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Results 201 - 250 of 994
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Cuadros Miguel A - - 2006
The present study showed that the HIS-C7 monoclonal antibody, which recognizes the chick form of CD45, is a specific marker for macrophages/microglial cells in the developing and mature chick central nervous system (CNS). HIS-C7-positive cells were characterized according to their morphological features and chronotopographical distribution patterns within developing and adult ...
Masamizu Yoshito - - 2006
Notch signaling components such as the basic helix-loop-helix gene Hes1 are cyclically expressed by negative feedback in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) and constitute the somite segmentation clock. Because Hes1 oscillation occurs in many cell types, this clock may regulate the timing in many biological systems. Although the Hes1 oscillator is ...
Oka Yumiko - - 2006
Formation of vertebrae occurs via endochondral ossification, a process involving condensation of precartilaginous cells. Here, we provide the first molecular evidence of mechanism that underlies initiation of this process by showing that the extracellular factor, Epimorphin, plays a role during early steps in vertebral cartilage condensation. Epimorphin mRNA is predominantly ...
Kraus Yulia - - 2006
The sea anemone Nematostella vectensis has recently been established as a new model system for the understanding of the evolution of developmental processes. In particular, the evolutionary origin of gastrulation and its molecular regulation are the subject of intense investigation. However, while molecular data are rapidly accumulating, no detailed morphological ...
Foltz Warren D - - 2006
Positive-contrast methods can augment negative-contrast methods for CMR evaluation of transplanted cell fate in vivo. This study correlated positive-contrast signal characteristics in the rabbit hind-limb with xenograft cell number (rat fibroblasts bearing endocytosed 1 microm Bang's particles) at different stages of Gd-DTPA administration and 1 mm2 in-plane resolution (2 minute ...
Devoto S H - - 2006
The somitic compartment that gives rise to trunk muscle and dermis in amniotes is an epithelial sheet on the external surface of the somite, and is known as the dermomyotome. However, despite its central role in the development of the trunk and limbs, the evolutionary history of the dermomyotome and ...
Suzuki Makoto - - 2006
Limb regeneration in amphibians is a representative process of epimorphosis. This type of organ regeneration, in which a mass of undifferentiated cells referred to as the "blastema" proliferate to restore the lost part of the amputated organ, is distinct from morphallaxis as observed, for instance, in Hydra, in which rearrangement ...
Brockes Jeremy P - - 2005
The regeneration of complex structures in adult salamanders depends on mechanisms that offer pointers for regenerative medicine. These include the plasticity of differentiated cells and the retention in regenerative cells of local cues such as positional identity. Limb regeneration proceeds by the local formation of a blastema, a growth zone ...
Geetha-Loganathan Poongodi - - 2006
Cells from the ventrolateral lip of the dermomyotome at limb levels undergo epithelio-mesenchymal transition and migrate as individual and undifferentiated cells into the limb buds. The precursor cells are under the influence of various signaling factors in the limb. Dorsal and ventral ectoderm influences various aspects of limb development. In ...
Kimura Wataru W Department of Biological Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minamiohsawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397, - - 2006
In vertebrates, the endoderm is established during gastrulation and gradually becomes regionalized into domains destined for different organs. Here, we present precise fate maps of the gastrulation stage chick endoderm, using a method designed to label cells specifically in the lower layer. We show that the first population of endodermal ...
Mashanov Vladimir S - - 2005
It has recently been shown that the whole spectrum of cell types constituting a multicellular organism can be generated from stem cells. Our study provides an example of an alternative mechanism of tissue repair. Injection of distilled water into the coelomic cavity of the holothurian Eupentacta fraudatrix results in the ...
Satoh Akira - - 2005
In Xenopus laevis, limb buds start to develop at a later point of the larval stage, prior to metamorphosis. This onset of limb development in Xenopus is totally different from that in amniotes such as birds and mammals, in which limb buds emerge at an early stage of embryogenesis, in ...
Tokuoka Miki - - 2005
Ascidian larval mesenchyme cells, comprising about 900 cells, are derived from the A7.6, B8.5 and B7.7 blastomere pairs in the 110-cell embryo. Previous studies showed that the properties of mesenchyme cells are not uniform among the three lines in embryos of Ciona savignyi and Ciona intestinalis. After metamorphosis, the larval ...
Carlson Bruce M - - 2005
This article presents some general principles underlying regenerative phenomena in vertebrates, starting with the epimorphic regeneration of the amphibian limb and continuing with tissue and organ regeneration in mammals. Epimorphic regeneration following limb amputation involves wound healing, followed shortly by a phase of dedifferentiation that leads to the formation of ...
Ding Lei - - 2005
We examined the migration and differentiation of cells expressing Olig3, a basic helix-loop-helix transcriptional factor, in the developing spinal cord. Distribution of Olig3 lineage cells was demonstrated with in situ hybridization and X-gal staining in an Olig3-lacZ knock-in mouse. Olig3-positive cells first appeared in the dorsal spinal cord, except for ...
Teddy Jessica M - - 2005
Our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that direct cell motility, cell division, and cell shaping has benefited from innovations in cell labeling and the ability to resolve intracellular dynamics with multispectral, high-resolution imaging. However, due to difficulties with in vivo cell marking and monitoring, most studies have been restricted to ...
Ignácio A R - - 2005
The distribution, morphology and morphometry of microglial cells in the chick cerebral hemispheres from embryonic day 4 (E4) to the first neonatal day (P1) were studied by histochemical labeling with a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) lectin. The histochemical analysis revealed lectin-reactive cells in the nervous parenchyma on day E4. Between E4 ...
Sepich Diane S - - 2005
Embryonic morphogenesis is accomplished by cellular movements, rearrangements, and cell fate inductions. Vertebrate gastrulation entails morphogenetic processes that generate three germ layers, endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm, shaped into head, trunk, and tail. To understand how cell migration mechanistically contributes to tissue shaping during gastrulation, we examined migration of lateral mesoderm ...
Stark D A - - 2005
Selective marking of a single cell within a living embryo is often difficult due to the inaccuracy and invasiveness of standard techniques. This unit describes a minimally invasive optical protocol that uses 405-nm laser light to photoactivate a variant of green fluorescent protein (PAGFP). This method takes advantage of the ...
Nebot-Cegarra Josep - - 2005
In order to analyse the patterns of cellular proliferation both in the mesenchyme of the urorectal septum (URS) and in the adjacent territories (posterior urogenital mesenchyme, anterior intestinal mesenchyme and cloacal folds mesenchyme), as well as their contribution to the process of cloacal division, a computer-assisted method was used to ...
Liang Hongyan - - 2007
Fibronectin alternative exon EIIIA is largely included in undifferentiated mesenchymal cells of the developing limb bud, whereas the exon is excluded in differentiated chondrocytes. Inclusion of exon EIIIA in chondrocytic cells is increased by overexpression of SRp40, and, to a lesser extent, SRp75, but not SRp55. RT-PCR analysis using real-time ...
Mittapalli Venugopal Rao - - 2005
Somitocoele cells previously have been shown to form the proximal part of the ribs, the intervertebral discs, and the intervertebral joints (synovial joints). To determine whether the somitocoele cells are necessary for the development of axial skeleton joints, we microsurgically ablated the somitocoele cells in epithelial somites of 2-day-old chick ...
Dow Joan - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The number of viable transplanted cells in the heart is sharply decreased shortly after cell injection. The exact mechanics of cell loss are unclear. We hypothesized that immature cardiac cells transplanted directly into rat heart could be washed out via the cardiac vasculature, and carried to other organs. METHODS: ...
Fukuda Kimiko - - 2005
The formation of the vertebrate body plan begins with the differentiation of cells into three germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. Cells in the endoderm give rise to the epithelial lining of the digestive tract, associated glands and respiratory system. One of the fundamental problems in developmental biology is to ...
Cui Cheng C Department of Physics, Biocomplexity Institute, Indiana University, 727 East Third Street, Swain Hall West 159, Bloomington, IN 47405-7105, - - 2005
We have investigated the patterns of tissue flow underlying the formation of the primitive streak in the chick embryo. Analysis of time-lapse sequences of brightfield images to extract the tissue velocity field and of fluorescence images of small groups of DiI-labelled cells have shown that epiblast cells move in two ...
Delfini Marie-Claire - - 2005
The regular spacing of somites during vertebrate embryogenesis involves a dynamic gradient of FGF signaling that controls the timing of maturation of cells in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM). How the FGF signal is transduced by PSM cells is unclear. Here, we first show that the FGF gradient is translated into ...
Barna Maria - - 2005
The vertebrate limb initially develops as a bud of mesenchymal cells that subsequently aggregate in a proximal to distal (P-D) sequence to give rise to cartilage condensations that prefigure all limb skeletal components. Of the three cardinal limb axes, the mechanisms that lead to establishment and patterning of skeletal elements ...
Oates Andrew C - - 2005
The first morphological sign of vertebrate postcranial body segmentation is the sequential production from posterior paraxial mesoderm of blocks of cells termed somites. Each of these embryonic structures is polarized along the anterior/posterior axis, a subdivision first distinguished by marker gene expression restricted to rostral or caudal territories of forming ...
Freeman John A - - 2005
The limb of the brine shrimp Artemia develops over a four-instar period when the protopod, endite, exopod, endopod, and epipod are defined and cell differentiation (change in cell shape) occurs. To understand the importance of cell differentiation in limb growth, development of the epidermis was studied in the first thoracopod ...
Vascotto Sandy G - - 2005
Epimorphic limb regeneration in the adult newt involves the dedifferentiation of differentiated cells to yield a pluripotent blastemal cell. These mesenchymal-like cells proliferate and subsequently respond to patterning and differentiation cues to form a new limb. Understanding the dedifferentiation process requires the selective identification of dedifferentiating cells within the heterogeneous ...
Chung Hyeyoung A - - 2005
We used cDNA microarray analysis to screen for FGF target genes in Xenopus embryos treated with the FGFR1 inhibitor SU5402, and identified neurotrophin receptor homolog (NRH) as an FGF target. Causing gain of NRH function by NRH mRNA or loss of NRH function using a Morpholino antisense-oligonucleotide (Mo) led to ...
Kim Jae-Young - - 2005
Chick feather buds develop sequentially in a hexagonal array. Each feather bud develops with anterior posterior polarity, which is thought to develop in response to signals derived from specialized regions of mesenchymal condensation and epithelial thickening. These developmental processes are performed by cellular mechanisms, such as cell proliferation and migration, ...
Himeno Emi - - 2005
The role of perchloric acid-soluble protein (PSP) was investigated in chick embryos. Fluorescently labeled anti-chick liver (CL)-PSP IgG was injected into the yolk sac in ovo at embryonic day 3, and became localized in neuroepithelial cells. Within 12 h, morphological changes were observed in 37.5% of anti-CL-PSP IgG-injected embryos, and ...
Tremblay Kimberly D - - 2005
The location and movement of mammalian gut tissue progenitors, prior to the expression of tissue-specific genes, has been unknown, but this knowledge is essential to identify transitions that lead to cell type specification. To address this, we used vital dyes to label exposed anterior endoderm cells of early somite stage ...
Lopez-Sanchez Carmen - - 2005
A detailed analysis of the gastrulating chick embryo was performed using three methods : time-lapse videotaping of embryos in culture, histological semithin sections, and in situ hybridization with 10 mRNA signals expressed during gastrulation. The results suggest that the gene expression pattern of Goosecoid, Hex, Crescent, and Bmp7 may be ...
Barak Hila - - 2005
The vertebrate intermediate mesoderm (IM) is highly patterned along the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis. In the chick embryo, the kidney tissue, which is a derivative of the IM, is generated only from IM located posterior to the sixth somite axial level, which also marks the border between cranial and trunk segments. ...
Bodenstein L - - 2005
We have used a computer simulation system to examine formation of the chick primitive streak and to test the proposal (Wei and Mikawa Development 127 (2000) 87) that oriented cell division could account for primitive streak elongation. We find that this proposal is inadequate to explain elongation of the streak. ...
Echeverri Karen - - 2005
Regeneration is an ability that has been observed extensively throughout metazoan phylogeny. Amongst vertebrates, the urodele amphibians stand out for their exceptional capacity to regenerate body parts such as the limb. During this process, only the missing portion of the limb is precisely replaced--amputation in the upper arm results in ...
Gepstein Lior - - 2005
Extract: Recent advances in molecular and cellular biology and specifically in the areas of stem cell biology and tissue engineering have paved the way for the development of a new field in biomedicine, regenerative medicine. This exciting approach seeks to develop new biological solutions, using the mobilization of endogenous stem ...
Takahashi Yu - - 2005
Mesp1 and Mesp2 are homologous basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors that are co-expressed in the anterior presomitic mesoderm (PSM) just prior to somite formation. Analysis of possible functional redundancy of Mesp1 and Mesp2 has been prevented by the early developmental arrest of Mesp1/Mesp2 double-null embryos. Here we performed chimera analysis, ...
Morán María Genoveva González - - 2005
The aim of this study was to detect the presence of estrogen receptor alpha in different cell subpopulations of the growing left and regressing right ovaries from newly hatched chicks, by immunohistochemical methods, using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique. Newly hatched chicks were killed by decapitation and the growing left and ...
Ng Elizabeth S - - 2005
The homeobox gene Mixl1 is expressed in the primitive streak of the gastrulating embryo, and marks cells destined to form mesoderm and endoderm. The role of Mixl1 in development of haematopoietic mesoderm was investigated by analysing the differentiation of ES cells in which GFP was targeted to one (Mixl1(GFP/w)) or ...
Madhavan, Mayur C
Hundreds of millions of people across the world suffer from severely impaired vision and as the population of the world grows older, this problem will become more severe. One avenue of therapy for these patients may be to induce healthy cells of the eye to regenerate cells that may be ...
Rappazzo Giancarlo - - 2005
Massive apoptosis of mesenchymal cells in the septum of the aortico-pulmonary trunk was found in mouse fetuses at stage 14.5dpc. It was associated with the appearance of cavities in the mesenchymal tissue, presumably due to cell loss, a strong reduction in the extent of lectin PNA staining, and the induction ...
Xiao-Feng Pang P Inst. of Life Sci. & Technol., Univ. of Electron. Sci. & Technol. of China, - - 2005
The influences of the carbon nanotubes on proliferation state of chick embryo fibroblast cells and toxicity of the nanotubes to the cells have been investigated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol 2-yl)-2,5 diphenylte-trazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric method of Mosmann and the toxicology. We found that the toxicity of the carbon nanotubes to the chick ...
Naito Jumpei - - 2004
On average, in chicks, the total number of retinal ganglion cells is 4.9 x 10(6) and the cell density is 10400 cells/mm2. Two high-density areas, namely the central area (CA) and the dorsal area (DA), are located in the central and dorsal retinas, respectively, in post-hatching day 8 (P8) chicks ...
Lammers Andrew R - - 2004
Effects of substrate diameter on locomotor biodynamics were studied in the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica). Two horizontal substrates were used: a flat 'terrestrial' trackway with a force platform integrated into the surface and a cylindrical 'arboreal' trackway (20.3 mm diameter) with a force-transducer instrumented region. On both terrestrial and ...
Ogita Shinjiro - - 2004
In vitro culture of hypocotyl explants from Kandelia candel, a common mangrove species, on hormone-free Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium resulted in shoot formation. Since the hypocotyls showed good potential for in vitro shoot multiplication, the process of bud primordium formation was analyzed from a histological viewpoint. A wound periderm ...
Lu Cindy C - - 2004
The TGFbeta family member Nodal has been shown to be involved in a variety of processes in development, including early axis formation. Here, we use a conditional gene inactivation strategy to show a specific requirement for Nodal in the epiblast. Complete inactivation of the Nodal locus in the epiblast using ...
Hatcher Cathy J - - 2004
Transcriptional regulatory cascades during epicardial and coronary vascular development from proepicardial progenitor cells remain to be defined. We have used immunohistochemistry of human embryonic tissues to demonstrate that the TBX5 transcription factor is expressed not only in the myocardium, but also throughout the embryonic epicardium and coronary vasculature. TBX5 is ...
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