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Xu Guodong - - 2014
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been believed to be related with chemotherapy resistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Recent studies have suggested eIF5A-2 may function as a proliferation-related oncogene in tumorigenic processes. We used cell viability assays, western blotting, immunofluorescence, transwell-matrigel invasion assay, wound-healing assay combined with GC7 (a novel ...
Wu Feixiang F School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, 30332, USA; School of Metallurgy and Environment, Central South University, Changsha, 410083, P.R. - - 2014
Lithium Iodide (LiI) is reported as a promising electrolyte additive for lithium-sulfur batteries. It induces formation of Li ion permeable protective coatings on both positive and negative electrodes, which prevent the dissolution of polysulfides on the cathode and reduction of polysulfides on the anode. In addition to enhancing the cell ...
Kim Beom Jin BJ Center for Cell-Encapsulation Research, Department of Chemistry, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 - - 2014
Chemical encapsulation of microbes in threedimensional polymeric microcapsules promises various applications, such as cell therapy and biosensors, and provides a basic platform for studying microbial communications. However, the cytoprotection of microbes in the microcapsules against external aggressors has been a major challenge in the field of microbial microencapsulation, because ionotropic ...
Zhang Yonglan Y College of Pharmacy and Bioengineering, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing, 400054, China; Chongqing Key Lab of Catalysis & Functional Organic Molecules, Chongqing Technology and Business University, Chongqing, 400067, China; College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400030, - - 2014
Islet amyloid deposition is increasingly seen as a pathogenic feature of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), with the deposits containing the unique amyloidogenic peptide islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP, also known as amylin). The fibril precursors of IAPP contribute to its cytotoxicity on pancreatic β cells and be important in causing ...
Namazi Soha S Department of Pharmacotherapy, School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box: 1583, 71345, Shiraz, Iran, - - 2014
Tamoxifen (TAM) is a standard adjuvant endocrine therapy in postmenopausal breast cancer patients, but innate or acquired TAM resistance has remained to be a therapeutic challenge for clinicians. The aim of this study was to explore the possible participation of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the acquisition of TAM resistance and ...
Garcimartín Alba - - 2014
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a toxic agent that induces oxidative stress and cell death. Silicon (Si) is a biological element involved in limiting aluminium (Al) absorption with possible preventive effects in Alzheimer's disease. However, Si has not yet been associated with other neuroprotective mechanisms. The present experiments evaluated in the ...
Xie Yonggang Y Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, United - - 2014
Intermediate neural progenitor cells (INPs) need to avoid differentiation and cell cycle exit while maintaining restricted developmental potential, but mechanisms preventing differentiation and cell cycle exit of INPs are not well understood. Here we report that the Drosophila homolog of mammalian Sp8 transcription factor Buttonhead (Btd) prevents premature differentiation and ...
Hagelauer Nadine N Oral- and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg University, Augustusplatz 2, 55131, Mainz, - - 2014
Bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw is a severe side effect in patients receiving nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs). One characteristic is its high recurrence rate; therefore, basic research for new therapeutic options is necessary. N-BPs inhibit the farnesylpyrophosphate synthase in the mevalonate pathway causing a depletion of the cellular geranylgeranyl pool, resulting ...
Espada J J Departament of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, - - 2014
The search of substances that minimize cutaneous aging has increased in the last few years. Previous studies have described the regenerative properties of the secretion of the mollusk Cryptomphalus aspersa (C. aspersa) when applied topically. We evaluate the in vitro effects of a new product derived from the eggs of ...
Galvao Rui Pedro RP Institute of Molecular Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR - - 2014
How malignant gliomas arise in a mature brain remains a mystery, hindering the development of preventive and therapeutic interventions. We previously showed that oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) can be transformed into glioma when mutations are introduced perinatally. However, adult OPCs rarely proliferate compared with their perinatal counterparts. Whether these relatively ...
Stefanello T F TF Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Biológicas: Biologia Celular e Molecular, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá, PR, - - 2014
Leishmaniasis, a complex of diseases caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, is endemic in 98 countries, affecting approximately 12 million worldwide. Current treatments for leishmaniasis have many disadvantages, such as toxicity, high cost, and prolonged treatment, making the development of new treatment alternatives highly relevant. Several studies have verified ...
Gouarné C C Trophos, Parc Scientifique de Luminy, Luminy Biotech Entreprises, Case 931, Marseille, - - 2014
Parkinson's disease (PD) is usually diagnosed clinically based on classical motor symptoms, while definitive diagnosis is made post-mortem, based on the presence of Lewy bodies and nigral neuron cell loss. Alpha-synuclein (ASYN), the main protein component of Lewy bodies, clearly plays a role in the neurodegeneration that characterizes PD. Additionaly, ...
Dupont Sebastien S UMR Procédés Alimentaires et Microbiologiques, Université de Bourgogne/AgroSup Dijon, 1, esplanade Erasme, 21000, Dijon, - - 2014
Yeast cells are well adapted to interfacial habitats, such as the surfaces of soil or plants, where they can resist frequent fluctuations between wet and dry conditions. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is recognized as an anhydrobiotic organism, and it has been the subject of numerous studies that aimed to elucidate this ability. ...
Honda Yohji Y Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, - - 2014
Zoledronic acid (ZOL) is a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate and used to reduce cancer-induced osteolysis. We reported previously that ZOL delayed both the growth and pain progression of bone metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of ZOL on hepatoma cell lines and the molecular ...
Liu Jia J College of Medicine, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266021, China; Institutes of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, - - 2014
Oleanolic acid (OA) has been widely studied because of its pleiotropic therapeutic and preventive effect on various diseases. However, the mechanisms of OA's action are still not clear yet, especially its suppressing effect on transformed cells. In this work, we found that OA induced autophagy in normal tissue-derived cells without ...
Kennedy Kim K University of Mississippi Medical Center, - - 2014
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the only cause of death among the top 10 diseases that cannot be prevented, cured, or slowed with the current treatments available. Amyloid beta is thought to be the main initiator of AD cognitive decline, activating internal pathways which lead to inflammation, oxidation, and cell death. ...
Andrzejewski Sylvia S Goodman Cancer Research Centre, McGill University, 1160 Pine Ave. West, Montréal, QC H3A 1A3, Canada ; Department of Biochemistry, McGill University, 3655 Promenade Sir William Osler, Montréal, QC H3G 1Y6, - - 2014
Metformin is widely used in the treatment of diabetes, and there is interest in 'repurposing' the drug for cancer prevention or treatment. However, the mechanism underlying the metabolic effects of metformin remains poorly understood. We performed respirometry and stable isotope tracer analyses on cells and isolated mitochondria to investigate the ...
Zhao Q Q Department of Gastroenterology, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, - - 2014
Anoikis, a special apoptotic process occurring in response to loss of cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix, is a fundamental surveillance process for maintaining tissue homeostasis. Resistance to anoikis characterises cancer cells and is a pre-requisite for metastasis. This study shows that overexpression of the transmembrane mucin protein MUC1 prevents ...
Li J J Jialei Li, Department of Internal Neurology, Wuxi People's Hospital, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, China, phone: +86 13912489660, fax: (00) 86-(0) 510-85520770, e-mail: - - 2014
The pathogenic mechanism of neurodegenerative brain disorder such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been still far from clearly understood. Previous research has identified that mitochondrial dysfunction induced by A has been recognized as a hallmark in AD. Therefore, the effective agents targeting -amyloid (A)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction may be useful for ...
Kuhn Dagmar A DA Adolphe Merkle Institute, University of Fribourg, Chemin des Verdiers 4, 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland, Phone +41 26 300 95 - - 2014
Precise knowledge regarding cellular uptake of nanoparticles is of great importance for future biomedical applications. Four different endocytotic uptake mechanisms, that is, phagocytosis, macropinocytosis, clathrin- and caveolin-mediated endocytosis, were investigated using a mouse macrophage (J774A.1) and a human alveolar epithelial type II cell line (A549). In order to deduce the ...
Rudin Anna A Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, - - 2012
Under normal conditions, the gut microbiota confers health benefits for the host. The microbiota aids in the nutrient processing and contributes to the construction of the intestinal epithelial barrier. Furthermore, animal models demonstrate the importance of stimulation from gut bacteria for a proper maturation of the immune system. In this ...
Araki Yoshio - - 2012
The mechanisms responsible for human inflammatory bowel disease remain poorly understood. The pathogenic factors for dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, one of the experimental animal colitis models, also remain unknown. Furthermore, detailed studies on DSS metabolism in the gut lumen have not been reported. Therefore, we investigated DSS metabolism in ...
Kim Thae Hyun - - 2012
Adenosine A(3) receptor (A3AR) is coupled to G proteins that are involved in a variety of intracellular signaling pathways and physiological functions. 2-Chloro-N (6)-(3-iodobenzyl) adenosine-5'-N-methylcarboxamide (Cl-IB-MECA), an agonist of A3AR, has been reported to induce cell death in various cancer cells. However, the effect of CI-IB-MECA on glioma cell growth ...
Bentley-Hewitt Kerry L - - 2012
The intestinal mucosa is constantly exposed to a variety of microbial species including commensals and pathogens, the latter leaving the host susceptible to infection. Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) are an important part of the first line of defense at mucosal surfaces. Human β-defensins (HBD) are AMP expressed by colonic epithelial cells, ...
Lei Zili Z Developmental Genetics Group, Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 1-3 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, - - 2012
Tight junctions (TJs) connect epithelial cells and form a semipermeable barrier that only allows selective passage of ions and solutes across epithelia. Here we show that mice lacking EpCAM, a putative cell adhesion protein frequently overexpressed in human cancers, manifest intestinal barrier defects and die shortly after birth as a ...
Radwanska Agata - - 2012
Cell migration is a multistep process initiated by extracellular matrix components that leads to cytoskeletal changes and formation of different protrusive structures at the cell periphery. Lumican, a small extracellular matrix leucine-rich proteoglycan, has been shown to inhibit human melanoma cell migration by binding to α2β1 integrin and affecting actin ...
King Jeffrey B - - 2012
A growing body of evidence has implicated CD24, a cell-surface protein, as a marker of colorectal cancer stem cells and target for antitumor therapy, although its presence in normal colonic epithelium has not been fully characterized. Previously, our group showed that CD24-based cell sorting can be used to isolate a ...
Tarleton Mark - - 2012
Cantharidin (1) and norcantharidin (2) display high levels of anticancer activity against a broad range of tumour cell lines. Synthetic manipulation of norcantharidin yields (3S,3aR,4S,7R,7aS)-3-hydroxyhexahydro-4,7-epoxyisobenzofuran-1(3H)-one (3), which also displays a high level of anticancer activity against tumour cells but interestingly, shows selectivity towards HT29 (colon; GI(50) = 14 μM) and SJ-G2 (glioblastoma; GI(50) = 15 μM) ...
El-Salhy Magdy - - 2012
Lymphocytic colitis (LC) can be mistakenly diagnosed as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In a previous study on IBS, some patients showed extremely high colonic chromogranin A cell density. Further examination of these patients showed that they suffered from LC. To investigate whether chromogranin A cell density is increased in LC ...
Cook Michael T - - 2012
The administration of probiotic bacteria as nutraceuticals is an area that has rapidly expanded in recent years, with a global market worth $32.6 billion predicted by 2014. Many of the health promoting claims attributed to these bacteria are dependent on the cells being both viable and sufficiently numerous in the ...
Nagano Yuji - - 2012
Foxp3(+) CD4(+) cells are prominent immune regulatory T (Treg) cells that are most abundant in the intestine. Recent studies have suggested that intestinal Treg cells consist of thymically and extrathymically developed cells that have unique characteristics. A fraction of intestinal Treg cells express T cell receptors that recognize antigens that ...
Groulx Jean-Francois - - 2012
Recently, autophagy has been found to be strongly activated in colon cancer cells, but few studies have addressed the normal colon mucosa. The aim of this study was to characterize autophagy in normal human intestinal cells. We used the expression of LC3-II and BECN1 as well as SQSTM1 as markers ...
Radenkovic Goran - - 2012
At the end of the embryonic period of human development, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are present in the esophagus, stomach, and proximal duodenum, around the inception of the myenteric plexus (MP) ganglia. In the small and large bowel, ICC appear later. The object of the present study was to ...
Yaman M - - 2012
The present study was conducted to clarify the regional distribution and relative frequency of endocrine cells secreting serotonin, substance P (SP), cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and neurotensin in the small and large intestine of the mole-rats (Spalax leucodon), by specific immunohistochemical methods. In the small and large intestine ...
Jung Camille - - 2012
Intestinal barrier function requires intricate cooperation between intestinal epithelial cells and immune cells. Enteropathogens are able to invade the intestinal lymphoid tissue known as Peyer's patches (PPs) and disrupt the integrity of the intestinal barrier. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of this process are poorly understood. In mice infected with ...
Wang Rui - - 2012
Signaling through cGMP has emerged as an important regulator of tissue homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract but the mechanism is not known. Type 2 cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG2) is a major cGMP effector in the gut epithelium and the present studies have tested its importance in the regulation of proliferation ...
Walczak Katarzyna - - 2012
Background: Kynurenic acid (KYNA), a tryptophan metabolite, was found in the mucus of rat small intestine. However, its role in the gastrointestinal tract is still not fully elucidated. Methods: To verify whether KYNA affects cell cycle regulators, the protein expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 Waf1/Cip1 was investigated in colon ...
Andrews Sarah F - - 2012
Transitional and naïve mature peripheral B cells respond very differently to B-cell receptor (BCR) cross-linking. While transitional B cells undergo apoptosis upon BCR engagement, mature B cells survive and proliferate. This differential response correlates with the capacity of mature, but not transitional B cells to transcribe genes that promote cell ...
Arthur Subha - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Assimilation of the preferred nutrient of enterocytes is mediated primarily by sodium (Na)-dependent cotransport (NGct) in the intestine. The predominant NGcT in villus cells, B0AT1, is inhibited secondary to a decrease in cotransporter numbers during chronic intestinal inflammation. In contrast, NGcT mediated by SN2 in crypt cells is stimulated ...
Nawalany Kinga - - 2012
Photosensitizing properties of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-hydroxyphenyl)porphyrin (p-THPP) functionalized by covalent attachment of one chain of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) with a molecular weight of 350, 2000, or 5000Da (p-THPP-PEG(350), p-THPP-PEG(2000), p-THPP-PEG(5000)) were studied in vitro. Dark and photo cytotoxicity of these photosensitizers delivered in solution or embedded in liposomes were evaluated on two ...
Lundell Anna-Carin - - 2012
Germ-free animal models have demonstrated that commensal bacterial colonization of the intestine induces B cell differentiation and activation. Whether colonization with particular bacterial species or groups is associated with B cell development during early childhood is not known. In a prospective newborn/infant cohort including 65 Swedish children, we examined the ...
Fan Shujun - - 2012
The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is central to anion secretion in both the possum and eutherian small intestine. Here, we investigated its role in the possum proximal colon, which has novel transport properties compared with the eutherian proximal colon. Despite considerable CFTR expression, high doses of the CFTR ...
Mello Rodrigo de Oliveira - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To measure the thickness of the crypts and quantify the number of goblet cells of the colonic mucosa with and without intestinal transit, relating them to exclusion time. METHODS: Sixty Wistar rats were divided into three groups of 20 animals each according to the time of the final operation ...
Benoit Yannick D - - 2012
The crypt-villus axis constitutes the functional unit of the small intestine, where mature absorptive cells are confined to the villi, and stem cells and transit amplifying and differentiating cells are restricted to the crypts. The polycomb group (PcG) proteins repress differentiation and promote self-renewal in embryonic stem cells. PcGs prevent ...
Higashiyama Masaaki - - 2012
HIF-1 is active in hypoxia, such as inflamed mucosa, and HIF-1 in epithelium has been reported to control inflamed mucosa in IBD models. Although T cells play an important role for pathogenesis of IBD, the function of HIF-1 in T cells remains to be elucidated. We aimed to clarify the ...
Petit Constance S V - - 2012
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cell adhesion is one function regulated by cellular prion protein (PrP(c)), a ubiquitous, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored glycoprotein. PrP(c) is located in cell-cell junctions and interacts with desmosome proteins in the intestinal epithelium. We investigated its role in intestinal barrier function. METHODS: We analyzed permeability and structure of cell-cell junctions ...
Dallas Matthew R - - 2012
After separating from a primary tumor, metastasizing cells enter the circulatory system and interact with host cells before lodging in secondary organs. Previous studies have implicated the surface glycoproteins CD44 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in adhesion, migration, and invasion, suggesting that they may influence metastatic progression. To elucidate the role ...
Wang Qun-Ying - - 2012
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Epithelial barrier dysfunction is involved in a number of diseases in the body. The mechanism is to be further understood. The present study aimed to investigate the role of one of the common microbial products, flagellin (FGN), in the induction of intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction. METHODS: We ...
Rothenberg Michael E ME Stanford Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, - - 2012
Paneth cells contribute to the small intestinal niche of Lgr5(+) stem cells. Although the colon also contains Lgr5(+) stem cells, it does not contain Paneth cells. We investigated the existence of colonic Paneth-like cells that have a distinct transcriptional signature and support Lgr5(+) stem cells. We used multicolor fluorescence-activated cell ...
Li Ying-fei YF Department of Gastroenterology and Institute of Gastroenterology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, - - 2012
Our group established a method to culture spheres under serum-free culture condition. However, the biological characteristics and the tumorigenicity of spheres are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that sphere cells expressed high levels of the putative colorectal cancer stem cell markers CD133 and CD44. The CD133-positive rates were 13.27 ± 5.62, ...
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