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Pavone Luigi Michele - - 2007
Serotonin regulates cardiovascular functions during embryogenesis and adulthood. However, the source of serotonin in the cardiovascular system and the role of circulating serotonin and serotonin transporter (SERT) in the regulation of cardiovascular functions are still unclear. We used a cell fate approach to map the regions of the mouse heart ...
Piekarski Nadine - - 2007
The fate of single somites has not been analyzed from a comparative perspective with modern cell-marking methods. Most of what we know is based on work using quail-chick chimeras. Consequently, to what degree cell fate has been conserved despite the anatomical differences among vertebrates is unknown. We have analyzed the ...
Murray Michael J - - 2007
Mesoderm migration is a pivotal event in the early embryonic development of animals. One of the best-studied examples occurs during Drosophila gastrulation. Here, mesodermal cells invaginate, undergo an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and spread out dorsally over the inner surface of the ectoderm. Although several genes required for spreading have been ...
Voiculescu Octavian O Department of Anatomy & Developmental Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK. - - 2007
During gastrulation, a single epithelial cell layer, the ectoderm, generates two others: the mesoderm and the endoderm. In amniotes (birds and mammals), mesendoderm formation occurs through an axial midline structure, the primitive streak, the formation of which is preceded by massive 'polonaise' movements of ectoderm cells. The mechanisms controlling these ...
Zhao Wanfeng - - 2007
FGF signalling is critical for normal embryonic development. Sulf1 has been shown to inhibit FGF activity. The role of FGF4 in Sulf1 regulation was investigated during digital development of the quail autopod. Implantation of FGF4 beads in both the interdigit and at the tip of digit III differentially up-regulated Sulf1 ...
Maekawa Fumihiko - - 2007
Chick imprinting behavior is a good model for the study of learning and memory. Imprinting object is recognized and processed in the visual wulst, and the memory is stored in the intermediate medial mesopallium in the dorsal pallium of the telencephalon. We identified chicken cholecystokinin (CCK)-expressing cells localized in these ...
Beh Jeni - - 2007
Heart development requires precise coordination of morphogenetic movements with progressive cell fate specification and differentiation. In ascidian embryos, FGF/MAPK-mediated activation of the transcription factor Ets1/2 is required for heart tissue specification and cell migration. We found that FoxF is one of the first genes to be activated in heart precursors ...
Pearse R V RV 2nd Department of Genetics NRB 360, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2007
The chick limb bud has been used as a model system for studying pattern formation and tissue development for more than 50 years. However, the lineal relationships among the different cell types and the migrational boundaries of individual cells within the limb mesenchyme have not been explored. We have used ...
Kierdorf Uwe - - 2007
The periodic replacement of antlers is an exceptional regenerative process in mammals, which in general are unable to regenerate complete body appendages. Antler regeneration has traditionally been viewed as an epimorphic process closely resembling limb regeneration in urodele amphibians, and the terminology of the latter process has also been applied ...
Jiang Di D Sars International Centre for Marine Molecular Biology, Bergen, - - 2007
The development of the notochord involves a complex set of cellular behaviors. While these morphogenic behaviors are common to all chordates, the ascidian provides a particularly attractive experimental model because of its relative simplicity. In particular, all notochord morphogenesis in ascidians takes place with only 40 cells, as opposed to ...
Miyasaka Kota Y - - 2007
Zebrafish Csrp1 is a member of the cysteine- and glycine-rich protein (CSRP) family and is expressed in the mesendoderm and its derivatives. Csrp1 interacts with Dishevelled 2 (Dvl2) and Diversin (Div), which control cell morphology and other dynamic cell behaviors via the noncanonical Wnt and JNK pathways. When csrp1 message ...
Weiser Douglas C - - 2007
Convergent extension of the mesoderm is the major driving force of vertebrate gastrulation. During this process, mesodermal cells move toward the future dorsal side of the embryo, then radically change behavior as they initiate extension of the body axis. How cells make this transition in behavior is unknown. We have ...
Yamazaki Yosuke - - 2007
Fibrillin is a primary component of elastin-associated microfibrils. Since microfibrils are distributed rather ubiquitously in embryonic tissues, attention has focused on the types of cells responsible for producing fibrillin. To clarify this issue, we employed monensin-induced perturbation of secretory activity in embryonic primary cultures, as this would allow examination of ...
Barna Maria - - 2007
The cellular events underlying skeletal morphogenesis and the formation of cartilage templates are largely unknown. We generated an imaging system to dynamically visualize limb mesenchymal cells undergoing successive phases in cartilage formation and to delineate the cellular function of key regulators of chondrogenesis found mutated in chondrodysplasia syndromes. We uncovered ...
Holley Scott A - - 2007
Somites are the most obvious metameric structures in the vertebrate embryo. They are mesodermal segments that form in bilateral pairs flanking the notochord and are created sequentially in an anterior to posterior sequence concomitant with the posterior growth of the trunk and tail. Zebrafish somitogenesis is regulated by a clock ...
Chung Hyeyoung A - - 2007
Gastrulation is a morphogenetic process in which tightly coordinated cell and tissue movements establish the three germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm) to define the anterior-to-posterior embryonic organization [1]. To elicit this movement, cells modulate membrane protrusions and undergo dynamic cell interactions. Here we report that ankyrin repeats domain protein ...
Yajima Mamiko - - 2007
Peronella japonica, an intermediate type of direct-developing sand dollar, forms an abbreviated pluteus, followed by metamorphosis within 3 days without feeding. In this species, ingression of mesenchyme cells starts before hatching and continues until gastrulation, but no typical secondary mesenchyme cells (SMCs) migrate from the tip of the archenteron. Here, ...
Traverso Edwin E - - 2007
The Xenopus laevis tumorhead (TH) protein, a positive regulator of cell proliferation during embryogenesis, shuttles from the cell periphery into the nucleus during embryogenesis. In these studies, we performed a detailed analysis of TH's subcellular localization pattern to characterize its dynamic behavior. We found that TH exhibits distinct patterns of ...
Rost-Roszkowska Magdalena - - 2007
Embryogenesis of the alimentary tract in two chrysomelid species (Chrysolina pardalina and Melasoma saliceti) is described. The embryonic development of both species lasts 7days at room temperature. Stomodaeum and proctodaeum invaginate at the anterior and posterior ends of the germ band. Together with the ectodermal tissue the endoderm cells also ...
Zhao Bin - - 2007
In the developing atrioventricular (AV) valve, limb bud, and somites, cartilage cell lineage differentiation is regulated by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), while fibroblast growth factor (FGF) controls tendon cell fate. We observed aggrecan and sox9, characteristic of cartilage cell types, and scleraxis and tenascin, characteristic of tendon cell types, in ...
Schleiffarth J Robert - - 2007
Lack of septation of the cardiac outflow tract (OFT) results in persistent truncus arteriosus (PTA), a form of congenital heart disease. The outflow myocardium expands through addition of cells originating from the pharyngeal mesoderm referred to as secondary/anterior heart field, whereas cardiac neural crest (CNC) cell-derived mesenchyme condenses to form ...
Maki Nobuyasu - - 2007
In newt regeneration, differentiated cells can revert to stem cell-like cells in which the proliferative ability and multipotentiality are restored after dedifferentiation. However, the molecular events that occur during the dedifferentiation still remain obscure. Nucleostemin has been identified in mammals as a nucleolar protein specific to stem cells and cancer ...
Magie Craig R - - 2007
Gastrulation is a central event in metazoan development, involving many cellular behaviors including invagination, delamination, and ingression. Understanding the cell biology underlying gastrulation in many different taxa will help clarify the evolution of gastrulation mechanisms. Gastrulation in the anthozoan cnidarian Nematostella vectensis has been described as a combination of invagination ...
Sato Kosei - - 2007
Pattern formation along the proximal-distal (PD) axis in the developing limb bud serves as a good model for learning how cell fate and regionalization of domains, which are essential processes in morphogenesis during development, are specified by positional information. In the present study, detailed fate maps for the limb bud ...
Liu Yu - - 2007
Early steps for cardiac specification are problematic for the study of mammalian embryos, which has favored using pluripotent cells that recapitulate cardiac myogenesis. Furthermore, circuits governing cardiac specification have relevance to the application of ES cells and other cells for heart repair. In mouse teratocarcinoma cells, canonical Wnts that inhibit ...
Li Yingcui Y Center for Regenerative Medicine and Skeletal Development, Department of Oral Rehabilitation, Biomaterials, and Skeletal Development, School of Dental Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030, - - 2007
Hyaluronan (HA) is a large glycosaminoglycan that is not only a structural component of extracellular matrices, but also interacts with cell surface receptors to promote cell proliferation, migration, and intracellular signaling. HA is a major component of the extracellular matrix of the distal subapical mesenchymal cells of the developing limb ...
Stellabotte Frank - - 2007
The myogenic precursors responsible for muscle growth in amniotes develop from the dermomyotome, an epithelium at the external surface of the somite. In teleosts, the myogenic precursors responsible for growth have not been identified. We have used single cell lineage labeling in zebrafish to show that anterior border cells of ...
Kumar Anoop A Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, - - 2007
Limb regeneration in larval and adult salamanders proceeds from a mound of mesenchymal stem cells called the limb blastema. The blastema gives rise just to those structures distal to its level of origin, and this property of positional identity is reset to more proximal values by treatment with retinoic acid. ...
Leslie Nick R NR Division of Molecular Physiology, University of Dundee, Dundee, DD1 5EH, Scotland, United Kingdom. - - 2007
Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) mediates many of its effects on proliferation, growth, survival, and migration through its PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) lipid phosphatase activity, suppressing phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent signaling pathways. PTEN also possesses a protein phosphatase activity, the role of which is less well characterized. We have investigated the role of PTEN ...
Denker Hans-Werner - - 2007
A characteristic feature of embryonic stem (ES) cells is their ability to give rise to differentiated cell types that are derived from all three primary germ layers. In the embryo of higher vertebrates, formation of mesoderm and definitive endoderm (gastrulation) occurs at the primitive streak through a spatially highly ordered ...
Ribeiro Inês - - 2007
The heart forms from a linear tube that is subject to complex remodeling during embryonic development. Hallmarks of this remodeling are the looping of the heart tube and the regionalization into chamber and non-chamber myocardium. Cardiomyocytes in the future chamber myocardium acquire different cellular and physiological characteristics through activation of ...
Tiecke Eva - - 2007
Here, we describe methods for applying Sonic hedgehog (Shh) to developing chick limbs. The Sonic hedgehog gene is expressed in the polarizing region, a signaling region at the posterior margin of the limb bud and application of Shh-expressing cells or Shh protein to early limb buds mimics polarizing region signaling. ...
Oppitz M - - 2007
PURPOSE: To evaluate advantages and limitations of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to monitor the migration of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) labeled cells in the chick embryo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Labeled human SK-Mel 28 melanoma cells were injected into the E2 chick embryo neural tube. Embryos were examined with a clinical ...
Zamir Evan A - - 2006
Gastrulation is a fundamental process in early development that results in the formation of three primary germ layers. During avian gastrulation, presumptive mesodermal cells in the dorsal epiblast ingress through a furrow called the primitive streak (PS), and subsequently move away from the PS and form adult tissues. The biophysical ...
Tam Patrick P L - - 2007
During mouse gastrulation, endoderm cells of the dorsal foregut are recruited ahead of the ventral foregut and move to the anterior region of the embryo via different routes. Precursors of the anterior-most part of the foregut and those of the mid- and hind-gut are allocated to the endoderm of the ...
Afonin Bonnie - - 2006
During vertebrate development the formation of somites is a critical step, as these structures will give rise to the vertebrae, muscle, and dermis. In Xenopus laevis, somitogenesis consists of the partitioning of the presomitic mesoderm into somites, which undergo a 90-degree rotation to become aligned parallel to the notochord. Using ...
Liang Lina L Department of Ophthalmology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 700 South 18th Street, Birmingham, AL 35233, - - 2006
To study the possibility of generating photoreceptors through programming RPE transdifferentiation by examining cell differentiation after transplantation into the developing chick eye. RPE was isolated, and the cells were dissociated, cultured, and guided to transdifferentiate by infection with retrovirus expressing neuroD (RCAS-neuroD), using RCAS-green fluorescence protein (GFP) as a control. ...
Laube Friedemann - - 2006
Newt hearts are able to repair substantial cardiac injuries without functional impairment, whereas mammalian hearts cannot regenerate. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that control the regenerative capacity of the newt heart are unknown. Here, we show that the ability of newt cardiomyocytes to regenerate cardiac injuries correlates with their ability ...
Dvash Tamar - - 2007
Human ESCs (HESCs) are self-renewing pluripotent cell lines that are derived from the inner cell mass of blastocyst-stage embryos. These cells can produce terminally differentiated cells representing the three embryonic germ layers. We thus hypothesized that during the course of in vitro differentiation of HESCs, progenitor-like cells are transiently formed. ...
Zhang Jin-Hua - - 2006
LIM homeodomain proteins Islet-1 and Lim-3 expression and their role in nervous tissue and endocrine glands have been reported; however, nothing is known concerning Islet-1 and Lim-3 expression in the developing pineal gland of the chick embryo. The aim of the present study was to determine the ontogeny of Islet-1 ...
Nesbitt Tresa - - 2006
Development of the epicardium is critical to proper heart formation. It provides all of the precursor cells that form the coronary system and supplies signals that stimulate cardiac myocyte proliferation. The epicardium forms from mesothelial cells associated with the septum transversum and is referred to as the proepicardium (PE). Two ...
Silva Andressa G - - 2007
This study reports the incidence of histological alterations in the posterior kidney and morphometric changes in the interrenal tissue of the Neotropical fish Astyanax altiparanae collected from an urban stream impaired by anthropogenic activities and from a clean site (reference). The histological alterations observed in fish kidney from the disturbed ...
Fernández-Terán M A - - 2006
Cell death and cell proliferation are basic cellular processes that need to be precisely controlled during embryonic development. The developing vertebrate limb illustrates particularly well how correct morphogenesis depends on the appropriate spatial and temporal balance between cell death and cell proliferation. Precise knowledge of the patterns of cell proliferation ...
Stephen Lesley J - - 2007
Eph proteins are receptor tyrosine kinases that control changes in cell shape and migration during development. We now describe a critical role for EphA3 receptor signaling in heart development as revealed by the phenotype of EphA3 null mice. During heart development mesenchymal outgrowths, the atrioventricular endocardial cushions, form in the ...
Soufan Alexandre T - - 2006
Increase in cell size and proliferation of myocytes are key processes in cardiac morphogenesis, yet their regionalization during development of the heart has been described only anecdotally. We have made quantitative reconstructions of embryonic chicken hearts ranging in stage from the fusion of the heart-forming fields to early formation of ...
Santiago-Martínez Edgardo - - 2006
Heart morphogenesis requires the coordinated regulation of cell movements and cell-cell interactions between distinct populations of cardiac precursor cells. Little is known about the mechanisms that organize cardiac cells into this complex structure. In this study, we analyzed the role of Slit, an extracellular matrix protein and its transmembrane receptors ...
Kakuda Tsutomu - - 2006
Campylobacter jejuni has an N-linked protein glycosylation pathway that is required for efficient cell invasion and chick gastrointestinal colonization by the microbe. In this study, we constructed insertion mutants of 22 putative glycoprotein genes and examined the ability of each to invade the human intestinal epithelial cell line INT-407. Among ...
Kern Christine B CB Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, - - 2006
The proteoglycan versican is essential to the formation of endocardial cushion mesenchyme by epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT). A potentially important factor in the regulation of versican activity during cushion EMT is proteolysis by ADAMTS metalloproteinases. Using antibodies to the DPEAAE neoepitope created by ADAMTS proteolysis of versican, we detected the amino ...
Alibardi Lorenzo - - 2006
The present study deals with the cell structure and three-dimensional organization of barb and barbule cells within barb ridges of down feathers and juvenile feathers in the chick embryo. Juvenile feathers represent the second generation of feathers in the wing, and replace down feathers some weeks after hatching. Within the ...
Martín C - - 2006
During early stages of brain development, neuroepithelial stem cells undergo intense proliferation as neurogenesis begins. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) has been involved in the regulation of these processes, and although it has been suggested that they work in an autocrine-paracrine mode, there is no general agreement on this because ...
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