Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1190
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Hake Sandra B - - 2006
Covalent histone modifications and the incorporation of histone variants bring about changes in chromatin structure that in turn alter gene expression. Interest in non-allelic histone variants has been renewed, in part because of recent work on H3 (and other) histone variants. However, only in mammals do three non-centromeric H3 variants ...
Chen Jie - - 2005
Quercetin (QU) and trichostatin A (TSA) are promising anticancer drugs. While QU mainly exerts its anticancer activity through scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS), the anticancer activity of TSA was attributed to its inhibition on histone deacetylases (HDAC). In the present study it was investigated, whether the combination of QU and ...
Kostova Nora N - - 2005
Histone H1(0) is a linker histone subvariant present in tissues of low proliferation rate. It is supposed to participate in the expression and maintenance of the terminal differentiation phenotype. The aim of this work was to study histone H1(0) distribution in human breast carcinoma and its relationship with the processes ...
Rockel Thomas Dino - - 2005
The ubiquitin proteasome system plays a fundamental role in the regulation of cellular processes by degradation of endogenous proteins. Proteasomes are localized in both, the cytoplasm and the cell nucleus, however, little is known about nuclear proteolysis. Here, fluorogenic precursor substrates enabled detection of proteasomal activity in nucleoplasmic cell fractions ...
Wakayama Sayaka - - 2005
The current success rate of cloned mice from adult somatic cell nuclei is very low, whereas it is relatively high for cloned mice from ES cell nuclei. In this experiment, we examined whether the success rate of cloning from somatic cells could be improved via nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells ...
Ruan Chun - - 2005
Recombination enhancer (RE) is essential for regulating donor preference during yeast mating type switching. In this study, by using minichromosome affinity purification (MAP) and mass spectrometry, we found that yeast Ku80p is associated with RE in MATa cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed its occupancy in vivo. Deletion of YKU80 results ...
Fang Yuda - - 2005
The organization and dynamics of the genome have been shown to influence gene expression in many organisms. Data from mammalian tissue culture cells have provided conflicting conclusions with regard to the extent to which chromatin organization is inherited from mother to daughter nuclei. To gain insight into chromatin organization and ...
Levi Valeria - - 2005
Increasing evidence points to a dynamical compartmentalization of the cell nucleus, yet the mechanisms by which interphase chromatin moves and is positioned within nuclei remain unclear. Here, we study the dynamics of chromatin in vivo applying a novel particle-tracking method in a two-photon microscope that provides approximately 10-fold higher spatial ...
Villar Garea, Ana
Genetic alterations and deregulation of the epigenetic mechanisms collaborate in the initiation and progression of cancer. In contrast to the genetic defects, the epigenetic abnormalities are potentially reversible. This fact has driven the search for drugs that induce selectively changes in the epigenetic patterns of the tumor cells and thus ...
Gao Shan - - 2005
The physiological and pathophysiological functions of PAI-1 are related to its expression by specific cell types in normal and diseased tissues. We analysed the contribution of DNA methylation to the variation in PAI-1 mRNA levels in five cell lines. We found varying frequencies of methylation of 25 CpGs in the ...
Lammerding Jan - - 2005
Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy can be caused by mutations in the nuclear envelope proteins lamin A/C and emerin. We recently demonstrated that A-type lamin-deficient cells have impaired nuclear mechanics and altered mechanotransduction, suggesting two potential disease mechanisms (Lammerding, J., P.C. Schulze, T. Takahashi, S. Kozlov, T. Sullivan, R.D. Kamm, C.L. Stewart, ...
McNairn Adrian J AJ Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, S.U.N.Y. Upstate Medical University, 750 East Adams Street, Syracuse, NY 13210, - - 2005
In yeast, the Origin Recognition Complex (ORC) is bound to replication origins throughout the cell-cycle, but in animal cells, there are conflicting data as to whether and when ORC is removed from chromatin. We find ORC1, 2 and ORC4 to be metabolically stable proteins that co-fractionate with chromatin throughout the ...
Spada Fabio - - 2005
Histone post-translational modifications mark distinct structural and functional chromatin states but little is known of their involvement in the progression of different cell cycle types across phylogeny. We compared temporal and spatial dynamics of histone H4 post-translational modifications during both mitotic and endoreduplicative cycles of the urochordate, Oikopleura dioica, and ...
Taipale Mikko - - 2005
Reversible histone acetylation plays an important role in regulation of chromatin structure and function. Here, we report that the human orthologue of Drosophila melanogaster MOF, hMOF, is a histone H4 lysine K16-specific acetyltransferase. hMOF is also required for this modification in mammalian cells. Knockdown of hMOF in HeLa and HepG2 ...
Wittich Sybille - - 2005
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are a novel class of promising anti-cancer agents. Little information is available on the capacity of structurally different HDAC inhibitors to induce terminal cell differentiation in different cell types in relation to enzyme inhibition and subtype selectivity. Consequently, the aim of this study was to provide ...
Trus M R - - 2005
Acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) may be classified in a number of ways. Using the French American British classification, the M3 form of the disease or acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has been found to be sensitive in vitro and in vivo to the retinoid all trans retinoic acid (ATRA). The mechanism ...
Schütz Wolfgang - - 2005
The mammalian lamin B2 gene codes for two proteins, the somatic lamin B2 and the germ line-specific lamin B3. Lamin B3 lacks the N-terminus and a part of the alpha-helical rod domain present in lamin B2. These domains are substituted by 84 amino acids unique for lamin B3. When ectopically ...
Rocchi Paola - - 2005
Histone acetyltransferase and histone deacetylase (HDAC) determine the acetylation status of histones, and thereby control the regulation of gene expression. HDAC inhibitors have been found to inhibit the growth of a variety of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated previously that the short-chain fatty acid compound butyrate ...
Sibani Sahar - - 2005
The Ku heterodimer, an abundant nuclear protein, binds DNA replication origins in a sequence-specific manner and promotes initiation. In this study, using HCT116 Ku80+/- haplo-insufficient and Orc2(delta/-) hypomorphic cells, the order of binding of Ku and the human origin recognition complex (HsORC) was determined. The nuclear expression of Ku80 was ...
Schütz Wolfgang - - 2005
Lamins are members of a multigene family of structural nuclear envelope (NE) proteins. Differentiated mammalian somatic cells express lamins A, C, B1, and B2. The composition and organization of the nuclear lamina of mammalian spermatogenic cells differ significantly from that of somatic cells as they express lamin B1 as well ...
Corsi L - - 2005
PBR is involved in numerous biological functions, including steroid biosynthesis, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and cell proliferation. The presence of PBR at the perinuclear/nuclear subcellular level has been demonstrated in aggressive breast cancer cell lines and human glioma cells where it seems to be involved in cell proliferation. In our study ...
Alberio Ramiro - - 2005
The mechanisms governing nuclear reprogramming have not been fully elucidated yet; however, recent studies show a universally conserved ability of both oocyte and egg components to reprogram gene expression in somatic cells. The activation of genes associated with pluripotency by oocyte/egg components may require the remodeling of nuclear structures, such ...
Vani G - - 2005
The effects of exogenous histone H1 on estrogen receptor status of human breast cancer MCF 7 cells were investigated in presence and absence of estrogen. Exogenous histone H1 was significantly cytotoxic in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cell cycle analysis revealed a significant increase in the percentage of cell accumulation ...
Kim In Ah - - 2005
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) are emerging as potentially useful components in anticancer therapy. In this study, we tried to confirm the radiosensitizing effect of trichostatin A (TSA) on a panel of human carcinoma cell lines and elucidate its mechanism of interaction. A549, HeLa and Caski cells were exposed to TSA ...
Takahashi Kohta - - 2005
CENP-A is a centromere-specific histone H3 variant that is- essential for faithful chromosome segregation in all eukaryotes thus far investigated. We genetically identified two factors, Ams2 and Mis6, each of which is required for the correct centromere localization of SpCENP-A (Cnp1), the fission yeast homologue of CENP-A. Ams2 is a ...
Wu Rong R Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY 13210, - - 2005
Mono-, di-, and trimethylation of specific histone residues adds an additional level of complexity to the range of histone modifications that may contribute to a histone code. However, it has not been clear whether different methylated states reside stably at different chromatin sites or whether they represent dynamic intermediates at ...
McDevit Daniel C - - 2005
The Igkappa locus is recombined following initiation of a signaling cascade during the early pre-B stage of B cell development. The Ig kappa3' enhancer plays an important role in normal B cell development by regulating kappa locus activation. Quantitative analyses of kappa3' enhancer chromatin structure by restriction endonuclease accessibility and ...
Garrett Francine E - - 2005
The murine Igh locus has a 3' regulatory region (3' RR) containing four enhancers (hs3A, hs1,2, hs3B, and hs4) at DNase I-hypersensitive sites. The 3' RR exerts long-range effects on class switch recombination (CSR) to several isotypes through its control of germ line transcription. By measuring levels of acetylated histones ...
Manochantr Sirikul - - 2005
The process of chromatin condensation during spermiogenesis in Rana tigerina is similar to the heterochromatization in somatic cells, where 30 nm fibers are coalesced together into a dense mass in spermatozoa without changing their initial size and nucleosomal organization. This conclusion was supported by the finding that the full set ...
Li Yan - - 2005
Post-translational modifications of core histone proteins play a key role in chromatin structure and function. Here, we study histone post-translational modifications during reentry of protoplasts derived from tobacco mesophyll cells into the cell cycle and evaluate their significance for progression through mitosis. Methylation of histone H3 at lysine residues 4 ...
Gurdon J B - - 2005
When nuclei of somatic cells are transplanted to enucleated eggs of Xenopus, a complete reprogramming of nuclear function can take place. To identify mechanisms of nuclear reprogramming, somatic nuclei can be transplanted to growing meiotic oocytes of Xenopus, and stem cell genes activated without DNA replication. The combination of somatic ...
Tóth Katalin Fejes - - 2005
The histone chaperone NAP1 is a carrier of histones during nuclear import, nucleosome assembly, and chromatin remodeling. Analytical ultracentrifugation was used to determine the association states of NAP1 alone and in complexes with core histones. In addition, the concentration dependence of the association was quantified by determining the equilibrium dissociation ...
Gruber Jens - - 2005
FACE 1 is the endoprotease responsible for cleavage of prelamin A to lamin A. Transfection of HeLa cells with siRNA for human FACE 1 results in a strong phenotype. Protein and mRNA levels for FACE 1 are knocked down and cell division stops abruptly. Two populations of cells are detected. ...
Groth Anja - - 2005
Maintenance of chromosomal integrity requires tight coordination of histone biosynthesis with DNA replication. Here, we show that extracts from human cells exposed to replication stress display an increased capacity to support replication-coupled chromatin assembly. While in unperturbed S phase, hAsf1 existed in equilibrium between an active form and an inactive ...
Gurdon J B - - 2005
The aim of this contribution is to relate amphibian nuclear transplantation work to prospects for stem cell creation and hence to the long-term aim of cell replacement in humans. The methods used include the transplantation of single somatic cell nuclei to enudeated unfertilized eggs of Xenopus, and also the transfer ...
Dey Pranab - - 2005
Alteration of chromatin pattern is one of the most important clues to detect the malignant cell. However, the exact cause of change of chromatin pattern still is not clearly known. Recently, in last 20 yr, modern advanced technologies, such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), chromosome painting, green fluorescent protein ...
Hetzer Martin W - - 2005
The nuclear envelope (NE) is a highly specialized membrane that delineates the eukaryotic cell nucleus. It is composed of the inner and outer nuclear membranes, nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) and, in metazoa, the lamina. The NE not only regulates the trafficking of macromolecules between nucleoplasm and cytosol but also provides ...
Caron Cécile - - 2005
The transformation of the somatic chromatin into a unique and highly compact structure occurring during the post-meiotic phase of spermatogenesis is one of the most dramatic known processes of chromatin remodeling. Paradoxically, no information is available on the mechanisms controlling this specific reorganization of the haploid cell genome. The only ...
Smetana K - - 2005
Human early erythroid precursors classified according to the nuclear size were studied to provide information on nucleoli in these cells using simple cytochemical procedures for demonstration of RNA and proteins of silver-stained nucleolar organizers. K2 cells with nuclear diameter larger than 13 microm and K1 cells with nuclear diameter larger ...
Hadjantonakis Anna-Katerina - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Advances in optical imaging modalities and the continued evolution of genetically-encoded fluorescent proteins are coming together to facilitate the study of cell behavior at high resolution in living organisms. As a result, imaging using autofluorescent protein reporters is gaining popularity in mouse transgenic and targeted mutagenesis applications. RESULTS: We ...
De Clerck, O.
A new ceramiaceous alga, <I>Sciurothamnion stegengae</I> De Clerck et Kraft, gen. et sp. nov., is described from the western Indian Ocean and the Philippines. <I>Sciurothamnion</I> appears related to the tribe Callithamnieae on the basis of the position and composition of its procarps and by the majority of post-fertilization events. It ...
Wang Qing-Ming - - 2004
Apoptin, a protein expressed by chicken anemia virus, is found predominantly in the cytoplasm in normal cells, whereas it localizes in the nucleus in transformed and malignant cells. However, the mechanisms that regulate the different subcellular localization of Apoptin in normal and tumor cells have not been fully clarified. In ...
Prather Randall S - - 2004
The manufacture of pigs with modifications to specific chromosomal regions requires that the modification first be made in somatic cells. The modified cells can then be used as donors for nuclear transfer (NT) in an attempt to clone that cell into a newborn animal. Unfortunately the procedures are inefficient and ...
Alekseev Oleg M - - 2005
NASP (nuclear autoantigenic sperm protein) is a linker histone-binding protein found in all dividing cells that is regulated by the cell cycle (Richardson, R. T., Batova, I. N., Widgren, E. E., Zheng, L. X., Whitfield, M., Marzluff, W. F., and O'Rand, M. G. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 30378-30386), and ...
Karasawa Yoko - - 2004
PURPOSE: Exposure of Y79 cells, a retinoblastoma cell line, to sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, induces neuronlike morphological changes and apoptosis. To determine whether the effect of butyrate results from an inhibition of histone deacetylation, we examined the morphological changes, cell viability, and histone acetylation levels of Y79 cells ...
Nagy G - - 2004
Local changes in chromatin structure leading to temporally distinct geometric forms were characterized in nuclei of reversibly permeabilized cells. Reversal of permeabilization was tested by 3H-thymidine incorporation and trypan blue dye exclusion. Apoptotic changes were visualized in a cell cycle dependent manner at the chromatin level by fluorescent microscopy in ...
Broers Jos L V - - 2004
Laminopathies comprise a group of inherited diseases with variable clinical phenotypes, caused by mutations in the lamin A/C gene (LMNA). A prominent feature in several of these diseases is muscle wasting, as seen in Emery-Dreifuss muscle dystrophy, dilated cardiomyopathy and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. Although the mechanisms underlying this phenotype remain ...
Zink Daniele - - 2004
Nuclear architecture - the spatial arrangement of chromosomes and other nuclear components - provides a framework for organizing and regulating the diverse functional processes within the nucleus. There are characteristic differences in the nuclear architectures of cancer cells, compared with normal cells, and some anticancer treatments restore normal nuclear structure ...
Karagiannis Tom C - - 2004
Histone deacetylase inhibitors are emerging therapeutic agents for cancer. In addition to effecting hyperacetylation of core histones, they have been shown to induce biologic effects such as cell cycle redistribution, cytostasis and in certain cases apoptosis in a variety of cell lines. In this study, the purpose was to investigate ...
Gabler C - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of histones and nucleosomes in cell lysates of freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), fully activated lymphoblasts, or lymphoblasts after induction of apoptosis. METHODS: Each histone class (H1, H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) was detected by western blot analysis with specific antibodies. Annexin V/propidium ...
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