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Kim Dongkyun - - 2009
Endochondral bone formation requires a complex interplay among immature mesenchymal progenitor cells to form the cartilaginous anlagen, which involves migration, aggregation and condensation. Even though condensation of chondrogenic progenitors is an essential step in this process, its mechanism(s) has not been well studied. Here, we show that cadherin-7 plays a ...
Chuai Manli M Division of Cell and Developmental Biology, Wellcome Trust Biocentre, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, United - - 2009
Gastrulation in chick starts with large-scale cell flows in the epiblast and hypoblast, which transport the mesendoderm into the midline of the embryo to form the primitive streak. Several mechanisms such as cell-cell intercalation, deformations of the extracellular matrix and directed cell movements in response to chemical gradients have been ...
Hurst Helen - - 2009
The chick micromass culture system has advantages over the validated rat system - ready availability and non-culling of the donor parent - but needs to give comparable results. This study confirmed comparability and the ability to extend the system to cover cardiac effects. It was also compared with the validated ...
Kragl Martin - - 2009
During limb regeneration adult tissue is converted into a zone of undifferentiated progenitors called the blastema that reforms the diverse tissues of the limb. Previous experiments have led to wide acceptance that limb tissues dedifferentiate to form pluripotent cells. Here we have reexamined this question using an integrated GFP transgene ...
Gros Jerome - - 2009
In vertebrates, the readily apparent left/right (L/R) anatomical asymmetries of the internal organs can be traced to molecular events initiated at or near the time of gastrulation. However, the earliest steps of this process do not seem to be universally conserved. In particular, how this axis is first defined in ...
Hutcheson David A - - 2009
Vertebrate muscle arises sequentially from embryonic, fetal, and adult myoblasts. Although functionally distinct, it is unclear whether these myoblast classes develop from common or different progenitors. Pax3 and Pax7 are expressed by somitic myogenic progenitors and are critical myogenic determinants. To test the developmental origin of embryonic and fetal myogenic ...
Qiu Qiong - - 2009
The LIM-homeodomain transcription factor lmx1b is a critical regulator of vertebrate dorsal-ventral limb patterning. In the mouse embryo, lmx1b is initially transcribed throughout most, if not all, limb bud cells at early stages, but then rapidly becomes restricted specifically to dorsal mesenchymal cells with a sharp boundary between the dorsal-positive ...
Liang Simon X - - 2010
Side population cells are a rare subset of cells found in the adult heart that are highly enriched for stem and progenitor cell activity. Recent studies have suggested that Sca1+/CD31- cardiac side population cells are capable of differentiation into cardiomyocytes in vitro. However, the response of these cells to myocardial ...
Shiraki Nobuaki - - 2009
Embryonic stem cells differentiated on M15 cells have previously been shown to give rise to cells of the mesendodermal and definitive endodermal lineages. Here we demonstrate that neuroectodermal and mesodermal lineages can be derived from ES cells cultured on M15 cells and subsequently subjected to specific culture conditions, as confirmed ...
Banerjee Indroneal - - 2009
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine responsible for many different processes including the regulation of cell growth, apoptosis, differentiation, and survival in various cell types and organs, including the heart. Recent studies have indicated that IL-6 is a critical component in the cell-cell communication between myocytes and cardiac fibroblasts. In ...
van Impel Andreas - - 2009
The Drosophila guanine nucleotide exchange factor Pebble (Pbl) is essential for cytokinesis and cell migration during gastrulation. In dividing cells, Pbl promotes Rho1 activation at the cell cortex, leading to formation of the contractile actin-myosin ring. The role of Pbl in fibroblast growth factor-triggered mesoderm spreading during gastrulation is less ...
Lancrin Christophe - - 2009
It has been proposed that during embryonic development haematopoietic cells arise from a mesodermal progenitor with both endothelial and haematopoietic potential called the haemangioblast. A conflicting theory instead associates the first haematopoietic cells with a phenotypically differentiated endothelial cell that has haematopoietic potential (that is, a haemogenic endothelium). Support for ...
Di Meglio Franca - - 2010
The search for ideal cell candidate for heart regeneration, as well as for putative cardiac stem cell responsible for cardiac tissue homeostasis, is occupying both basic scientists and clinicians. Growing number of studies and publications indicate epicardium-derived cells as cardiac stem cells. While it is beyond doubt that these cells ...
Borgave Seema - - 2009
In early chick embryo, the precardiac cells reside within distinct groups of mesodermal cells known as presumptive heart forming regions (HFRs). HFRs are located on the lateral sides of the Hensens node. In an effort to study fate of HFRs in isolation, HFRs were excised from early gastrulating chick embryos ...
Hughes James N - - 2009
In the mammal, the pluripotent cells of embryo differentiate and commit to either the mesoderm/endoderm lineages or the ectoderm lineage during gastrulation. In culture, the ability to direct lineage choice from pluripotent cells into the mesoderm/endoderm or ectoderm lineages will enable the development of technologies for the formation of highly ...
Lopez-Sanchez Carmen - - 2009
Fate maps are required to address questions about the commitment and differentiation of precardiac cells. Here, we report a detailed study of the precardiac cells located at the level of the primitive streak, employing different experiments with a variety of techniques combining double transplantations, microinjections and immunocytochemistry. Most cells of ...
Rao Nandini - - 2009
Following amputation, urodele salamander limbs reprogram somatic cells to form a blastema that self-organizes into the missing limb parts to restore the structure and function of the limb. To help understand the molecular basis of blastema formation, we used quantitative label-free liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based methods to analyze changes ...
Martins Gabriel G - - 2009
Somites are transient segments formed in a rostro-caudal progression during vertebrate development. In chick embryos, segmentation of a new pair of somites occurs every 90 minutes and involves a mesenchyme-to-epithelium transition of cells from the presomitic mesoderm. Little is known about the cellular rearrangements involved, and, although it is known ...
Towers Matthew M Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, - - 2009
The developing limb is a major model for pattern formation in vertebrate embryos. Many of the seminal discoveries of the mechanisms involved in patterning have been made using chick embryos because of the ease of manipulating their developing limbs. More recently, the molecular basis of limb pattern formation has been ...
Chuai Manli M Division of Cell and Developmental Biology, Wellcome Trust Biocentre, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, United - - 2009
Gastrulation is a critical stage in the development of all vertebrates. During gastrulation mesendoderm cells move inside the embryo to form the gut, muscles, and skeleton. In amniotes the mesendoderm cells move inside the embryo through a structure known as the primitive streak, extending from the posterior pole anterior through ...
Subauste M Cecilia MC Department of Cell Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA, 92037, - - 2009
Increased metastatic and angiogenic potentials of aggressive human colon carcinoma cells were verified in independent chick embryo models by comparing in vivo highly metastatic SW620 colon carcinoma cell line with its isogenic, non-metastatic SW480 cell variant. In the experimental metastasis model, both cell types rapidly arrested in the chorioallantoic membrane ...
McMahon Amy A Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125, - - 2008
The concerted movement of cells from different germ layers contributes to morphogenesis during early embryonic development. Using an optimized imaging approach and quantitative methods, we analyzed the trajectories of hundreds of ectodermal cells and internalized mesodermal cells within Drosophila embryos over 2 hours during gastrulation. We found a high level ...
van den Berg Gert G Heart Failure Research Center, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The - - 2009
Recent studies have shown that the primary heart tube continues to grow by addition of cells from the coelomic wall. This growth occurs concomitantly with embryonic folding and formation of the coelomic cavity, making early heart formation morphologically complex. A scarcity of data on localized growth parameters further hampers the ...
Ebert Steven N - - 2008
The heart is a primary source of epinephrine and norepinephrine during embryonic development, yet little is known about the cardiac cells that produce these catecholamine hormones. To identify when and where catecholamine-synthesizing cells are found in the embryonic heart, we developed a novel mouse genetic model by "knocking-in" the Cre-recombinase ...
Egea Joaquim - - 2008
During early mouse development, the anterior visceral endoderm (AVE) secretes inhibitor and activator signals that are essential for establishing the anterior-posterior (AP) axis of the embryo and for restricting mesoderm formation to the posterior epiblast in the primitive streak (PS) region. Here we show that AVE cells have an additional ...
Pavone Luigi Michele - - 2008
Multiple evidence demonstrate a role for serotonin and its transporter SERT in heart valve development and disease. By utilizing a Cre/loxP system driven by SERT gene expression, we recently demonstrated a regionally restricted distribution of SERT-expressing cells in developing mouse heart. In order to characterize the cell types exhibiting SERT ...
Sowby,Whitney Herrod 1984-
The exact mechanisms that regulate limb outgrowth the mouse embryo are unknown. Although there are several models, we favor a hypothesis where cells become polarized by signals secreted from the AER which orient their cell migration and/or divisions causing limb outgrowth. Clonal analysis has provided a mechanism to study cell ...
Mizoguchi Takamasa - - 2008
During vertebrate gastrulation, both mesodermal and endodermal cells internalize through the blastopore beneath the ectoderm. In zebrafish, the internalized mesodermal cells move towards the dorsal side of the gastrula and, at the same time, they extend anteriorly by convergence and extension (C&E) movements. Endodermal cells showing characteristic filopodia then migrate ...
Stamm Christof - - 2008
Established therapeutic concepts for heart failure in elderly patients aim at long-term medical and/or surgical palliation. Heart transplantation is limited to younger individuals, and permanent mechanical assist devices are not yet widely used. In this situation, myocardial cell therapy offers fascinating new perspectives, the ultimate goal being the complete regeneration ...
Wolff Carsten - - 2008
We present the first comparative cell lineage analysis of uniramous and biramous limbs of an arthropod, the crustacean Orchestia cavimana. Via single cell labelling of the cells that are involved in limb development, we are able to present the first complete clonal composition of an arthropod limb. We show that ...
Song Peng - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Systemic distribution of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) after intracoronary infusion (ICI) and the role of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in cell distribution still remain unclear. This study was designed o analyze the cell distribution after ICI in variations of heart status in a swine myocardial infarction model. MATERIALS AND ...
Dumont Emmanuelle - - 2008
The external cell layer that surrounds the fish primary myotome provides the myogenic precursors necessary for muscle growth, suggesting that this epithelium is equivalent to the amniote dermomyotome. In this study we report the identification of a trout orthologue of the dermal marker Dermo-1, and show that trout somitic external ...
Lu Pengfei P Department of Anatomy and Program in Developmental Biology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143-0452, USA. - - 2008
The apical ectodermal ridge (AER) is a transient embryonic structure essential for the induction, patterning and outgrowth of the vertebrate limb. However, the mechanism of AER function in limb skeletal patterning has remained unclear. In this study, we genetically ablated the AER by conditionally removing FGFR2 function and found that ...
Pombal Manuel A - - 2008
The epicardium is the outer layer of the vertebrate heart. Both the embryonic epicardium and its derived mesenchyme are critical to heart development, contributing to the coronary vasculature and modulating the proliferation of the ventricular myocardium. The embryonic epicardium arises from an extracardiac, originally paired progenitor tissue called the proepicardium, ...
Zmojdzian Monika - - 2008
Specification of cardiac primordia and formation of the Drosophila heart tube is highly reminiscent of the early steps of vertebrate heart development. We previously reported that the final morphogenesis of the Drosophila heart involves a group of nonmesodermal cells called heart-anchoring cells and a pair of derived from the pharyngeal ...
Venters Sara J - - 2008
Somite stages were employed as units of intrinsic developmental time to measure cell doubling rate and other cell cycle parameters of chick forelimb level somites. Somite cell nuclei doubled over an interval corresponding to approximately 7+ somite stages (7+ ss; approximately 11 hr) and approximately 24 new primary myotome cells ...
Shook David R - - 2008
The induction of mesoderm and the patterning of its dorsal-ventral and anterior-posterior axes seems to be relatively conserved throughout the chordates, as do the morphogenic movements that produce a phylotypic stage embryo. What is not conserved is the initial embryonic architecture of the fertilized egg, and the specific cell behaviors ...
Lambert J David - - 2008
The Spiralia is a clade of protostome invertebrate phyla that share a highly conserved mode of early development. Spiralian development is characterized by regularities in the arrangement of early cleavages, the fates of the cells that are produced by these divisions, and the development of the distinctive trochophore larva. Because ...
Willems Erik - - 2008
Embryonic stem (ES) cells have the potential to differentiate into all cell types of the adult body, and could allow regeneration of damaged tissues. The challenge is to alter differentiation toward functional cell types or tissues by directing ES cells to a specific fate. Efforts have been made to understand ...
Campbell L J - - 2008
Upon amputation of the urodele limb, the epidermal cells surrounding the amputation plane migrate to heal the wound. The resulting wound epidermis (WE) induces the regeneration process, resulting in blastema formation, cell division, and ultimately repatterning into a new limb. Despite its central role in the initiation of limb regeneration, ...
Christ Bodo - - 2008
During somite maturation, the ventral half of the epithelial somite disintegrates into the mesenchymal sclerotome, whereas the dorsal half forms a transitory epithelial sheet, the dermomyotome, lying in between the sclerotome and the surface ectoderm. The dermomyotome is the source of the majority of the mesodermal tissues in the body, ...
Sweetman Dylan D School of Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, NR4 7TJ, UK. - - 2008
Co-ordinated cell movement is a fundamental feature of developing embryos. Massive cell movements occur during vertebrate gastrulation and during the subsequent extension of the embryonic body axis. These are controlled by cell-cell signalling and a number of pathways have been implicated. Here we use long-term video microscopy in chicken embryos ...
Wagstaff Laura J LJ Cell and Developmental Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United - - 2008
Cell movements are a fundamental feature during the development of multi-cellular organisms. In amniote gastrulation, cells ingress through the primitive streak, which identifies the anterior-posterior axis of the embryo. We investigated the cytoskeletal architecture during these morphogenetic processes and characterized microtubule organisation in whole chick embryos. This revealed the distribution ...
Nakatani Yuki - - 2008
Urodeles and fish have higher regeneration ability in a variety of tissues and organs than do other vertebrate species including mammals. Though many studies have aimed at identifying the cellular and molecular basis for regeneration, relatively little is known about the detailed cellular behaviors and involved molecular basis. In the ...
Ohta Sho - - 2007
In the gastrula stage embryo, the epiblast migrates toward the primitive streak and ingresses through the primitive groove. Subsequently, the ingressing epiblast cells undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and differentiate into the definitive endoderm and mesoderm during gastrulation. However, the developmental mechanisms at the end of gastrulation have not yet been ...
Wyngaarden Laurie A - - 2008
Normal morphogenesis depends on location-specific behaviours of cells. There are circumstances in the embryo where it would be advantageous for cells to be flexible in establishing their fate, such as in the limb bud where some cells cross between Homeobox (Hox) expression domains. It is not known how flexible cell ...
Pavone Luigi Michele - - 2007
Serotonin regulates cardiovascular functions during embryogenesis and adulthood. However, the source of serotonin in the cardiovascular system and the role of circulating serotonin and serotonin transporter (SERT) in the regulation of cardiovascular functions are still unclear. We used a cell fate approach to map the regions of the mouse heart ...
Piekarski Nadine - - 2007
The fate of single somites has not been analyzed from a comparative perspective with modern cell-marking methods. Most of what we know is based on work using quail-chick chimeras. Consequently, to what degree cell fate has been conserved despite the anatomical differences among vertebrates is unknown. We have analyzed the ...
Murray Michael J - - 2007
Mesoderm migration is a pivotal event in the early embryonic development of animals. One of the best-studied examples occurs during Drosophila gastrulation. Here, mesodermal cells invaginate, undergo an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and spread out dorsally over the inner surface of the ectoderm. Although several genes required for spreading have been ...
Voiculescu Octavian - - 2007
During gastrulation, a single epithelial cell layer, the ectoderm, generates two others: the mesoderm and the endoderm. In amniotes (birds and mammals), mesendoderm formation occurs through an axial midline structure, the primitive streak, the formation of which is preceded by massive 'polonaise' movements of ectoderm cells. The mechanisms controlling these ...
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