survive from human fetal tissue but not from postnatal tissue. We now present the ...
Ohrvik Helena - - 2013
Newborns have a higher gastrointestinal uptake of cadmium than adults. In adults, the iron transporters DMT1 and FPN1 are involved in the intestinal absorption of cadmium, while in neonates, the mechanisms for cadmium absorption are unknown. We have investigated possible cadmium transporters in the neonatal intestine by applying a model ...
Yu Yong - - 2013
Loss of the endotoxin tolerance of intestinal epithelium contributes to a number of intestinal diseases. The etiology is not clear. Psychological stress is proposed to compromise the intestinal barrier function. The present study aims to elucidate the role of the stress-derived corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in breaching the established intestinal ...
Kauffman Amanda L - - 2013
Physiologically relevant sources of absorptive intestinal epithelial cells are crucial for human drug transport studies. Human adenocarcinoma-derived intestinal cell lines, such as Caco-2, offer conveniences of easy culture maintenance and scalability, but do not fully recapitulate in vivo intestinal phenotypes. Additional sources of renewable physiologically relevant human intestinal cells would ...
Lai Chieh-Wen - - 2013
The intestinal mucosa exhibits high turnover rates with a balance of shedding and the migration of epithelial cells to maintain gut barrier function. Systemic diseases such as sepsis and major thermal injury accelerate the rate of cell shedding, subsequent gap formation, and gut barrier dysfunction. However, the detailed changes of ...
Carayol Nathalie - - 2013
As opposed to other invasive pathogens that reside into host cells in a parasitic mode, Shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery, invades the colonic mucosa but does not penetrate further to survive into deeper tissues. Instead, Shigella invades, replicates, and disseminates within the colonic mucosa. Bacterial invasion and spreading ...
Wang Yanbo - - 2013
Nano-selenium (Se), with its high bioavailability and low toxicity, has attracted wide attention for its potential application in the prevention of oxidative damage in animal tissues. However, the effect of nano-Se of different sizes on the intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) is poorly understood. Our ...
Bevins Charles L - - 2013
The intestinal mucosa interfaces with a complex, dense community of microorganisms, including hundreds of species of resident microbiota and many transient microbes entering from food- and water-borne sources. In the small intestine, Paneth cells (specialized secretory epithelial cells) produce abundant quantities of α-defensins and several other antibiotic peptides. Human Paneth ...
Maghsoudlou Panagiotis - - 2013
Successful tissue engineering involves the combination of scaffolds with appropriate cells in vitro or in vivo. Scaffolds may be synthetic, naturally-derived or derived from tissues/organs. The latter are obtained using a technique called decellularization. Decellularization may involve a combination of physical, chemical, and enzymatic methods. The goal of this technique ...
Di Luccia Blanda B Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II-MSA-Via Cinthia, Naples, - - 2013
It is now commonly accepted that the intestinal microbiota plays a crucial role in the gut physiology and homeostasis, and that both qualitative and quantitative alterations in the compositions of the gut flora exert profound effects on the host's intestinal cells. In spite of this, the details of the interaction ...
Li Ming-Yang MY Department of Digestive Endoscopy, Division of South Building, Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, - - 2013
The ubiquitin editing enzyme A20 plays an important role in maintaining the homeostasis in the body Microbe-derived adjuvants are commonly used in animal models of intestinal allergy. This study aims to investigate the role of cholera toxin-induced A20 suppression in compromising intestinal barrier function. Human intestinal epithelial cells were cultured ...
Hughes Norman Richard - - 2012
AIM: Cholangiocarcinomas display intestinal and pyloric gland metaplasia-cell phenotypes. Those that arise in chronically inflamed (fluke infested) bile ducts more frequently express the intestinal metaplasia-cell phenotype and p53 than sporadic cholangiocarcinomas. We wished to determine if adenocarcinomas of the gallbladder display a similar profile. METHODS: Adenocarcinoma, adenoma, and dysplastic and ...
Cervantes Sara - - 2012
The gastrointestinal tract carries out essential functions for the organism, including the digestion and absorption of nutrients. The cells lining the lumen of the gut tube derive from the endoderm, one of the three germ layers formed during gastrulation. The length of the intestinal tract determines its digestive and absorptive ...
Noah Taeko K - - 2012
The small and large intestines are tubular organs composed of several tissue types. The columnar epithelium that lines the inner surface of the intestines distinguishes the digestive physiology of each region of the intestine and consists of several distinct cell types that are rapidly and continually renewed by intestinal stem ...
Subramanian Veedamali S VS Departments of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA. - - 2013
Ascorbic acid (AA) is required for normal human health and development. Human intestine expresses two sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters (hSVCT-1 and -2) that mediate cellular AA transport, with hSVCT1 targeting to the apical membrane of polarized epithelia. Studies have shown a role for the Rab8a in the apical membrane targeting ...
Nakashima Ryo - - 2012
Tight junctions contribute to the formation and establishment of intestinal epithelial barriers against microbial infections. However, a variety of enteric pathogens have developed strategies to adhere to and invade epithelial cells and disrupt epithelial integrity. The aim of this study was to ascertain if enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin (STa) ...
Braga-Neto Manuel B MB Clinical Research Unit & Institute of Biomedicine/Center for Global Health, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Ceará, Ceará, - - 2012
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) protease inhibitors (PI) remain a crucial component of highly active therapy (HAART) and recently have been demonstrated to have potent antitumor effect on a wide variety of tumor cell lines. However, discontinuation of therapy is an important issue, which may be related to various side-effects, especially ...
Dempe Julia S - - 2012
SCOPE: Curcumin (CUR) and its major metabolite hexahydro-CUR were studied in Caco-2 cells and in the Caco-2 Millicell® system in vitro to simulate their in vivo intestinal metabolism and absorption in humans. METHODS AND RESULTS: Analysis of the incubation medium and cell lysate showed that Caco-2 cells reduce CUR to ...
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