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Results 451 - 500 of 1166
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Takahashi Kohta - - 2005
CENP-A is a centromere-specific histone H3 variant that is- essential for faithful chromosome segregation in all eukaryotes thus far investigated. We genetically identified two factors, Ams2 and Mis6, each of which is required for the correct centromere localization of SpCENP-A (Cnp1), the fission yeast homologue of CENP-A. Ams2 is a ...
Wu Rong - - 2005
Mono-, di-, and trimethylation of specific histone residues adds an additional level of complexity to the range of histone modifications that may contribute to a histone code. However, it has not been clear whether different methylated states reside stably at different chromatin sites or whether they represent dynamic intermediates at ...
McDevit Daniel C - - 2005
The Igkappa locus is recombined following initiation of a signaling cascade during the early pre-B stage of B cell development. The Ig kappa3' enhancer plays an important role in normal B cell development by regulating kappa locus activation. Quantitative analyses of kappa3' enhancer chromatin structure by restriction endonuclease accessibility and ...
Garrett Francine E - - 2005
The murine Igh locus has a 3' regulatory region (3' RR) containing four enhancers (hs3A, hs1,2, hs3B, and hs4) at DNase I-hypersensitive sites. The 3' RR exerts long-range effects on class switch recombination (CSR) to several isotypes through its control of germ line transcription. By measuring levels of acetylated histones ...
Manochantr Sirikul - - 2005
The process of chromatin condensation during spermiogenesis in Rana tigerina is similar to the heterochromatization in somatic cells, where 30 nm fibers are coalesced together into a dense mass in spermatozoa without changing their initial size and nucleosomal organization. This conclusion was supported by the finding that the full set ...
Li Yan - - 2005
Post-translational modifications of core histone proteins play a key role in chromatin structure and function. Here, we study histone post-translational modifications during reentry of protoplasts derived from tobacco mesophyll cells into the cell cycle and evaluate their significance for progression through mitosis. Methylation of histone H3 at lysine residues 4 ...
Gurdon J B - - 2005
When nuclei of somatic cells are transplanted to enucleated eggs of Xenopus, a complete reprogramming of nuclear function can take place. To identify mechanisms of nuclear reprogramming, somatic nuclei can be transplanted to growing meiotic oocytes of Xenopus, and stem cell genes activated without DNA replication. The combination of somatic ...
Tóth Katalin Fejes - - 2005
The histone chaperone NAP1 is a carrier of histones during nuclear import, nucleosome assembly, and chromatin remodeling. Analytical ultracentrifugation was used to determine the association states of NAP1 alone and in complexes with core histones. In addition, the concentration dependence of the association was quantified by determining the equilibrium dissociation ...
Gruber Jens - - 2005
FACE 1 is the endoprotease responsible for cleavage of prelamin A to lamin A. Transfection of HeLa cells with siRNA for human FACE 1 results in a strong phenotype. Protein and mRNA levels for FACE 1 are knocked down and cell division stops abruptly. Two populations of cells are detected. ...
Groth Anja - - 2005
Maintenance of chromosomal integrity requires tight coordination of histone biosynthesis with DNA replication. Here, we show that extracts from human cells exposed to replication stress display an increased capacity to support replication-coupled chromatin assembly. While in unperturbed S phase, hAsf1 existed in equilibrium between an active form and an inactive ...
Gurdon J B - - 2005
The aim of this contribution is to relate amphibian nuclear transplantation work to prospects for stem cell creation and hence to the long-term aim of cell replacement in humans. The methods used include the transplantation of single somatic cell nuclei to enudeated unfertilized eggs of Xenopus, and also the transfer ...
Dey Pranab - - 2005
Alteration of chromatin pattern is one of the most important clues to detect the malignant cell. However, the exact cause of change of chromatin pattern still is not clearly known. Recently, in last 20 yr, modern advanced technologies, such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), chromosome painting, green fluorescent protein ...
Hetzer Martin W - - 2005
The nuclear envelope (NE) is a highly specialized membrane that delineates the eukaryotic cell nucleus. It is composed of the inner and outer nuclear membranes, nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) and, in metazoa, the lamina. The NE not only regulates the trafficking of macromolecules between nucleoplasm and cytosol but also provides ...
Caron Cécile - - 2005
The transformation of the somatic chromatin into a unique and highly compact structure occurring during the post-meiotic phase of spermatogenesis is one of the most dramatic known processes of chromatin remodeling. Paradoxically, no information is available on the mechanisms controlling this specific reorganization of the haploid cell genome. The only ...
Smetana K - - 2005
Human early erythroid precursors classified according to the nuclear size were studied to provide information on nucleoli in these cells using simple cytochemical procedures for demonstration of RNA and proteins of silver-stained nucleolar organizers. K2 cells with nuclear diameter larger than 13 microm and K1 cells with nuclear diameter larger ...
Hadjantonakis Anna-Katerina - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Advances in optical imaging modalities and the continued evolution of genetically-encoded fluorescent proteins are coming together to facilitate the study of cell behavior at high resolution in living organisms. As a result, imaging using autofluorescent protein reporters is gaining popularity in mouse transgenic and targeted mutagenesis applications. RESULTS: We ...
De Clerck, O.
A new ceramiaceous alga, <I>Sciurothamnion stegengae</I> De Clerck et Kraft, gen. et sp. nov., is described from the western Indian Ocean and the Philippines. <I>Sciurothamnion</I> appears related to the tribe Callithamnieae on the basis of the position and composition of its procarps and by the majority of post-fertilization events. It ...
Wang Qing-Ming - - 2004
Apoptin, a protein expressed by chicken anemia virus, is found predominantly in the cytoplasm in normal cells, whereas it localizes in the nucleus in transformed and malignant cells. However, the mechanisms that regulate the different subcellular localization of Apoptin in normal and tumor cells have not been fully clarified. In ...
Prather Randall S - - 2004
The manufacture of pigs with modifications to specific chromosomal regions requires that the modification first be made in somatic cells. The modified cells can then be used as donors for nuclear transfer (NT) in an attempt to clone that cell into a newborn animal. Unfortunately the procedures are inefficient and ...
Alekseev Oleg M - - 2005
NASP (nuclear autoantigenic sperm protein) is a linker histone-binding protein found in all dividing cells that is regulated by the cell cycle (Richardson, R. T., Batova, I. N., Widgren, E. E., Zheng, L. X., Whitfield, M., Marzluff, W. F., and O'Rand, M. G. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 30378-30386), and ...
Karasawa Yoko - - 2004
PURPOSE: Exposure of Y79 cells, a retinoblastoma cell line, to sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, induces neuronlike morphological changes and apoptosis. To determine whether the effect of butyrate results from an inhibition of histone deacetylation, we examined the morphological changes, cell viability, and histone acetylation levels of Y79 cells ...
Nagy G - - 2004
Local changes in chromatin structure leading to temporally distinct geometric forms were characterized in nuclei of reversibly permeabilized cells. Reversal of permeabilization was tested by 3H-thymidine incorporation and trypan blue dye exclusion. Apoptotic changes were visualized in a cell cycle dependent manner at the chromatin level by fluorescent microscopy in ...
Broers Jos L V - - 2004
Laminopathies comprise a group of inherited diseases with variable clinical phenotypes, caused by mutations in the lamin A/C gene (LMNA). A prominent feature in several of these diseases is muscle wasting, as seen in Emery-Dreifuss muscle dystrophy, dilated cardiomyopathy and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. Although the mechanisms underlying this phenotype remain ...
Zink Daniele - - 2004
Nuclear architecture - the spatial arrangement of chromosomes and other nuclear components - provides a framework for organizing and regulating the diverse functional processes within the nucleus. There are characteristic differences in the nuclear architectures of cancer cells, compared with normal cells, and some anticancer treatments restore normal nuclear structure ...
Karagiannis Tom C - - 2004
Histone deacetylase inhibitors are emerging therapeutic agents for cancer. In addition to effecting hyperacetylation of core histones, they have been shown to induce biologic effects such as cell cycle redistribution, cytostasis and in certain cases apoptosis in a variety of cell lines. In this study, the purpose was to investigate ...
Gabler C - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of histones and nucleosomes in cell lysates of freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), fully activated lymphoblasts, or lymphoblasts after induction of apoptosis. METHODS: Each histone class (H1, H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) was detected by western blot analysis with specific antibodies. Annexin V/propidium ...
Rosenbluh Joseph - - 2004
The results of the present work demonstrate that core histones are able to penetrate the plasma membrane of plant cells. Confocal microscopy has revealed that incubation of petunia protoplasts with fluorescently labeled core histones resulted in cell penetration and nuclear import of the externally added histones. Intracellular accumulation was also ...
Cerqueira E M M - - 2004
The genotoxic effects of X-ray emitted during dental panoramic radiography were evaluated in exfoliated cells from oral epithelium through a differentiated protocol of the micronucleus test. Thirty-one healthy individuals agreed to participate in this study and were submitted to this procedure for diagnosis purpose after being requested by the dentist. ...
Tóth Katalin Fejes - - 2004
The effect of trichostatin A (TSA)-induced histone acetylation on the interphase chromatin structure was visualized in vivo with a HeLa cell line stably expressing histone H2A, which was fused to enhanced yellow fluorescent protein. The globally increased histone acetylation caused a reversible decondensation of dense chromatin regions and led to ...
Johnson Kristen - - 2004
Immunoglobulin heavy chain rearrangement (V(H)-to-DJ(H)) occurs only in B cells, suggesting it is inhibited in other lineages. Here we found that in the mouse V(H) locus, methylation of lysine 9 on histone H3 (H3-K9), a mark of inactive chromatin, was present in non-B lineage cells but was absent in B ...
Kang Jiuhong - - 2004
PURPOSE: Antioxidants and trichostatin A (TSA) are promising anticancer drugs, and are capable of enhancing the neoplastic toxicity of other chemicals that exert anticancer activity via different mechanisms. Since antioxidants and TSA (the specific inhibitor of histone deacetylase) are believed to combat cancer via different mechanisms, we sought to determine ...
Wu Hai-Shan - - 2004
The nucleoli and chromatin clumps of ovarian cells contain important features in discriminating malignant cells from normal ones. In geometric properties, the ovarian nucleoli and chromatin clumps appear as irregularly shaped dark spots in the nuclear images from specimens immunohistochemically stained with antibody to Mib-1. Malignant cells often have more ...
Schauber Jürgen - - 2004
Histone-deacetylase (HDAC) -inhibitors enhance acetylation of core proteins and this is linked to formation of transcriptionally active chromatin in various cells. In this study, the effect of HDAC inhibitors (butyrate, trichostatin A (TSA)) on the expression of the cathelicidin LL-37 in colon, gastric and hepatocellular cells was investigated. METHODS: LL-37 ...
Veluthakal Rajakrishnan - - 2004
We examined the effects of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) treatment on the distribution and degradation of lamin B in the nuclear fraction from insulin-secreting RINm5F cells. Western blot analysis indicated that IL-1beta treatment caused significant alterations in the redistribution of lamin B, specifically between the Triton X-100-soluble (membrane) and -insoluble (matrix) fractions ...
Buchholz I - - 2004
The mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone controls fluid and electrolyte transport in target cells of the kidney and the cardiovascular system. Classic genomic aldosterone action involves the activation of cytosolic mineralocorticoid receptors and translocation into the cell nucleus where specific transcription processes are initiated. A key barrier of the intracellular signalling pathway ...
Rabut Gwénaël - - 2004
In eukaryotic cells, all macromolecules that traffic between the nucleus and the cytoplasm cross the double nuclear membrane through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). NPCs are elaborate gateways that allow efficient, yet selective, translocation of many different macromolecules. Their protein composition has been elucidated, but how exactly these nucleoporins come together ...
Schubert Shay Y - - 2004
In previous studies, we have demonstrated that human heparanase (endo-beta-D-glucuronidase) is localized primarily in a perinuclear pattern within lysosomes and late endosomes, and occasionally may be surface associated and secreted. The presence of two potential nuclear localization sequences in human heparanase, led us to investigate heparanase translocation into the nucleus ...
Soto Manuel - - 2004
The cell-cycle-dependent expression of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4) has been studied in the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum. For that purpose, the cell cycle was arrested by incubation of promastigotes with the DNA synthesis inhibitor hydroxyurea, which induced an accumulation of cells stalled in G1 phase. ...
Piedrahita Jorge A - - 2004
With the increasing difficulties associated with meeting the required needs for organs used in transplantation, alternative approaches need to be considered. These include the use of stem cells as potential sources of specialized cells, the ability to transdifferentiate cell types in culture, and the development of complete organs that can ...
Juan Gloria - - 2004
In preparation for cell division, nuclear chromatin undergoes a vital rearrangement required for the organization of chromosomes and their allocation to daughter cells. This process is initiated during G(2) phase with the most remarkable morphological manifestation being chromatin condensation. This unit provides protocols for identification and quantification of mitotic cells ...
Delton-Vandenbroucke Isabelle - - 2004
The current study examined the metabolism of phospholipid (PL) in the whole cell homogenate and in the nuclear fraction in proliferative and non-proliferative uterine stromal cells (U(III) cells). Growth arrested cells were obtained either from contact-inhibited confluent cells or from proliferative cells treated with aristolochic acid (AR) for 2 days. ...
Ehsan Hashimul - - 2004
The TOUSLED (TSL)-like nuclear protein kinase family is highly conserved in plants and animals. tsl loss of function mutations cause pleiotropic defects in both leaf and flower development, and growth and initiation of floral organ primordia is abnormal, suggesting that basic cellular processes are affected. TSL is more highly expressed ...
Lea Michael A - - 2004
PURPOSE: A structure-activity study was undertaken to determine the influence of side chain length of phenyl alkanoic acids and the degree of unsaturation of phenyl alkenoic acids on the induction of histone acetylation and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Studies on cell proliferation were performed with DS19 ...
Bianchi Marco E - - 2004
HMGB1, a very mobile chromatin protein, leaks out from necrotic cells and signals to neighbouring cells that tissue damage has occurred. At least one receptor for extracellular HMGB1 exists, and signals to different cells to divide, migrate, activate inflammation or start an immune response. Remarkably, apoptotic chromatin binds HMGB1 irreversibly, ...
Piekarz Richard L - - 2004
Depsipeptide (FK228) is a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor currently in clinical trials and the first to demonstrate clinical activity in patients. Responses have been observed in patients with T-cell lymphomas, despite prior treatment with multiple chemotherapeutic agents. To better understand the effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors on T-cell lymphoma, the ...
Calonghi Natalia - - 2004
4-hydroxy-2,3 trans-nonenal is the major diffusible product generated by linoleic and arachidonic acids peroxidation. Its endogenous content is inversely related to the rate of cell proliferation and directly related to the level of cell differentiation. As previously reported, the nuclear localization of the aldehyde has been observed by means of ...
Sakamoto Ryoichi - - 2004
The aim of this study was to investigate cell kinetics and ultrastructural changes during carcinogenesis using a hamster 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA)-induced tongue cancer model. Five squamous cell carcinomas, five dysplastic epithelia, seven hyperplastic epithelia, and four normal epithelia were obtained from 21 hamster tongues by applying 1.0% acetone solution of DMBA ...
Muralikrishna Bh - - 2004
The A-type lamins are localized in the interior of the nucleus as well as on the nuclear periphery. In this study, we have characterized a monoclonal antibody LA-2F9 produced against recombinant rat lamin A which stains a subpopulation of various cell types in a pattern of small nucleoplasmic foci that ...
Ikuta Togo - - 2004
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that plays a role as an intracellular mediator of the xenobiotic signaling pathway. AhR contains signals for both nuclear localization and nuclear export (NES). The objective of this study was to demonstrate how AhR intracellular distribution was regulated physiologically in ...
Druesne Nathalie - - 2004
Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is a naturally occurring organosulfur compound, from garlic, which exerts pleiotropic biological effects. In rodents, DADS inhibits colon chemically induced carcinogenesis. DADS anti-promoting effect may partly result from its ability to inhibit tumoral cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro. As far as DADS may modulate the ...
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